EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Spain: ERM comparative analytical report on 'Emerging forms of entrepreneurship'

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 21 March 2011



About
Country:
Spain
Author:
Pablo Sanz De Miguel
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

In Spain, self-employment is the only emerging form of entrepreneurship that has been relevant in the academic debates, the media and the political agenda. The increasing number of self-employed workers in the Spanish economy since the late 1990s, together with the emergence of self-employed workers’ associations, has triggered an important debate which was incorporated in the political agenda in 2004 by the Socialist Party. The Self-employed Workers Statute was approved in 2007, while currently a law project addressed to create an unemployment insurance for self-employed workers is being debated.

The questionnaire

Part I: Public/policy discussion

General policy discussions and policy approach

Do the public/policy discussions specifically deal with the different forms of business activities, since when and for how long?

Table 1: Presence of the different emerging forms of entrepreneurship in the public debate
 

Yes, continuously since xx year? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate yes where it applies)

Yes, has been on the public agenda, but since xx year it is no longer part of the agenda (Please indicate year)

No, it has never been part of the public agenda

(Please indicate X where it applies)

One-person enterprises /self-employed  

Since the 2000s there has been policy discussion. Thus, the proposal to elaborate a self-employment statute was incorporated in the electoral programme of the Socialist Party for the general elections of 2004. Currently it has been approved in the Parliament the proposition of a law addressed to create an unemployment insurance for self-employed. Now it still must be approved in the Senate.

   
Part-time entrepreneurs      

X

Parallel entrepreneurs      

X

Serial entrepreneurs      

X

Business transfers and successions      

X

For each of the entrepreneurship/business activities covered by policy discussions, which policy domains are they covered in? Please indicate with an ’X‘ where relevant.

Table 2: Policy domains engaged in the policy discussion of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Labour policies

Educational policies

Economic/Industrial policies

Innovation policies

Regional policies

Other (please specify)

One-person enterprises /self-employed

X

 

X

 

X

Unions’ rights and collective bargaining

Part-time entrepreneurs            
Parallel entrepreneurs            
Serial entrepreneurs            
Business transfers and successions            

In which media and forum do the public debate and policy discussions about the different types of entrepreneurship take place?

Please indicate whether they are implicitly (e.g. publications are covering entrepreneurs in general with implicit implications for the different forms of entrepreneurs/business activities) covered and/or explicitly mentioned (for instance parallel entrepreneurs are explicitly mentioned in publications) in these publications

Table 3: Media and forums discussing the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Public media such as newspapers and magazines incl. electronic media

Policy documents and analysis

Proposed legislation and/or business support schemes

Others, please specify

One-person enterprises/self-employed

During the 2000s, the media covered the political debate on regulating the self-employed workers’ employment relationships, informing also about the growing weight of self-employment in the Spanish economy. Currently, the media are covering the debate concerning the unemployment protection of self-employed workers and the increase in unemployment within this group.

In 2005, the government asked a think-tank to elaborate a report on the situation of self-employed workers, together with a proposition of a self-employment statute.

Self-Employed Workers' Statute approved under Law 20/2007 of 11th of July

Counsel of the Autonomous Work: a tripartite body composed of members of the self-employed workers’ associations and the Public Administration for debating the problems of the sector, and proposing measures

Part-time entrepreneurs        
Parallel entrepreneurs        
Serial entrepreneurs        
Business transfers and successions        

Specific topics to describe the different types of entrepreneurship

What has motivated the public debate?

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 4: What has motivated the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Motivator

One-person enterprises/self-employed

The growing share of employment which self-employment accounts for; the lack of social rights (unemployment protection, pensions, and so on) which characterise this group; the emergence of self-employed workers’ associations at the end of the 90s; the influence of the European Employment Strategy, especially the guidelines elaborated under the pillar of promoting entrepreneurship.

Part-time entrepreneurs  
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  

What has been the focus of the policy discussion?

To help you answer question 5, we list some examples of key issues that could be addressed in the policy discussion:

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 5: The policy focus in the public debate within each of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Policy focus

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Financial incentives for business creation and hiring employees; access to social rights (pensions, unemployment insurance, and so on); labour risks; rights of association and collective bargaining; protection of economically dependent self-employed workers

Part-time entrepreneurs  
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  
Business transfers and successions  

Has the public discussion resulted in a concrete outcome/impact?

No:

Yes:

Please specify for each of the five forms of entrepreneurship:

Table 6: Outcome or impact of the public debate of the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

Type of Entrepreneurship

Outcome/Impact

One-person enterprises/self-employed

- Law 20/2000 of 11th of July. This law creates the statute of self-employed workers, which acknowledges collective rights for self-employed workers and the representativeness of their associations, also introducing measures designed to increase their social protection. Moreover, the status of economically dependent self-employed workers is created and defined.

- Law project for creating unemployment insurance for self-employed workers. This law establishes an unemployment subsidy of up to 12 months for self-employed workers who are forced to leave their economic activities. In order to benefit from this subsidy, self-employed workers will have to pay special taxes to an insurance fund during at least one year. This contribution will be obligatory for economically dependent self-employed workers and those working in sectors and activities with the highest accidents rates. It will be voluntary for the rest of self-employed workers. This law still needs to be approved in the Senate.

