EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

The Netherlands: ERM comparative analytical report on Public support instruments to support self-employment and job creation in one-person and micro enterprises

  • Observatory: EMCC
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  • Published on: 12 January 2012



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Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

Since 1982, the government has gradually started to focus on promoting new economic activities such as entrepreneurship. Before 1980 the policy was inhibitory. Since 1982 the government sees SMEs and new business start-ups more as full participants in the national economy, drawing a vital contribution to job creation, entrepreneurship, economic growth and innovation. Nowadays the government removes barriers for entrepreneurs. They implement a lot of instruments to support the self-employed such as a reduction of administrative burdens and it’s easier for entrepreneurs to get an insurance or a credit. The self-employed are also represented by the social partners since 2010.

QUESTIONNAIRE

Part 1: Overall policy context

This section aims at giving a brief overview of the general development and status quo of the policy discussion and thereof resulting instruments, measures or initiatives in the field of fostering self-employment and job creation in one-person and micro enterprises (less than 10 employees). Focus is mainly on the developments during the last decade, that is before the global recession. In addition we are asking for your indication of change of policy focus since the recession.

1. General policy approach in the area of self-employment, one-person and micro enterprises at the national level


1.1. Has there been a policy focus/debate on the specific challenges facing entrepreneurship as tool for job creation before the global recession? If so, since when and for how long?

Table 1: Presence of policy focus/debate on entrepreneurship as facilitation for job creation before the crisis
 

Yes, continuously since xx? (Please indicate year)

Yes, on and off in the last 10 years

(Please indicate ‘X’ where it applies)

Yes, has been in focus, but since xx it is no longer part of the policy focus (Please indicate year)

No, it has never had policy focus before the recession

(Please indicate ‘X’ where it applies)

Self-employment

1982

     
Hiring the first employee      

X

Hiring additional employees/creating additional jobs in micro enterprises  

X

   

* There is no information on ‘hiring the first employee’ and little on ‘hiring additional employees/creating additional jobs in micro enterprises. Most policy documents are about self-employment. Please keep this in mind while reading the rest of this questionnaire.


1.2. What is the main focus in policy documents or strategies in relation to public or social partner based support instruments for fostering self-employment or job creation in one-person and micro enterprises? (Please indicate ‘X’, multiple answers possible)

Table 2: Main focus in the policy documents or strategies
 

Entrepreneurship (Business development in general)

Job creation (Employment)

Growth (Competitiveness)

Others (please specify)

Self-employment

X

X

X

 
Hiring the first employee

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

 
Hiring additional employees/creating additional jobs in micro enterprises

X

X

X


1.3. Please elaborate on the answer given above (with a focus on those developments aimed at employment creation and growth) and indicate if the financial recession has caused a change of focus:

Table 3: The policy content and significance of the financial recession
Self-employment
Elaboration of content (please describe and also indicate whether it is treated explicitly/implicitly)

The government removes barriers for entrepreneurs to stimulate growth and job creation. They relieve the regulatory burden which hinders growth of entrepreneurs. The entrepreneurship policy of 2007-2011 is directed to the reduction of administrative burdens and conflicting rules. The government aims at creating optimal market conditions for entrepreneurs through improving education and the labour market. The government also improves access to finance and increases the fiscal incentives for entrepreneurs.

Change due to the financial recession

Please tick:

Yes: □

No: X

If ‘Yes’, please elaborate:

Hiring the first employee
Elaboration of content (please describe and also indicate whether it is treated explicitly/implicitly)

See answer self-employment

Change due to the financial recession

Please tick:

Yes: □

No: X

If ‘Yes’, please elaborate:

Hiring additional employees/creating additional jobs in micro enterprises
Elaboration of content (please describe and also indicate whether it is treated explicitly/implicitly)

See answer self-employment

Change due to the financial recession

Please tick:

Yes: □

No: X

If ‘Yes’, please elaborate:

2. Disincentives for self-employment and job creation

The following two questions will investigate whether there has been a change in the political agenda which has forced new political initiatives that may result in disincentives for job creation and business development (e.g. considerations regarding public budget).


