EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Arc International

16 Jul, 2015
    • France
  • Organisation size


  • Establishment size


  • Type of restructuring
    • Closure
    • Internal restructuring
    • Offshoring/Delocalisation
    • Outsourcing
  • Ownership
    • Private
  • Involved actors

    • Works council
    • Trade union
    • Regional/local government
    • Public employment service
    • Development agencies
    • Business/employers organisation
    • National government
  • Anticipation of change activities
    • Strategic long-term monitoring of individual organisations economic and financial situation
    • Validation of non-formal/informal learning
    • Training/skill development
    • Strategic long-term monitoring of market and technological developments
    • Establishment of networks/partnerships with regular exchange facilities
    • Development and maintenance of capacities and competencies for anticipation of change
    • Continuous mapping of jobs and skills needs - Elaboration of training plans
    • Promotion of internal mobility
    • R&D - innovation
    • Promotion of social dialogue
    • Career counselling and occupational orientation activities
  • Management of change activities
    • Wage flexibility measures
    • Working time flexibility measures
    • Transition of affected employees to other employers
    • Support of start-ups by and business transfers to employees/support to establish workers cooperatives
    • Flexible/early retirement schemes
    • Income support for affected workers
    • Employment subsidies
    • Diagnosis of the situation and designing change procedures
    • Attracting investors
    • Information and consultation of workers or their representatives
    • Monitoring of the impact of the restructuring
    • Reorientation of previous productive resources (site/equipment/etc) and diversification measures
    • Redeployment of affected employees within the organisation
    • Multistakeholder communication and networking
    • (Re)training of affected employees

Research on restructuring often focuses either on the macroeconomic perspective – for example, shifts in the sectoral composition of employment - or microeconomic level – for example, the labour market outcomes for affected individuals. This project, completed in 2014, aimed to identify the effects of large restructuring cases at regional level and the regional capacities for dealing with such events.  Most large-scale restructurings have their strongest effects on the regions and cities or towns in which they take place. It is here that job losses are concentrated, that knock-on impacts on supply businesses and, in some cases, public services are most affected.

The project was based on secondary data analysis, a literature review and five in-depth case studies which covered restructuring in the Prato textile sector (Italy), the aviation hub around Hamburg  (Germany) as well as specific company cases involving Arc International (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France; glass manufacturing), Mura (Pomurje, Slovenia; clothing) and Saab Automobile (Trollhattan, Sweden; car manufacture).

The project report was published in September 2014. An executive summary is also available.


  • Regional aspects
  • Globalisation/Internationalisation