Part-time entrepreneurs  
Parallel entrepreneurs  
Serial entrepreneurs  
Business transfers and successions  

Overall assessment

Within the last couple of years, to which extent has the public and policy discussion been more focused on the following different types of entrepreneurship compared to the business policy/entrepreneurship debate in general?

Table 7: Increased focus at the emerging forms of entrepreneurship?
 

To a low degree To a high degree

 

1

2

3

4

5

One-person enterprises/self-employed        

X

Part-time entrepreneurs

X

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

X

       
Serial entrepreneurs

X

       
Business transfers and successions

X

       

Please list the main sources of information in the search for the above

  • Law 20/2007 of 11th of July. Self Employment Worker Statute.
  • Valdés Dal-Ré F. et al. (2005). ‘Anuario del trabajo Autónomo’. Documentación Laboral. Nº 74 Vol. 1. Madrid
  • Spain: Self-employed workers. Spanish contribution to the comparative study Self-employed workers: industrial relations and working conditions (ES0801019Q)

Part II: Standardised structural data

Which standardised business statistics are available covering the different forms of entrepreneurship/business activities (explicitly or implicitly, i.e. also data that could be used to describe these forms of entrepreneurship without being published with this specific objective/heading)?

Table 8: Availability of business statistics about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicate access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed

Number of enterprises

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available). 2 Digits available

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS

Availability of regional data (please specify). Breakdown by NUTS. 3 Digits available

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

X

1999

Yearly

DIRCE

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

1999

Yearly

DIRCE

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

1999

Yearly

DIRCE

survival rate of enterprises

X

1999

Yearly

DIRCE

Others, specify:

       
Part-time entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

Survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Parallel entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available). 2 Digits available

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Availability of regional data (please specify) Breakdown by NUTS. 3 Digits available

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

X

   

Social Security

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

X

   

Social Security

survival rate of enterprises

X

   

Social Security

Others, specify:

       
Serial entrepreneurs

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       
Business transfers and successions

Number of enterprises

       

Enterprises by branch (please specify which NACE code digit level is available)

       

Availability of regional data (please specify)

       

Type of ownership of enterprises (sole propriety, limited company, publically listed company, etc)

       

Economic performance e.g.:

Turnover

       

Exports

       

Employment

       

Others: ___________

       

Sustainability:

Number of new enterprises (start-ups) by year

       

Number of discontinued enterprises, incl. bankruptcies –

       

survival rate of enterprises

       

Others, specify:

       

Is it possible to crosstab or merge the demographic data identifying the individual persons running any of the five forms of entrepreneurships/business activities with the company data specified in question 9 in a common database for analytical purpose?

No.

Table 9: Availability of demographic statistics about the entrepreneur within the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

Type of data available

Indicated access to data by an ‘X’ in the first column

First published

Indicate year

Time series of data

(Biannually, annually, quarterly, monthly, once only, other)

Data source for the data

One-person enterprises/ self-employed Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner      

Social Security

Gender

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Age

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Geographical location

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Educational background (last registered education)

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Working hours of the entrepreneur

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Income of the entrepreneur

X

1976

Quarterly

LFS/Social Security

Other types of data (Specify):        
Part-time entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Parallel entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Serial entrepreneurs Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        
Business transfers and successions Number of enterprises held by each entrepreneur/owner        
Gender        
Ethnicity        
Civic status (married, single, children)        
Age        
Geographical location        

Educational background (last registered education)

       
Current/previous employment of entrepreneurs (business experience)        

Sector familiarity of the entrepreneur – branch/NACE

       
Working hours of the entrepreneur        
Income of the entrepreneur        
Other types of data (Specify):        

Is the data freely accessible or does it require registration, payment and/or a special effort to access the data? Please explain the accessibility for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities and datasets referred to above.

Table 10: List of statistical sources about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship

List data source/dataset

Explain the accessibility

Labour Force Survey (LFS)

Free access

Central Directory of Enterprises (DIRCE)

Free access

Social Security

Free access

   
   

Part III: Research

Please describe studies and research available nationally for each of the forms of entrepreneurs/business activities.

Table 11: List of studies and research about the emerging forms of entrepreneurship
 

List the references (author’s name, title of publication etc, year of publication, organisation)

A short summary of the contents (e.g. topic covered, methodology applied)

One-person enterprises/self-employed

Valdés Dal-Ré F. et al. (2005). ‘Anuario del trabajo Autónomo’. Documentación Laboral. Nº 74 Vol. 1. Madrid

This monographic issue, published at the time that the statute of the self-employed workers was starting to be debated, deals with issues about regulation of self-employed workers, union and association’s rights, the status of the self-employed workers’ associations, the main laws concerning the self-employed workers approved since that time and the importance of self-employment in the Spanish economy, providing also statistic information to this regard.

Part-time entrepreneurs    
Parallel entrepreneurs    
Serial entrepreneurs    
Business transfers and successions    

Pablo Sanz De Miguel. CIREM Foundation

Useful? Interesting? Tell us what you think. Hide comments

Add new comment