EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Slovenia: ERM comparative analytical report on Recent Policy Developments related to those Not in Employment, Education and Training (NEET)

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 06 February 2012



About
Country:
Slovenia
Author:
Matija Rojec
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

The share of youth population in the NEETs status in Slovenia is rather low (7, 5%) and the level of interest among different stakeholders is correspondingly low. There is one NEETs specific measure with a very long tradition, which is quite successful, and tackle prevention as well as reintegration of NEETs, i.e. Project learning for young adults (PLYA). However, the main part of NEETs related measures is within active labour market policy programmes or labour market regulation. Some preventive measures are also within the education system. In the future, closer cooperation between employers and education system in terms of defining necessary skills is strongly needed in Slovenia. As well the schools could provide special professional certificates for early school leavers.

1. Introduction

1.1 What is the level of interest among the different stakeholders in your country (policy makers, the media, employers and trade unions) in the issue of NEETs? What are their reasons for having a high/ low level of interest in the topic? (Expected length 100 words)

The share of youth population in the NEET status in Slovenia is rather low (7, 5%) and the level of interest among different stakeholders is correspondingly low. However, there are some exceptions. There is a significant peak of interest in NEETs with completed tertiary education during the time of pupil’s decision about the field of study at university level. At that time the problem of youth unemployment is debated in several media. Due to too low enrolment in science and technology at tertiary level, there is a lack of human capital in these fields and corresponding labour market mismatch. There are a lot of graduates of social science, business, law and education, which are registered as unemployed. Slovenia also has low rate of drop-outs because the education system gives several opportunities for pupils to repeat the schooling year or take evening classes. Ministry for education and sports is also supporting some programmes, which are aimed at diminishing the drop outs by providing additional learning help to youth.

1.2 Using the following table, please identify which sub-groups of NEETs are of particular concern to the different stakeholders in your country. Please indicate the relative importance of each group to the different stakeholders; for each group please state whether they are felt to be of ‘significant concern’, ‘some concern’, or ‘no concern’ to the different stakeholders.

Table 1 – NEETs sub-groups
 

Public/media debate

e.g. the extent to which the issue is discussed within the news media

Mainstream Policy

e.g. the range of policy documents tackling the issue, the amount of investment committed to tackling the problem

Employers

e.g. the extent to which this issue is raised as a concern, e.g. through lobbying / pressure on the government, involvement in the design and/or implementation of relevant policies

Trade unions

e.g. the extent to which this issue is raised as a concern, e.g. through lobbying / pressure on the government, involvement in the design and/or implementation of relevant policies

Young people who are unemployed

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Significant concern

Young people who are in ‘precarious’ or unsuitable employment (e.g. temporary contracts, forced self-employment, part-time work, or jobs which are not commensurate with their level of qualifications)

No concern

Significant concern

Some concern

Significant concern

Early school leavers – young people who have dropped out of education before obtaining an upper secondary level qualification

Some concern

Some concern

No concern

Some concern

Young people with qualifications which do not meet labour market needs

No concern

Significant concern

No concern

No concern

Teenage/ single parents

Not relevant

     
Migrants and minority groups

No concern

Significant concern

No concern

No concern

Young people with disabilities

No concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people from workless families

Not relevant

     
Young people from disadvantaged areas

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Some concern

Young people with tertiary education who have been unsuccessful in accessing the labour market

Significant concern

Significant concern

Significant concern

Some concern

Other (please specify):

.

       

1.3 Are there any policy measures in your country targeted at those NEETs with tertiary education? If yes please describe these briefly (expected length 100 words).

There is a special program called “Pre-graduate Activate”. The programme encourages the youth at the end of tertiary education (just before the graduation) to undertake the training at potential employer, where a mentor comes from. The mentor from the company helps the student to prepare graduate work related to company’s business and problems. The programme includes training at work place for pre-graduate and subsidy for employer, who hire the graduate. The duration of training at work place can be from 6 to 12 month. The training provides practical skills to pre-graduates and improves their possibilities for employment. The training at work place is co-financed by Public Employment Service. The employer gets also the subsidy (in amount of 2,000 EUR) in case of hiring the graduate for at least six months. The programme also tackles the problem of too long study duration, which is very long in Slovenia in international comparison.

Beside that a subsidy for hiring youth also exists within the active labour market programmes. The company, which hires youth below 26 years (unemployed for at least 6 months) can also get tax allowance for 24 months in the amount of 45% of wage.

