EurWORK European Observatory of Working Life

Developments in collectively agreed working time 2014

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  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Leave,
  • Work-life balance,
  • Working time,
  • Working conditions,
  • Date of Publication: 16 July 2015



About
Author:
Jorge Cabrita
Institution:
Eurofound

The average collectively agreed weekly working time in the European Union of 38.1 hours did not change between 2013 and 2014. In both years, the working week also remained, on average, 30 minutes shorter than the EU28 average in the EU15 Member States, and more than 90 minutes longer in the more recent Member States. If the collectively agreed normal annual working time is taken as the pattern, full-time workers in the EU will have worked, on average, 1,707 hours (1,675 hours in the EU15 and 1,813 hours in the recent Member States) in 2014. Of the sectors of activity examined, the banking sector recorded the shortest average agreed normal working week at 37.6 hours and the retail sector the longest at 38.4 hours. Collectively agreed paid annual leave entitlements stood at 25.1 days across the EU. These were slightly higher in the EU15 countries (26.4 days) and considerably lower in the more recent Member States (21 days).

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Introduction

This annual report covers several issues related to the length of working time in the European Union and Norway in 2014. It is based on contributions from Eurofound’s Network of European Correspondents (NEC).

The report looks specifically at the following aspects:

  • average weekly working hours set by collective agreements, both economy-wide and for five specific sectors: chemicals, metalworking, banking, the retail trade and public administration;
  • statutory limits on weekly and daily working time;
  • average actual weekly working hours;
  • annual leave entitlements, as set by collective agreements and law;
  • estimates of average collectively agreed annual working time.

The report provides a general overview of the present status of working time and any recent major developments. The figures provided should be interpreted with caution, and the various notes and explanations (provided in the annexes) should always be borne in mind. Making international comparisons of the length of collectively agreed working time is difficult, because comparable data are not collected in all countries. There are also additional factors to consider:

  • different reference periods (annual, monthly, weekly) for calculating working time;
  • the fact that working time reductions in some countries have been introduced through extra days off or cuts in annual hours, leaving the normal working week relatively unchanged;
  • an increasing use of schemes whereby weekly hours may vary considerably, with an average being maintained over a different reference period;
  • the treatment of part-time workers;
  • the differing roles of collective bargaining and legislation, with legislation having an impact on actual hours in some countries, but acting only to set a maximum ‘safety net’ in others.

Figures for normal weekly working hours are also problematic when comparing working time in different countries, as these do not take into account factors such as overtime, the length of annual (and other forms of) leave, or the use of flexible forms of working time organisation.

This report follows the three previous editions for calculating averages for the groups of EU Member States. The three groups used are:

  • EU28: current 28 European Union Member States.
  • EU15: 15 Member States up until enlargement in 2004 (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the UK).
  • NMS13: 13 ‘new’ Member States – countries that joined in 2004 (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Norway, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia), 2007 (Bulgaria and Romania) and 2013 (Croatia).

The average figures provided for these country groupings are weighted in order to reflect the relative country sizes in terms of people aged 15 to 64 years who are employed full time, according to Eurostat’s Labour Force Survey (EU LFS).

Average collectively agreed weekly hours

Collective bargaining plays an important role in determining the duration of working time in most of the EU28 countries, though to a lesser or sometimes negligible extent in some of the Member States that have joined the EU since 2004 (the NMS13). The nature and extent of this role also differs widely across countries, with bargaining at different levels (intersectoral, sectoral and company level) playing more, or less, important roles. Bargaining coverage also varies considerably, although it is generally higher in the EU15 than in the NMS13. In addition, the importance of bargaining can differ greatly among sectors of economic activity and groups of workers. The relationship between bargaining and legislative provisions on working time continues to vary considerably between countries.

Figure 1 depicts the average collectively agreed normal weekly hours in the countries where those data exist. In some Member States, such as Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Slovenia, working time is not generally defined through collective bargaining, and therefore they are not represented in the chart. In Bulgaria, although collective bargaining covers working time in parts of the economy, there are no data available for any estimate to be made. In the case of Croatia, Greece, Hungary and Malta, the estimates assume that most collective agreements replicate the statutory maximum working week of 40 hours. In Romania, an estimate based on administrative data available points to an average collectively agreed normal working week of 40 hours. For the majority of countries it is, however, possible to present average agreed hours in 2014.