2.1 Have public measures (e.g. with the aim to increase public revenue or cut public spending) led to disincentives for self-employment or job creation in one-person or micro enterprises before the financial recession? (Please briefly describe the major developments/initiatives (max. 300 words)

From a SME perspective, the policy before 1980 was inhibitory. Until the early 1980s, the policy was focused on strengthening and supporting existing large companies. From an economic-efficiency perspective SMEs were by policy makers generally not considered to be desirable. The general consensus was that SMEs did relatively little to contribute to international competitiveness and productivity growth. For these reasons the government didn’t stimulate or support self-employment and SMEs. The government introduced a law in 1940 especially for SMEs called, Vestigingswet Kleinbedrijf. The purpose of the law was to protect the consumer against malafide entrepreneurs. This law set standards and imposed requirements for SMEs regarding credit, commercial knowledge and business skills. Also under this law people needed a licence to start their own company. Therefore, people were not encouraged to start a business. This law was abolished in 2007.

In the Netherlands, self-employed people are not part of the social security system. This is because the government wants to give the self-employed the freedom to make their own choices. The self-employed are responsible for their own social insurances and pension. They cannot take part in collective insurances and have instead to rely on expensive private forms of insurance.

In 2004, the Act on the disability of self-employed (Wet Arbeidsongeschiktheidsverzekering zelfstandigen,WAZ), was abolished. The Act was a compulsory insurance that gave entrepreneurs and self-employees the right to an income when they were unable to work. Since 2007, entrepreneurs and self-employed are dependent on private insurers where the insurance for work disability is very expensive.

In 2004, the period during which employers must pay wages to sick employees, was extended. When employees are sick employers must pay their wages up to two years instead of one year. Employers must pay 70% of the income of their employees. This has a negative effect on the willingness of employers to hire (extra) employees, especially in SMEs and micro enterprises.

2.2 Have public measures (e.g. with the aim to increase public revenue or cut public spending) led to disincentives for self-employment or job creation in one-person or micro enterprises as a result of the financial recession? (Please describe – max. 300 words)

The financial burdens of SMEs are rising due to cutbacks of the government. The municipal taxes are rising in 2011 by an average of 3.5% to 4.8%. These are local taxes such as property taxes and sewage charges. This is in contrast with the promises of prime minister Mark Rutte. He promised that SMEs would not be bothered by cutbacks of the cabinet.

3. Representation of/lobbying for self-employed and micro enterprises


Are self-employed and micro enterprises in your national context explicitly or implicitly (e.g. entrepreneurs or SMEs in general) represented by the following types of organisations (e.g. for lobbying, defending their interest etc.)?

Table 4: Representation of self-employed and micro enterprises
 

Self-employed

Micro enterprises

Employers’ organisations

No

Yes, explicitly MKB Nederland

Employees’ organisation

Yes, explicitly FNV Zelfstandigen

No

Not-for-profit organisations

No

No

Others

Yes, explicitly SER*

Yes, explicitly PZO**

Yes, explicitly SER

*SER: a tripartite organisation which consist of the social partners and independent members; www.ser.nl

**PZO: a platform for self employed people. They represent the interest of self employed people; www.pzo.nl

Part 2: Identification and description of relevant recent support instruments

The following section asks for the identification of public or social partner based support instruments initiated during or after the recent economic crisis (that is, 2008 onwards). These measures might have, but must not necessarily have been triggered by the recession. Measures may also have been initiated earlier, but changed in order to adapt to the recession or other recent developments. Rather than a comprehensive list of all instruments available at national, regional or local level, the most important, most innovative, most interesting and most effective tools are to be described. Thereof, a selection of up to three ‘Good Practices’ to be described in more detail is to be made.

1. Selection of region(s) when total coverage of the entire regional and local level is too comprehensive

When providing the brief overview and the three ‘Good Practices’ in this section of the questionnaire, measures and instruments at national level have to be included. We would in addition ask you to include regional and local level initiatives where relevant. Nonetheless, a complete coverage of regional and local levels may not be possible for all countries (e.g. because of a high degree of decentralisation resulting in a wide range of respective measures characterised by considerably heterogeneity). At the same time, it can be assumed that for instruments targeting at supporting self-employment and the creation of employment in one-person and micro enterprises the local administrative level is of considerable importance. If so, such measures will be designed to fit to the local characteristics and needs, resulting in a wide variety of different approaches. In this case, one or few local areas or regions may be selected to be covered in this report. Details on the selection are given in table 5.

Table 5: Administrative level/region(s) covered for the following research (max. 50 words per region)

Administrative level relevant for the rest of the questionnaire

National level

If a specific regional/local are is selected, please provide the following information

Name of region

 
Motivation for selecting this region

Facts about the region e.g.