2. NEET Policies and Measures

2.1 Measures to tackle early school leaving

Preventive Measures to tackle early school leaving

2.1.1 Please provide a short overview of your country’s approach to preventing early school leaving. Where does the focus of policies and measures to prevent early school leaving lie?

Despite high enrolment in of youth in upper-secondary and tertiary education, early school leaving in Slovenia is not a big problem. This problem is mainly addressed in schools by additional support with school work provided by teachers at the schools, by offering more flexible forms of basic education (for example the school year could be finished by passing exams). There is also an option of repetition of class or repairer exam. Although the primary school is composed of 9 years of studies, the pupil, who has finished 7 classes of primary school, can continue with education at lower professional schools (positive discrimination).

2.1.2 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to prevent early school leaving in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 2 - Early School Leaving: Preventive measures
Early School Leaving: Preventive measures
Name of measure

Description of the measure: aims and objectives

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Programme Learning problems) (Program Učne težave)

The program called “Learning Problems” is aimed at identification of pupils with learning problems and providing additional help and specific dealing with those pupils in primary school. The scale of the measure is national. It is conducted by primary schools and universities (unilateral). It is state budget and ESF funded. It is not targeted to any particular disadvantaged group; it is targeted to potential school leavers.

Measure 2:

Programme Learning Assistance (Program Učna pomoč)

“Learning Assistance” for all pupils and students, adults or unemployed at primary or upper- secondary level of education is organized within public works (within Active Employment Policy). The aim is to activate the tertiary educated unemployed on one hand and prevent drop-outs and early school leaving on the other hand. This kind of public work is unilateral measure (cooperation of schools, municipalities and Public Employment Service). It is funded by the state budget. It is not targeted to any particular disadvantaged group.

Measure 3:  

2.1.3 Please provide a more detailed description of the preventive early school leaving measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

The Project Learning for Young Adults – PLYA (Projektno učenje mladih – PUM) was established in 1993. Since 2000 it is recognized as non-formal education programme. According to current plans it will be conducted in 2011 and 2012 at least. The programme is run all over the Slovenia mainly by different non-profit organizations in cooperation with Public Employment Service. The project was introduced to tackle the problem of early school-leavers’ reintegration but it also work as preventive measure as youngsters from disadvantaged social environment receive the necessary support for fulfilling school responsibilities. It is an integration programme helping youth back to education or work.

PLYA is a non-formal education programme for unemployed young adults aged 15 to 25 who have failed at school, have no basic vocational education and face social exclusion. The basic aim of the programme is to motivate participants to continue their formal education and acquire the knowledge and skills needed on the job-market. Participants are meant to gain positive learning experiences and to more clearly define their aspirations concerning their career and their general life. Therefore, youth participants could also attend the school and at PLYA received the necessary support for fulfilling school responsibilities. Participation is voluntary and participants are entitled to stay in the programme for one year.

The education in PLYA focuses on three main areas. First, participants gain basic knowledge in a variety of fields such as mathematics, writing, communication, and natural sciences and they acquire the skills required for independent learning. Second, participants are prepared for the working life by designing a career plan, establishing links with potential employers and learning the basic components of labour legislation. Third, participants acquire socio-cultural skills such as taking responsibility for one’s actions, dealing with less favourable incentives from the social environment, and using leisure time more effectively and constructively.

The programme has a high success rate of 60% to 70% of the participants enrolling in a suitable educational program and/or finding employment. It is assessed that high success rate is due to the provision of individualised, supportive learning environment and a flexible approach tailored to fit local circumstances and the needs of each young person. The role of the mentor is also a crucial in supporting the individual through this transition.

Although the project is part of active labour market policy, Public Employment Service is not the only institution, which direct youth to the program. Majority of youth are directed at PLYA by counsellors from social work centres. In 2010, 149 youth were involved in the programme. In recent years the programme is mainly financed by European Social Fund.

Reintegration measures to tackle early school leaving

2.1.4 Please provide a short overview of your country’s approach to the reintegration of early school leavers. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

As mentioned above, one may say that Slovenia’s approach is to avoid/prevent early school leaving and to stimulate youngsters to finish the school. Those who, nevertheless, do leave school early do not have much possibility to reintegrate. There are no specific measures for the reintegration of early school leavers, except that the above mentioned Project Learning for Young Adults (PLYA) could be treated as prevention and reintegration measure. All the measures which tackle this problem are in the framework of Active Employment Policy. Measures are concentrated on the assistance to unemployed persons in searching for employment and in programmes for those looking for employment (training for searching the employment, training for work and profession, training and assistance for self-employment).