With very few exceptions, there were no major changes since 2013 (see Developments in collectively agreed working time, 2013). Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and the UK were the only countries registering changes between these two years. While Slovakia and the UK registered an increase of 0.1 hours per week in 2013, they had a decrease of 0.1 and 0.3 hours, respectively, in 2014. Spain recorded a collectively agreed weekly working time that was 0.5 hours higher in 2014 than in 2013, adding to the increase of 0.3 hours registered between 2013 and 2012. Sweden registered an increase of 0.1 hours in the same period. These changes did not affect the estimate for the EU28, which remains at 38.1 hours in 2014, the same as in the three previous years.

Figure 1: Average collectively agreed normal weekly working hours, 2014

Note: The data should be interpreted in conjunction with the notes in Annex 1; EU28, EU15 and NMS13 figures are the author’s calculations of weighted averages based on relative country sizes in terms of employment (Eurostat, EU LFS, 2014).

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

France remains the country with the shortest average collectively agreed working week (35.6 hours), still reflecting the effects of the Aubry law which, in 2000, established a statutory working week of 35 hours (FR0001137F). In addition to France, the Nordic countries (including Norway), together with the Netherlands and the UK, constitute a group of countries registering an average agreed normal working week at or below the EU15 average of 37.5 hours in 2014. All in all, in 2014, the average agreed working week in EU15 was 30 minutes shorter than the overall EU28 average, and was more than 90 minutes longer in the NMS13.

Collectively agreed weekly hours by sector

This section examines the average normal weekly working hours for full-time workers as set by collective bargaining in the five sectors selected to represent the manufacturing industry, services and the public sector – metalworking, chemicals, banking, retail trade and public administration. The more specific sectoral figures presented here are more accurate than the overall average data given in the previous section as they show the specificities of the sectors analysed.

Figure 2 shows that the sectors do not differ significantly in terms of average agreed normal weekly working hours in the EU: banking registered 37.6 hours; the chemicals sector, 38.2 hours; public administration, 37.9 hours; metalworking, 38.3 hours; and retail trade, 38.4 hours. The agreed weekly working hours are higher in the NMS13 than in the EU15 in all five sectors. The largest difference can be found in the banking sector, in which the average normal agreed working week in the NMS13 is 2.9 hours longer than in the EU15. In the NMS13, the reference working week for workers in the public administration sector is 2.4 hours longer than it is for workers in the EU15. In retail and chemicals, the difference is 1.9 hours whereas metalworking shows the smallest difference: 1.7 hours.

Figure 2: Average collectively agreed normal weekly hours in selected sectors, 2014

Note: EU28, EU15 and NMS13 figures are authors’ own calculations of weighted averages based on relative country sizes in terms of employment (Eurostat, EU LFS, 2014).

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

In most of the NMS13, a uniform 40-hour working week – corresponding in general to the statutory normal week in those countries – was used for the calculation of the averages for the EU28 and NMS13. Relatively little variation between the sectors was registered in Austria, Finland, France, Greece, Luxembourg and Slovakia – countries in which none of the five sectors differed by more than two hours. Wider differences, of more than two hours (and in some cases up to four hours), between the five sectors analysed were evident in Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the UK.

Chemicals sector

Figure 3 shows collectively agreed normal weekly hours in the chemicals sector in 2014, according to the relevant sectoral collective agreements, except where specified in the notes relating to the figure (see Annex 2). The EU28, EU15 and NMS13 averages did not change between 2013 and 2014. There was no change between 2013 and 2014 figures for weekly working hours in most countries. The Czech Republic, France and the UK registered a decrease of 0.1 hours. However, France stood at 35.1 hours while the Czech Republic and the UK stood at 37.5 and 37.6 hours respectively. Sweden saw an increase of 0.1 hours to 39.3 and Greece recorded the highest increase of 0.3 hours to 39.4. In the EU28, the average agreed weekly working time in chemicals was slightly over the overall whole-economy average: 38.2 hours compared to 38.1 hours.