- Geographic location

- No. of inhabitants

- Business structure (sector, size)

- Labour market

- Specific characteristics if applicable

 

2. Brief overview of recent instruments to foster self-employment or job creation in one-person and micro enterprises


2.1. Please provide a brief description (max. 800 words) of public or social partner based instruments recently initiated (2008 onwards) to support self-employment and job creation in one-person or micro enterprises.

Measures covered by the European Employment Observatory Review on self-employment 2010, European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities are to be omitted to avoid duplication (see Part 3 of this questionnaire).

Table 6: List of recent instruments

Title

Urencriterium/hours criterion

Aim/objective

The hour criterion is adjusted so that the self-employed are still qualified for tax deductions.

Description of support

The government and the tax administration have adjusted the hour criterion so that self-employed people still qualify for deductions. To be eligible for a deduction self-employed have to work 1,225 hours a year. Due to the recession it has become more difficult for self-employed to reach this threshold. For this reason the hours spent on education, acquisition and administration also count as hours spent on business. Hence, it is easier to achieve the criterion and get the deduction.

Target group

Self-employed without personnel (in dutch: Zzp)

Initiator and other actors involved

- Government

- Tax administration

Duration (please also indicate whether the measures has been initiated due to the recession)

This measurement is initiated due to the recession. The duration is unknown.

www.rijksoverheid.nl

Title

MKB winstvrijstelling/SME profit exemption

Aim/objective

Discount on taxes to stimulate people to start a business

Description of support

The MKB winstvrijstelling is increased from 10.5% to 12% in 2010. Owners of small businesses can now deduct 12% of their profit.

Target group

SMEs

Initiator and other actors involved

Government

Duration (please also indicate whether the measures has been initiated due to the recession)

This measurement is initiated due to the recession. The duration is unknown.

Title

Zelfstandigen en zwangerenregeling/self-employed and pregancy scheme

Aim/objective

To guarantee that self-employed women have an income when they are pregnant.

Description of support

This is a government benefit starting 4 to 6 weeks before the delivery. The amount of money a woman gets depends on her income.

Target group

Self-employed with or without personnel

Initiator and other actors involved

Government

Duration (please also indicate whether the measures has been initiated due to the recession)

Since 2008 onwards.

This measurement is not specifically introduced due to the financial crisis.

Title

Vangnetverzekering/insurance safety net

Aim/objective

The aim is to guarantee that self-employed people have an income when they are unable to work.

Description of support

At the request of the government the ‘vangnetverzekering’ is improved in 2008. The insurance covers now partially the incapacity to work. The waiting time to get the insurance is reduced from 2 to 1 year.

Target group

Self-employed

Initiator and other actors involved

Government

Duration (please also indicate whether the measures has been initiated due to the recession)

Since 2008, onwards.

This measurement is not especially introduced due to the financial crisis

Title

Borgstellingskrediet MKB/Security credit SMEs

Aim/objective

The purpose of the scheme is to facilitate banks to keep lending feasible to SMEs, despite security deficits.

Description of support

The BMKB is a state guarantee scheme for banks that provide loans to SMEs. The government vouches for a part of the loan for which no guarantees can be offered. This can lower the threshold for the bank to provide a loan. The maximum amount the government vouches for is €1.5 million. The scheme is used when entrepreneurs offer too little collateral.

Target group

SMEs

Initiator and other actors involved

Government

Duration (please also indicate whether the measures has been initiated due to the recession)

This measure is not especially introduced due to the financial crisis and it is unclear what the duration is.

Title

Microfinanciering/Microfinances

Aim/objective

Support SMEs with finance and coaching.

Description of support

If entrepreneurs need support they can get a credit up to €35,000 at the bank and a (financial) coach. The government vouches for the loan. This way the banks have more safety and are more prone to provide loans.

Target group

SMEs

Initiator and other actors involved

Government

Qredits, Dutch Microfinance Foundation

Duration (please also indicate whether the measures has been initiated due to the recession)

2008 onward. This measure is not especially introduced due to the financial crisis.

Title

Innovatievoucher/innovationvoucher

Aim/objective

To support entrepreneurs with their innovative projects

Description of support

Entrepreneurs can use the voucher at a private or public knowledge institute, such as universities, research institutions or an engineer agency. They will give the entrepreneur the knowledge that he/she needs to start with the project and thus support his innovative project. There are vouchers worth €2,500 and €7,500. The vouchers are valid for one year.