2.1.5 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to reintegrate early school leavers in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 3 - Early School Leaving: reintegration measures
Early School Leaving: Reintegration measures
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1: Education/training for lifelong performance’ (Usposabljanje za življensko uspešnost)

This is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for the period 2007-2011 and is funded by the state budget. This is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to increase the education level of adults, more precisely to enable them to include in further formal education and/or to renew their existing knowledge in order to increase their employability, self-confidence and social integration. The courses are organised by existing educational institutions. The target groups are less educated unemployed persons who wish to continue schooling, unemployed persons in need for assistance for more independent and quality life, those whose employment is under threat. The training lasts 120 hours. In 2009, 531 people was included in the programme, the number for 2010 is 398.

Measure 2: National Professional Qualifications (Nacionalne poklicne kvalifikacije)

The programme of training for and acquiring of national professional qualifications is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for the period 2009-2015 and is funded by the state budget and by the European Social Fund. This is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to increase employability of unemployed persons, increasing of qualification level and reduction of structural imbalances in the labour market. By participating in the programme, the participants acquire knowledge and certificate of national professional qualification for various professions. The courses are organised by external providers. The target group are unemployed persons.

Measure 3: Formal education (Formalno izobraževanje)

The programme of formal education is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for the period 2009-2011 and is funded by the state budget. This is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to increase employability of unemployed persons, increasing of education and qualification level and reduction of structural imbalances in the labour market. Formal education includes all publicly verified education programmes from elementary school to tertiary education. The courses are organised by existing educational institutions. The target groups are various categories of unemployed persons, especially those without professional education and those in surplus professions.

2.1.6 Please provide a more detailed description of the reintegration early school leaving measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

Programmes of Institutional Training (Programi institucionalnega usposabljanja) is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for the period 2009-2015 and is funded by the state budget and by the European Social Fund. This is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to increase employability of unemployed persons by increasing their educational and training level, and by attaining basic skills (key competencies), The courses of computer literacy, language courses, courses for driving licenses for trucks/buses, book-keeping and accounting courses etc. are organised by external providers. The target group are unemployed persons without adequate education and without working experiences. The value of the programme is EUR 18 million. The target for the 2009-2015 period is to include 31,500 persons the programme. Only in 2010 10,669 people were include in the programme, therefore it is expected that the target number will be surpassed.

2.2 Measures to facilitate access to employment

Facilitating the transition from school to work

2.2.1 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to facilitating school to work transitions. Where does the focus of policies and measures to facilitate transitions lie?

There are no specific measures in Slovenia which would specifically target transition from school to work. The exception is a programme Training of pre-graduate students at working post and subsidy for employment of graduate/pre-graduate students’ (Usposabljanje absolventov na delovnem mestu in subvencija za zaposlitev diplomantov / Absolvent – aktiviraj in zaposli se), which was established recently. However, once the school leavers register as unemployed persons at the Employment Service of Slovenia, they are eligible to a variety of the measures of Active Employment Policy related to the assistance to unemployed persons in searching for employment and in programmes for those looking for employment (training for searching the employment, training for work and profession, training and assistance for self-employment). Some of those measures are targeted at youth without appropriate labour market skills.

2.2.2 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to facilitate school to work transitions in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 4 - Access to employment: Measures to facilitate school to work transitions
Access to employment: Measures to facilitate school to work transitions
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Clubs for Searching for Employment 2011 (Klubi za iskanje zaposlitve 2011)

The Clubs for Searching for Employment 2011 programme is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for 2011 and is funded by the state budget. This is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to stimulate people to take membership in the Club, which is supposed to increase their chances to get employment. The activities of the Clubs relate to training of the members for systematic searching of employment, for more independent and active behaviour on the labour market. In Clubs, members get acquainted with various skills of relevance for employment searching and establish contacts with potential employers. The activities of the Club is in two parts, the first part of training for employment searching, and the second part of independent searching of employment in Club’s premises. The activities are organised by external providers. The target group are unemployed persons.