Figure 3: Average collectively agreed normal weekly hours in the chemicals sector, 2014

Note: The data should be interpreted in conjunction with the notes in Annex 2; EU28, EU15 and NMS13 figures are the authors’ own calculations of weighted averages based on relative country sizes in terms of employment (Eurostat, EU LFS, 2014).

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

In 2014, the average agreed working week in the chemicals sector in the EU28 represented half an hour more per week than the average of 37.7 hours for the EU15, much lower than the average for the most recent members of the European Union, which stood at 39.6 hours.

Within the EU15, the longest agreed weekly hours in the chemicals sector in 2014 were registered in Luxembourg and the Netherlands (40 hours each) and the shortest in France (35.1 hours) and Finland (36.8 hours). Working hours in the chemicals sector were higher than the national whole-economy average in the Netherlands (2.9 hours more) and Sweden (2.1 hours more). They were notably lower in in Austria (0.8 hours less). Overall, the average agreed working week for workers in the chemicals sector in the EU15 was slightly lower (-0.3 hours) than the average for those across all the sectors of economic activity.

In the NMS13, average weekly hours in chemicals were 39.6 in 2014 – exactly the same as in 2012 and 2013. In the countries not shown in the chart – Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania – working time in the chemicals sector is, in general, not defined by collective agreements. In Slovenia, also not shown, the Collective Agreement for Chemical and Rubber Industry of Slovenia was cancelled in June 2013, remaining valid until September 2013. Within the NMS13 group, the Czech Republic and Slovakia are the only countries with an average agreed weekly working time below the EU28 average, while most of the other NMS13 stand at 40 hours. Cyprus is also an exception, with average collectively agreed weekly working time in chemicals of 38 hours.

Metalworking

Figure 4 shows collectively agreed normal weekly hours in the metalworking sector in 2014, according to the relevant sectoral collective agreements, except where specified in the notes relating to the figure (see Annex 3). The EU28, EU15 and NMS13 averages did not change between 2013 and 2014, the same happening in most countries. Slovakia and the UK registered a decrease of 0.1 hours while in Spain there was an increase of the same amount. In the EU28, the average agreed weekly working time in metalworking was slightly above the overall whole-economy average: 38.3 hours compared to38.1 hours.

Figure 4: Average collectively agreed normal weekly hours in the metalworking sector, 2014

Note: The data should be interpreted in conjunction with the notes in Annex 3; EU28, EU15 and NMS13 figures are the authors’ own calculations of weighted averages based on relative country sizes in terms of employment (Eurostat, EU LFS, 2014).

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

In 2014, the average agreed working week in the metalworking sector in the EU28 represented 0.6 hours more per week than the average of 37.3 hours for the EU15, which is much lower than the average for the NMS13 (39.6 hours).

Within the EU15, the longest agreed weekly hours in the metalworking sector in 2014 were registered in Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta and Slovenia (40 hours) and the shortest were registered in Germany (35.3 hours), France (35.6 hours) and Finland (36.5 hours). Working hours in the metalworking sector are higher than the national whole-economy average in the Netherlands (0.9 hours more) and Sweden (2.4 hours more). They are notably lower in Greece (1.9 hours less). Overall, the average agreed working week for workers in metalworking in the EU15 was slightly lower (0.2 hours) than the average across all the sectors of economic activity.

In the NMS13, average weekly hours in metalworking were 39.6 in 2014 – the same as in 2013. In the countries not shown in the chart – Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland – working time in the metalworking sector is, in general, not defined by collective agreements. Within the NMS13 group, the Czech Republic was the only country with an average agreed weekly working time in line with the EU28 average in the sector. Cyprus is again an exception, with an average collectively agreed weekly working time in metalworking of 38 hours.

Banking

Figure 5 shows collectively agreed normal weekly hours in the banking sector in 2014, according to the relevant sectoral collective agreements, except where specified in the notes relating to the figure (see Annex 4). The EU28, EU15 and NMS13 averages did not change between 2013 and 2014, the same happening in most countries. Slovakia and the UK registered decreases of 0.2 and 0.1 hours respectively. In the EU28, the average agreed weekly working time in banking was below the overall whole-economy average: 37.6 hours compared to 38.1 hours.