Target group

SMEs

Initiator and other actors involved

Government, Agentschap NL

Duration (please also indicate whether the measures has been initiated due to the recession)

Since 2008. This measure is not especially introduced due to the financial crisis.

Title

Innovatiekredieten/innovation credits

Aim/objective

To support entrepreneurs at the start of a new technological innovative project.

Description of support

With the innovation credit an entrepreneur can finance his project. If the project fails, the entrepreneur does not have to pay back the money. The entrepreneur gets this credit for a maximum of 4 years.

Target group

SMEs and starting entrepreneurs

Initiator and other actors involved

Government , Agentschap NL

Duration (please also indicate whether the measures has been initiated due to the recession)

Since 2008, onwards. It is unclear if this measure has been initiated due to the recession

Title

Eurostars

Aim/objective

Support high-tech SMEs with research and development

Description of support

If entrepreneurs are spending more than 10% of their revenue on research and development they can apply for a grant for a Eurostarproject. A Eurostarproject is an international cooperating project. The project must be about industrial research or experimental development. The duration of the project is three years. The outcome has to be a marketable product or process.

Target group

High-tech SMEs

Initiator and other actors involved

Government, Agentschap NL

Duration (please also indicate whether the measures has been initiated due to the recession)

Since 2008, onwards. It’s unclear if the measure was initiated due to the financial recession.


2.2. In-depth description of ‘Good Practices’

Please choose up to three examples from the above list that can be considered as ‘Good Practice’ (e.g. because of their effectiveness, innovative character or beneficial cooperation among different stakeholders) and describe them in detail.

Table 7: Description of ‘Good Practice’ examples of recent support instruments

Name of the programme/instrument

Microfinanciering/micro credits

Is the instrument explicitly addressing any of the following:

Self-employment

Hiring the first employee

Hiring additional employees/creating additional jobs in micro enterprises

Please ‘X’ and/or describe if relevant

X

X

X

Operational level

Local

Regional

National

Please ‘X’ and/or describe if relevant

   

X

Rationale/motivation for the instrument

(please describe)

Microfinance is defined as: ‘The combination of coaching and small loans up to €35,000 in order to stimulate new enterprises.’

New entrepreneurs often encounter difficulties in getting a loan. The amount they want to borrow is generally low and it often brings high risk for the banks. The micro credits take away the difficulties for the entrepreneurs and the bank. Microfinance in the Netherlands has grown rapidly in recent years and demand for this in the current economic climate seems only to increase.

Purpose and aims for the instrument (please describe)

When you have a micro credit you can buy products, machines and rent an office. Microfinance in the Netherlands goes beyond the provision of micro credit alone. Equally important is the guidance of the entrepreneur before the start of the company and coaching after the start. The interest of the credit is 9%.

Initiator
Please ‘X’  

X

 
Other stakeholders actively involved in implementation (please name them and describe their roles)

The Ministry of Economic Affairs en the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment are working together with several banks on this project:

-ABN AMRO Nederland

-Fortis Bank Nederland

-ING Nederland

-Rabobank Nederland

The executor of the micro credit projects is called the Dutch Microcredit Foundation (Stichting microfinanciering Nederland).

Target groups        
Please describe the target groups (sector, age, level of education, gender)

Entrepreneurs who have the appropriate business skills and a viable business plan may be eligible for a micro credit up to €35,000. The target groups are thus entrepreneurs and people who just became entrepreneurs. The people who make use of this instrument:

- Age: 25-35

- Level of education: medium

- Ethnicity: 1 in 6 are foreign people

- Sector: every sector

Funding        
Please describe the funding of the instrument/programme (national and European sources, budget available)

The funding of the programme is initiated by actors mentioned above in ‘initiators’.

Activities    
Please describe the activities of the programme or institutional initiative as detailed as possible

-if the entrepreneur has a good business plan, he/she can immediately apply for a micro credit at www.qredits.nl. A committee decides whether you qualify.

- If you don’t have an appropriate business plan, you can apply for a coach. He or she will help you with a business plan and with the application for a micro credit.

- After the start of the business you can ask for a coach. The coach will give advice on several topics and will introduce the entrepreneur into their business network.

Results (Effectiveness)      
Please describe the results e.g. number of beneficiaries, advised enterprises

Since the introduction of microfinance in the Netherlands the interest increased considerably. In the first year, 2007, there were about 20 loans and in the year 2009 there were 1,300 microcredit loans issued. The average amount is €20,000.