Measure 2:

Employment Fairs (Zaposlitveni sejmi)

Employment Fairs programme is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for 2007-2011 and is funded by the state budget. This is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to promote employment, the main accent being on meeting of employers and employees. Employers present themselves, their employment possibilities and job characteristics. Unemployed can informally meet potential employers. Various promotion activities are held during the fair. The activities are organised by external providers. The target groups are unemployed persons in general, employers, students, schoolboys and schoolgirls.

Measure 3: Promotion of Self-employment (Spodbujanje samozaposlovanja)

Promotion of Self-employment is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for 2007-2011 and is funded by the state budget. This is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to prepare persons from the target group for self-employment within an individual judgement of business idea and training workshops for entrepreneurship. In the first phase, a consultant makes the interview with the target group person in order to assess the feasibility of the business idea. In the second phase, target group persons are included in the self-employment workshop, where the basics of entrepreneurship are explained. The activities in the first phase are done by the people from the Employment Service, while workshops are organised by external providers. The target group are unemployed persons which have a business idea.

2.2.3 Please provide a more detailed description of the school-to-work transition measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

‘Training of pre-graduate students at working post and subsidy for employment of graduate/pre-graduate students’ (Usposabljanje absolventov na delovnem mestu in subvencija za zaposlitev diplomantov / Absolvent – aktiviraj in zaposli se) is an interesting measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for the period 2009-2012 and is funded by the European Social Fund and state budget. This is a measure which is specifically targeted to pre-graduate and graduate students. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to improve employment possibilities of graduate students and to increase their competitiveness on the labour market. The aim is to stimulate students in the pre-graduate period for active acquiring of skills for easier inclusion in the labour market, and to stimulate employment of graduate students by subsidies given to the employers for the period of six months. Activities of the measure are in two phases. The first phase is training of pre-graduate student at working post. In such a way, the employer gets the necessary information of the student. After the end of the training, the employer is entitled to six months subsidies if he employs the student. The target group are students which are about to graduate. Employer is entitled to get refunded the costs of medical exam of the student, cost of the mentor (100 EUR per months) and employment subsidy in the amount of 2,000 EUR. In 2010, 149 people was included in the programme, Sources allocated for the programme amounted to 302 thousands EUR in 2010. There is no analysis of the success of the programme.

Measures to foster employability

2.2.4 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to fostering employability among NEETs. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

There are no specific measures in Slovenia which would specifically target employability of NEET. However, once a person registers as unemployed person at the Employment Service of Slovenia, he/she is eligible to a variety of the measures of Active Employment Policy related to the assistance to unemployed persons related to fostering employability. The measures range from professional and employment information and consulting, assistance in searching for employment, to training and education, and promotion of self-employment. In some lower professional schools the apprenticeship and training during studies is obliged. Therefore, the pupil already have potential employer.

2.2.5 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to foster employability of NEETs in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 5 - Access to employment: Measures to foster employability (to include apprenticeships)
Access to employment: Measures to foster employability (to include apprenticeships).
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1: About Professions in a Different Way (Drugače o poklicih)

About professions in a Different Way is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for 2011 and is funded by the state budget. This is a measure, which is specifically targeted to younger people, i.e. those in primary and secondary school, being faced by a decision on which profession to choose. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to acquaint schooling youngsters and unemployed persons with various, mostly deficient professions and, thus, to improve their career planning. Activities of the programme involve courses and visits of enterprises. The activities are organised by external providers.

Measure 2: Training at Working Post (Usposabljanje na delovnem mestu)

Training at Working Post is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for the period 2009-2011 and is funded by the state budget and by the European Social Fund. This is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to improve employment possibilities of unemployed persons and to increase their competitiveness in the labour market. The aim of the activity is that participants, who lack necessary skills and knowledge, get new skills and knowledge directly at working posts in enterprises. This should improve their employability. The courses are organised by enterprises which perform training at working post. The target group are unemployed persons.

2.2.6 Please provide a more detailed description of the measure which you think is the most effective measure in your country to foster the employability of NEETs (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

Unified Regional Scholarship Schemes’ (Poenotene regijske štipendijske sheme) is a new measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for the period 2010-2015 and is funded by the European Social Fund and state budget. This is a measure which is specifically targeted to secondary school pupils, pre-graduate and graduate students, as well as employers in a particular region. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The aim of the measure is by co-financing to implement unified regional scholarship schemes, based on partnership between employers, holders of unified regional scholarship scheme and the state. This is to improve the availability of certain types of human resources / profession in a region, increase of education level, reduction of structural unemployment, return of graduate students to their home regions, attract employers in the co-financing of scholarships. In the first phase the schemes are operated by regional development institutions, while in the second phase the enterprises get the crucial role. In 2007-2010, 2,153 scholarship were granted and 849 companies were involved in the programme. Sources allocated for the programme amounted to EUR 15 million in 2007-2010; they were provided by ESF and state budget.