Figure 5: Average collectively agreed normal weekly hours in the banking sector, 2014

Note: The data should be interpreted in conjunction with the notes in Annex 4; EU28, EU15 and NMS13 figures are the authors’ own calculations of weighted averages based on relative country sizes in terms of employment (Eurostat, EU LFS, 2014).

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

In 2014, the average agreed working week in the banking sector in the EU28 represented 0.7 hours more per week than the average of 36.9 hours for the EU15, which is much lower than the average for the NMS13 (39.8 hours).

Within the EU15, the longest agreed weekly hours in the banking sector in 2014 were registered in Luxembourg (40 hours) and the shortest in Belgium, France and Portugal (35 hours). Working hours in the banking sector are higher than the national whole-economy average in Germany (1.3 hours more) and Luxembourg (0.25 hours more). They are notably lower in Portugal (4.3 hours less). Overall, the average agreed working week for workers in the banking sector in the EU15 was lower (0.6 hours) than the average across all the sectors of economic activity.

In the NMS13, average weekly hours in banking were 39.8 in 2014 – the same as in 2013. In the countries not shown in the chart – Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania – working time in banking is, in general, not defined by collective agreements. Within the NMS13 group, Cyprus was the only country with an average agreed weekly working time below the EU28 average in the sector.

Retail trade sector

In 2014, the average collectively agreed normal working week in the retail sector was 38.4 hours in the EU28 (Figure 6), the same as in 2013. The UK and the Czech Republic registered decreases of 0.3 and 0.2 hours, respectively, and Greece and Sweden registered decreases of 0.1 hours. Collectively agreed working time in retail increased in Slovakia by 0.2 hours and in Spain by 0.1. In the EU as a whole, the average agreed weekly working time in retail was 0.3 hours longer than the overall whole-economy average.

Figure 6: Average collectively agreed normal weekly working hours in the retail sector, 2014

Note: The data should be interpreted in conjunction with the notes in Annex 5; EU28, EU15 and NMS13 figures are the authors’ own calculations of weighted averages based on relative country sizes in terms of employment (Eurostat, EU LFS, 2014).

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

In the EU15, the average weekly hours for retail workers stood at 37.9 in 2014; the same as in 2013. The longest agreed weekly hours in retail were found in Italy and Portugal (40 hours per week), and Luxembourg (39.8 hours). The shortest working weeks were found in France (35.6 hours) and Sweden (35.9 hours). Working hours in retail were higher than the national whole-economy average in Italy (2 hours more), Spain (0.8 hours more) and Portugal (0.6 hours more), but lower in Sweden (1.3 hours less per week) and Greece (1.2 hours less). Overall, the average agreed working week in retail was 0.4 hours above the whole-economy average for the EU15 group.

In the NMS13, average weekly hours in retail were 39.8 hours in 2014; practically the same as in 2013. The 2014 retail weekly average for the NMS13 was almost two hours above the EU15 average for the sector and just 0.1 hours above the whole-economy average for this group of countries. Cyprus, with an average collectively agreed weekly working time for the sector at 38 hours, was the only country from this group in which the figure was below the average figure for the whole EU. In the Czech Republic, agreed weekly hours in retail were 1.3 hours more than the whole-economy national average. The collective agreement for the sector that had existed in Croatia was withdrawn in July 2013.

Public administration

Legislation, rather than collective bargaining, plays the most important role in setting weekly hours for the public administration sector in many Member States. There were very few changes from 2013 in the ‘collectively agreed’ normal weekly hours in the sector in the European Union. The most notable changes took place in Spain, where collectively agreed working time for public administration increased by 1.1 hours from 35.6 to 36.7 hours per week, and in the UK, where it decreased by 0.5 hours from 37.7 to 37.2 hours. The normal working week in the Portuguese public sector had already been increased from 35 to 40 hours in September 2013 through Law No. 68/2013 (in Portuguese, 945 KB PDF) as part of the government’s measures to cut costs in the sector.