Of the loans 17% went to unemployed people, 33% to SMEs, 37% starting entrepreneurs and 12% to the group ‘others’. Those include students and housewives.

Challenges in order to reach the objectives e.g. for the organisation offering the instrument, the entrepreneurs (Please describe); and if available how these have been overcome  
Assessments of the effectiveness e.g. investments made in order to reach the objectives of the programme (outcome vs. investment) (Please base this assessment on evaluations when possible)  
Outcomes (Efficiency)  
Increasing self-employment, growth and employment e.g. number of start-up and/or jobs created etc. (please describe, preferably based on evaluations, otherwise on experts’ assessment)

Research shows that the project works really well and that the evaluation of coaches is positive and enthusiastic. The coaches score high on commitment, expertise and professionalism.

Please provide link to evaluation documents if possible  
Example 2:

Name of the programme/instrument

Aanpassing van het urencriterium/Adjustment of the hour criterion

Is the instrument explicitly addressing any of the following:

Self-employment

Hiring the first employee

Hiring additional employees/creating additional jobs in micro enterprises

Please ‘X’ and/or describe if relevant

X

   

Operational level

Local

Regional

National

Please ‘X’ and/or describe if relevant

   

X

Rationale/motivation for the instrument

(please describe)

Due to the financial recession many self-employed people experienced difficulties in achieving the hour criterion the Dutch tax-administration has as a standard. Normally, a self-employed person is entitled to tax benefits when working more than 1,225 hours per year in their business. Recently, the Dutch tax administration changed these criteria and started counting time spent on acquisition, administration and education as working hours.

Purpose and aims for the instrument (please describe)

To help self-employed people achieving the hour criterion so that they are still qualified for tax deductions and have less financial difficulties.

Initiator
Please ‘X’  

X

 

X

Other stakeholders actively involved in implementation (please name them and describe their roles)

The tax-administration is involved. The adjustment is an arrangement between the government and the tax-administration, but the tax-administration has to eventually implement the agreement.

Target groups        
Please describe the target groups (sector, age, level of education, gender)

This instrument is mainly for:

- New self-employed

- Part-time self-employed

- Self-employed who had much less work due to the financial crisis

Funding        
Please describe the funding of the instrument/programme (national and European sources, budget available)

Tax budget

Activities    
Please describe the activities of the programme or institutional initiative as detailed as possible

The self-employee has to prove that he has worked 1,225 hours or more in one year due to his administration. If the tax administration controlled the administration and it is correct, then the self-employee gets the approval and is entitled to tax deductions. Other hours which the tax administration is counting as productive hours are, time spent on acquisition, administration and education and training.

Results (Effectiveness)      
Please describe the results e.g. number of beneficiaries, advised enterprises

Because this adjustment is introduced in 2010, there are no results available.

Challenges in order to reach the objectives e.g. for the organisation offering the instrument, the entrepreneurs (Please describe); and if available how these have been overcome  
Assessments of the effectiveness e.g. investments made in order to reach the objectives of the programme (outcome vs. investment) (Please base this assessment on evaluations when possible)

Because this adjustment is introduced in 2010, there are no results available.

Outcomes (Efficiency)  
Increasing self-employment, growth and employment e.g. number of start-up and/or jobs created etc. (please describe, preferably based on evaluations, otherwise on experts’ assessment)
Please provide link to evaluation documents if possible  

Example 3:

Name of the programme/instrument

Vangnetverzekering/insurance safety net

Is the instrument explicitly addressing any of the following:

Self-employment

Hiring the first employee

Hiring additional employees/creating additional jobs in micro enterprises

Please ‘X’ and/or describe if relevant

X

   

Operational level

Local

Regional

National

Please ‘X’ and/or describe if relevant

   

X

Rationale/motivation for the instrument

(please describe)

If you are a self-employer in the Netherlands you cannot get a normal disability insurance because this is only for employees. The ‘vangnetverzekering’ is a disability insurance especially designed for entrepreneurs. If you become disabled due to an accident or illness, then you are entitled to the ‘vangnetverzekering’.

Purpose and aims for the instrument (please describe)

Aim is to financially support the self-employed when they are disabled to work

Initiator
Please ‘X’  

X

 

X

Other stakeholders actively involved in implementation (please name them and describe their roles)

Insurance companies:

The self-employed have to get the ‘vangnetverzekering’ at a insurance company who offers it.