Removing practical and logistical barriers

2.2.7 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to removing practical and logistical barriers for NEETs. Where does the focus of policies and measures lie?

There are no special measures for removing practical and logistical barriers for NEETs, but there are some practices, which reduce barriers for all employees, pupils and unemployed. In Slovenia, students and pupils are eligible for subsidy for transportation to schools; employers are refunding the costs of travelling to work. According to law on labour market regulation costs of transportation are refunded for those included in active labour market policy programmes and in case of job search. Provision of child care is very good as kinder-garden attendance in age group 3-5 years is almost 90 %.

2.2.8 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to remove practical and logistical barriers to employment for NEETs in your country. Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Table 6 - Access to employment: Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers

Measure 3: Training and Education of Employees (Usposabljanje in izobraževanje zaposlenih)

Training and Education of Employees is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for the period 2011-2013 and is funded by the state budget and by the European Social Fund. This is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. The measure is not specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to train and educate employees for higher competitiveness and employability. In such a way the people increase their education level. competencies etc. The target group for these measure are the enterprises which are eager to invest in their human capital.

Access to employment: Measures to remove practical and logistical barriers
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1:

Refunding the travel costs in case of job search

Refunding the travel costs for unemployed persons in case of job search is a national measure, funded by the state budget. It is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. It is not specifically targeted at NEETs, who already have a tertiary education, or at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group.

Measure 2:

Refunding travel cost to work place by employer

According to Labour law employers are obliged to refund travelling expenses. This regulation probably removes the obstacle to labour mobility. The scale of measure is national, private funded by employers. It is a general measure, which also has an impact on NEETs. It is not specifically targeted at NEETs, who already have a tertiary education, or at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group.

Measure 3:  

Employer incentives

2.2.9 Please provide an overview of your country’s approach to incentivising employers to recruit young people (who are NEET). Where does the focus of policies and measures to incentivise employers lie? Where possible you should use only one word or Yes/No (e.g. how is the measure funded? answer: regional; is this measure a NEET specific measure? answer: Yes).

Slovenian Active Employment Policy contains several measures which offer incentives to employers to hire young people. These measures are not specifically targeted to NEET, neither only to younger people. Most measures are as a rule targeted to younger than 26 and older than 55 years unemployed persons. Some other target groups may also be involved, such as handicapped people, from specifically disadvantaged groups of people or from particular region. The employer incentives of the Active Employment Policy include subsidies, tax reliefs and refunding of social contributions paid by the employer.

2.2.10 Please complete the table below with a brief description of up to three policies/ measures to incentivise employers in your country.

Table 7 - Access to employment: Employer incentives
Access to employment: Employer incentives
Name of measure

Scale of measure (i.e. national, regional or local)

Is the measure tripartite, bipartite or unilateral?

How is the measure funded (national state funding, European funding, private funding)?

Is this a NEET-specific measure, or is it a more general measure which also has an impact on NEETs?

Is the measure specifically targeted at NEETs who already have a tertiary education?

Is the measure specifically targeted at young people from a disadvantaged background or a minority group?

Measure 1: Tax Relief for Employment of Unemployed Persons (Davčna olajšava za zaposlovanje brezposelnih)

Tax Relief for Employment of Unemployed Persons is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is funded by the state budget. The measure is intended for two target groups of people registered as unemployed, younger than 26 and older than 55 years, provided that they are registered as unemployed for at least half a year. The measure is not specifically targeted to NEET or at young people from a disadvantages or minority group. The objective of the measure is to improve employment possibilities of the target groups of unemployed persons.

Measure 2: Refunding of Employer’s Social Contributions (Povračilo prispevkov delodajalca)

Refunding of Employer’s Social Contributions is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for the period 2007-2011 and is funded by the state budget. The measure is intended for the following target groups of people registered as unemployed: (i) younger than 26 years, are for the first time searching for employment, are registered as unemployed for the period of half a year and have a ‘suficitary’ profession, (ii) younger than 28 years and registered as unemployed for the last two years, (iii) person registered as unemployed who is employed for a fixed term-period as a substitute for an employee at maternity leave, (iv) older than 55 years and registered as unemployed for the period of one year, (v) older than 55 years in ‘suficitary’ profession. The objective of the measure is to improve employment possibilities of the target groups of unemployed persons.