Across the EU28, the average agreed weekly working time in public administration was 37.9 hours in 2014 (Figure 7), 0.1 hours more than in 2013 and about 0.1 hours less than the overall whole-economy average.

Figure 7: Average collectively agreed normal weekly working hours in public administration, 2014

Note: The data should be interpreted in conjunction with the notes in Annex 6; EU28, EU15 and NMS13 figures are the authors’ own calculations of weighted averages based on relative country sizes in terms of employment (Eurostat, EU LFS, 2014).

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

In the EU15, average weekly working hours in public administration rose slightly to 37.4 hours in 2014 – 0.1 hours more than in 2013. In 2014, the longest weekly hours in the sector were recorded in Austria, Luxembourg and Portugal (40 hours per week), and the shortest in France (35.1 hours), and in Italy and the Netherlands (both 36 hours). Working hours in public administration are markedly higher than the national whole economy average in Germany, Austria and Sweden, and lower in Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. Overall, the average agreed working week in public administration was just 0.1 hours below the whole-economy average. In the UK, collectively agreed weekly hours are even shorter for local government (36.7 hours).

In the NMS13, in 2014, average weekly hours in public administration were 39.8 hours – 2.4 hours more than the EU15 average. Cyprus and Slovakia were the only countries in this group where the figures were closer to the average for the EU15. In these two countries, weekly hours in public administration were even below the whole-economy national averages. Overall, the average agreed working hours for public administration in the NMS13 were just 0.1 hours above the whole-economy average.

Statutory maximum working time

Collective bargaining on the length of working time in the EU and Norway takes place within the framework of statutory rules on maximum working hours. These must, as a minimum, respect the provisions of the EU Working Time Directive. This includes:

  • provision for an average maximum 48-hour working week (over a reference period not exceeding four months);
  • a minimum daily rest period of 11 hours;
  • a daily limit of eight hours for night workers.

As Figure 8 shows, most countries fall into one of two main groups: those that set their maximum weekly hours at the 48 hours specified by the Working Time Directive, and those that operate a lower limit of 40 hours, which may be extended up to 48 hours or more under certain conditions. Belgium, France and Germany continue to constitute exceptions, as described further below.

Figure 8: Statutory maximum working week, EU, 2014

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

In Denmark, the Netherlands, Ireland, Malta and the UK, shown in yellow in Figure 8, the statutory 48-hour maximum is more than the average collectively agreed weekly working hours (see Figure 1) and more than the average actual weekly hours (see Figure 11); it appears to operate essentially as a safety net.

It is important to underline that, in these cases, the statutory 48-hour maximum includes overtime. In several countries, individual workers (generally or only in specified sectors) can, as permitted by the Working Time Directive, opt out of the 48-hour weekly maximum (this is the case, for instance, in Malta and the UK – see Eurofound 2015 report, Opting out of the European Working Time Directive).

In the second group of 21 countries (shown in green in Figure 8), the statutory maximum for a normal week of work is, in some cases, much closer or identical to the average agreed weekly working hours. This may indicate that working time is governed more by law rather than by individual or collective negotiation. However, overtime is not included in this figure and the ‘maximum’ may function, in practice, as a statutory normal working week. Such statutory working weeks exist in some countries, with a 48-hour maximum in most countries. The exceptions are Latvia, where a minimum of 42 consecutive hours of weekly rest period is established within a seven-day period, and Austria, Sweden and Hungary, where the established maximums are, respectively, 50, 52 and 60 hours per week.

The limits referred to may be exceeded in many countries where working time flexibility schemes allow weekly hours to be varied around an average over a reference period, as permitted by the Working Time Directive. Weekly maximum working time under such hours-averaging schemes may itself be subject to a ceiling, such as 60 hours. In the Netherlands, for example, weekly working time – including overtime – may not exceed 48 hours, on average, over a 16-week reference period, or 55 hours per week on average over a four-week reference period, unless otherwise agreed by the employer and trade union or works council, subject to an absolute weekly limit of 60 hours.