Target groups        
Please describe the target groups (sector, age, level of education, gender)

The ‘vangnetverzekering’ is for starting entrepreneurs;

Self-employed who work less than 15 months as a entrepreneur

Funding        
Please describe the funding of the instrument/programme (national and European sources, budget available)

The disability insurance is paid by the entrepreneur. The entrepreneur pays premium.

Activities    
Please describe the activities of the programme or institutional initiative as detailed as possible

-This insurance gives an periodic financial benefit, till the age of 65.

- This insurance pays a predetermined amount for each day you are disabled. You have great freedom to help determine the insurance requirements. Usually, however, the insurer agrees that you insure 80% of your maximum income.

- If you are partially disabled, you’ll get a partial payment in accordance with an established benefit in the policy scale.

-If you are disabled, the insurance will start after 1 year

Results (Effectiveness)      
Please describe the results e.g. number of beneficiaries, advised enterprises

Nothing is known about the result of the instrument.

Challenges in order to reach the objectives e.g. for the organisation offering the instrument, the entrepreneurs (Please describe); and if available how these have been overcome  
Assessments of the effectiveness e.g. investments made in order to reach the objectives of the programme (outcome vs. investment) (Please base this assessment on evaluations when possible)

Outcomes (Efficiency)  
Increasing self-employment, growth and employment e.g. number of start-up and/or jobs created etc. (please describe, preferably based on evaluations, otherwise on experts’ assessment)

Because this adjustment is introduced in 2010, there are no results available.

Please provide link to evaluation documents if possible  

Part 3: Annex: Update on recent self-employment study

The recent European Employment Observatory Review on self-employment 2010, European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities provides insight into support instruments for self-employment. To avoid duplication of this information, we ask you as National Correspondent to omit these measures already covered in your research (Part 2 of this questionnaire), and only update or add any additional details or measures that exceed the information already provided in this report.

Table 8: Additional information on specific instruments to the EEO national report on self-employment:

Title of the instrument

 
Additional information  

Table 9: Please add any other comments to the EEO national report on self-employment:

Table 10: Please indicate ‘X’ if you have no additional information to the EEO national report on self-employment:

Please indicate ‘X’ if you have no additional information to provide

X

Commentary

Before the 1980s, policy towards SMEs, micro enterprises and self-employed was rather inhibitory. Since, this has radically changed, with a special policy focus on self-employed. The number of self-employed has risen fast, especially since 2000. To a large extent, they have had to carry the consequences of the crisis, by working less hours. The relatively small increase in unemployment in the Netherlands after the outbreak of the crisis can for more than one third be explained by a decrease in the number of hours worked by self-employed.

There is relatively less attention to the growth of micro enterprises (hiring the first employee, or later on extra employees). One problem facing entrepreneurs in those enterprises is that in case of long term sickness or disability they are obliged to pay the wage for up to two years. This makes some employers hesitant to hire employees. One alternative is to use pay roll firms. Pay-roll firms resemble temporary work agencies. The difference is that search and hiring is done by the employer himself.

Most instruments are not or only distantly related to the crisis, and there have been no major changes, arguably with the exception of a more relaxed approach of the tax authorities to the so-called hours criterion (self-employed must be able to show a certain amount of hours worked to qualify for tax deductions). Although thus some measures have been taken to help self-employed, the policy focus is still mainly stimulating the entrance of new entrepreneurs.

Petri van Vuuren and Robbert van het Kaar (HSI)

Sources

Kuiper, A.A.B.H. & Wennekers, A.R.M. (2008). Twee decennia ondernemerschapbeleid in beeld: een jong beleidsprogramma in sociaaleconomische context geplaatst. Scales: Zoetermeer

Beleidsdoorlichting Economische Zaken, 2008. Uitgevoerd door het EIM te zoetermeer.

www.rijksoverheid.nl

www.mkbservicedesk.nl

www.mkbnederland.nl

www.fnvzelfstandigen.nl

www.pzo.nl

www.agentschapnl.nl

www.eigenbaas.nl

EZ-instrumentarium. Aanbod regelingen en subsidies voor ondernemers. Deze brochure is een uitgave van het ministerie van Economische zaken, landbouw en innovatie. Mei 2010, Den Haag.

Bekker, S. & Posthumus, M. (2010). EEO Review: Self-employment 2010, The Netherlands. Tilburg: ReflecT, Tilburg University.



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