Measure 3: Refunding of Social Contributions to Employers from Pomurje (Povračilo prispevkov delodajalcem v Pomurju)

Refunding of Social Contributions to Employers from Pomurje is the measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is similar to Measure 2 above, but is specifically targeted to the troubled region of Pomurje. It is based on the Act on Development Assistance to Pomurje Region for the period 2010-2015. The measure is intended for the following target groups of people registered as unemployed: (i) persons registered as unemployed for at least half a year, (ii) persons with unfinished or finished compulsory school, 2-year or 2.5 year lower level professional education, (iii) persons older than 50 years, (iv) persons living alone or have one or more family members which they need to maintain, (v) are members of ethnical minority (Roma, for instance). The objective of the measure is to improve employment possibilities of the target groups of unemployed persons.

2.2.11 Please provide a more detailed description of the employer incentive which you think is the most effective measure in your country (this measure should be additional to those included in the table above). In addition to the questions raised in the table above, your description should include the details outlined below:

  • When was it introduced and why? How long will it run for?
  • Is it a mainstream or pilot project?
  • What is the scale of the initiative and how much funding has been allocated to it?
  • Who runs the initiative (is it a public, private or third sector initiative)?
  • What is the target group? How many young people benefit from it?
  • What activities are involved?
  • What are the success factors?
  • Is there any formal evidence of its success (both quantitative and qualitative)?

Employ.Me: Promotion of Employment of Hardly Employable Unemployed Persons’ (Zaposli.Me: Spodbujanje zaposlovanja težje zaposljivih brezposelnih oseb) is a measure within the Active Employment Policy and is handled by the Employment Service of Slovenia. The measure is for the period 2011-2012 and is funded by the European Social Fund and state budget. Total budget is EUR 38.6 million, 85% is contributed by the European Social Fund, the remaining 15% by the state budget. The aim of the measure is to assure labour force to employers by employing persons from the defined traget groups. Employers which are selected based on public invitation must employ the persons from target groups for at least one year, for what they receive the subsidy in the amount of 4,000 EUR. The objective is that after one year at least 30% of employments should be continued. Target groups include the following persons registered as unemployed: (i) handicapped persons, (ii) persons older than 50 years being registered as unemployed for at least half a year, (iii) persons searching for employment for the first time being registered as unemployed for at least half a year, (iv) long-lasting unemployed persons, which means that hey are registered as unemployed at least for one year, or half a year is they are younger than 25 years, (v) persons which are eligible to receive supplement money for parents, (vi) persons living in stated communes of South Eastern Slovenia). By now altogether 6,048 contarcts for receiving the subsidies have been concluded ant EUR 34 million has been spent. Analysis of the programme, prepared by the Employment Service of Slovenia (http://www.ess.gov.si/_files/2420/Porocilo_o_vkljucitvah_v_Zaposli.me_2009_2010_feb%202011.pdf) says that this is the first programme of employment promotion in Slovenia which targets more and various kinds of target groups of unemployed persons. The possibility that applications are submitted every month is assessed as very positive. During the course of the programme the time of selecting of candidates and concluding the contract has been reduced by introducing a preliminary selection process for candidates.

3. Conclusion

The problem of NEETs is not significant in Slovenia and therefore it is not frequently on agenda. There is one NEETs specific measure with a very long tradition, which is quite successful, and tackle prevention as well as reintegration of NEETs, i.e. Project learning for young adults (PLYA). However, more general policies (especially within active labour market policy programmes or labour market regulation) prevail. The discussion about NEETs at EU level brought about higher attention of policy makers to the NEETs issue in Slovenia. This may contribute to the decision to allocate the appropriate funds to the Project learning for young adults (PLYA) in the future. However, as drop-out rate is listed as one of the EU 2020 targets, more attention will be given to this problem than to NEETs. Of course, focusing on reaching the national goal of keeping the drop-out rate around 5% till 2020 will also have positive effects on resolving NEETs problems. Closer cooperation between employers and education system in terms of defining necessary skills is strongly needed in Slovenia. As well the schools could provide special professional certificates for early school leavers.

References:

Alenka Kajzer and Matija Rojec, OHRRC

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