Similarly, in Portugal, the weekly limit of 40 hours may be periodically extended to 60 hours, although it must not exceed a bi-monthly average of 50 hours a week and an annual average of 40 hours a week. In Croatia, overtime work may amount to eight hours per week, 32 hours per month and 180 hours per year, but these limits can be exceeded in cases of an extraordinary event, unexpected increases in work and other emergencies.

The complexity of the European picture relating to weekly working time, overtime and flexible working time is best illustrated by the exceptions of Belgium, France and Germany (shown in orange in Figure 8). While the working week in France can extend from 35 hours up to a maximum of 48 hours (including overtime), in Belgium the rule is 38 hours as the lower limit (on condition that more than 40 hours work is considered as overtime, with an upper limit of 50 hours per week). In Germany, the statutory maximum is a working day of eight hours, rather than weekly hours (excluding overtime).

All the countries examined also have a form of statutory maximum working day, as set out in Figure 9.

Figure 9: Statutory maximum working day (in hours), 2014

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

In Cyprus, Denmark, Ireland, Italy and the UK there is no explicit maximum working day, but in most circumstances a 13-hour maximum can be inferred from the application of the Working Time Directive’s minimum 11-hour daily rest period. The maximum daily hours stipulated in each country vary more across Europe than does the weekly maximum, as follows:

  • Cyprus, Denmark, Ireland, Italy and the UK (13 hours);
  • Malta (12.5 hours);
  • the Czech Republic (12 hours, after the Labour Code’s requirement of 9 hours was amended);
  • Slovenia (10 hours);
  • the Netherlands, Norway and Spain (9 hours);
  • France (7 hours);
  • remaining 17 countries (8 hours).

In most countries, daily hours may often be longer under certain conditions, such as working time flexibility schemes, and as the following examples show.

  • In Belgium, the maximum number of hours per working day (including overtime) depends on the specific case or sector and can go up to 9, 10, 11 or 12 hours. In some cases, this requires a preliminary agreement (by decree or by the in-company trade union’s delegation), but in other cases no agreement is needed.
  • In Bulgaria, the working day may be extended from 8 to 10 hours, but only for a total of 60 working days a year and for not more than 20 consecutive working days.
  • In the Czech Republic, a daily maximum for working hours including overtime work is not stipulated either by the Labour Code or by any other regulation. The overtime-work regulation is based on the stipulated weekly working hours.
  • In France, derogations to the statutory maximum working day of 10 hours can be requested from the Labour Inspectorate.
  • In Germany, a working day may be extended to 10 hours as long as an 8-hour average is maintained over a 24-week or 6-month reference period.
  • In Croatia and Latvia, the length of a rest within a period of 24 hours, in general, shall not be less than 12 consecutive hours, implying a daily maximum of 12 working hours.

Actual weekly working hours

In order to see how many hours workers really work in a given week, it is necessary to turn to data on actual weekly hours worked, which include factors such as overtime and absence. These data are typically measured in labour force surveys. Figure 10 provides harmonised EU LFS data on the ‘average number of actual weekly hours of work in the main job’ of full-time employees in 2014, whether they are paid or not. According to Eurostat, the ‘actual hours worked’ in the reference week are the hours the person spent in work activities during that week. Work activities include production activities, ancillary activities, short breaks, and education and training necessary for successfully carrying out the job tasks. Travel time between home and the place of work, main meal breaks, absences from work within the working period for personal reasons, and education and training hours not necessary for carrying out the job tasks are excluded.

Figure 10: Average number of actual weekly hours of work in main job, full-time employees, 2014

Notes: The NMS13 average was calculated by the author.

Source: Eurostat, EU LFS, 2014.

Full-time employees in Romania reported the longest actual weekly working hours in their main jobs in 2014: 41 hours, the same as in 2012 and 2013. They were followed by employees in Luxembourg (40.9 hours), the UK (40.9 hours), Portugal (40.4 hours), Germany (40.3 hours) and Poland (40.2 hours). Employees in Finland and France worked the shortest hours (37.3 hours). This was 3.7 hours less or the equivalent to 4.3 weeks a year by their counterparts in Romania.

Ten of the 13 NMS registered actual weekly working hours at or above the EU28 average of 39.5 hours. Of the NM13, only Hungary, Malta and Slovakia had a shorter actual working week. In the EU15, the longest actual hours worked by full-time employees were in Luxembourg (40.9), the UK (40.9), Portugal (40.4) and Germany (40.3).

Actual weekly hours worked by full-time employees were longer than the average normal collectively agreed working week in 20 of the 29 countries analysed here (see also Figure 1). The extent to which the average actual working week exceeded the agreed normal week varies across the European Union, according to the following patterns:

  • less than an hour in Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Norway, Poland, Slovakia and Spain;
  • between one and two hours in Austria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Portugal, Romania and Sweden;
  • more than two hours in Germany;
  • three or more hours in the Netherlands and the UK.

In Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania and Malta, the actual weekly hours of work of full-time employees fell short of their ‘average collectively agreed normal weekly hours’ by less than one hour.

In the EU28, the actual working week was 39.5 hours in 2014, the same as in 2013; this was about 1 hour and 24 minutes more than the average agreed working hours. In the EU15, the working week was 39.3 hours, about 1 hour and 48 minutes longer than the agreed hours. In the NMS13, the working week was 40.1 hours, about 24 minutes longer than the average agreed working hours.

The annual figures for actual weekly working hours in the EU stabilised in all country groups between 2013 and 2014, stopping the downward trend registered in all country groups in 2012 and 2013 (Figure 11).

Figure 11: Average number of actual weekly hours of work in main job, full-time employees, European Union, 2006–2014

Note: Average number of actual weekly hours of work in main job, full-time employees; the NMS13 average was calculated by the author.

Source: Eurostat, EU LFS.

Across the board, the variations between 2013 and 2014 have not been very large. The majority of Member States registered decreases of 0.1 or 0.2 hours. Actual weekly hours decreased by 0.4 hours in Estonia and Malta, and by 0.5 hours in Slovakia. Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece and Slovenia did not show any changes. Belgium, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, the UK and Norway all registered small increases between 0.1 and 0.3 hours.

In 2014, actual weekly hours worked by male full-time employees in their main jobs continued to exceed those of their female counterparts in all Member States and Norway. The same was observed in Norway. Across the EU28, in 2014, men worked on average two hours more than women. The gap is wider in the EU15 than in the NMS13. In the EU15 in 2014, men worked 2.1 hours more per week than women. By contrast, in the NMS13, men worked around 1.3 hours more than women. Again, these averages conceal more stark national situations: men’s actual weekly hours exceeded women’s by three hours or more in Ireland and the UK (3.2 hours more), by 2.9 hours in Italy and by between 2.0 and 2.4 hours in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Malta, Poland and Norway.

Annual leave

Workers are generally entitled to paid annual leave, which is also an important factor in the overall length of working time every year. The Working Time Directive established that ‘Member States shall take the measures necessary to ensure that every worker is entitled to paid annual leave of at least four weeks’, which ‘may not be replaced by an allowance in lieu’. All the EU Member States and Norway have a statutory minimum period of paid annual leave, as set out in Figure 12. In the figure, the leave is expressed in days and harmonised on the basis of a five-day working week. The majority of countries, 19 out of 28, have a 20-day minimum entitlement as laid down in the Working Time Directive. This group includes Belgium, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK, as well as all the NMS13 except Malta (24 days). Six countries have a 25-day minimum – Austria, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg and Sweden – while the entitlement is 22 days in Portugal and Spain, and 21 days in Norway.

Figure 12: Statutory minimum annual paid leave (in days), 2014

Note: The figure should be read in conjunction with the notes in Annex 7.

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

The statutory annual paid leave is, in many cases, just the basis upon which workers’ leave entitlement is defined, apart from the national public holidays. The total number of annual leave days may depend on the type of occupation performed, years of service or the sector of economic activity and, in many cases, is part of collective agreements. However, collectively agreed annual leave is an aspect about which data can be difficult or even impossible to find. Whereas, in some countries, no statistics are available, in others collectively agreed rules on leave entitlements are too complex to enable even a rough estimate to be produced.

In Austria, the 1976 Paid Leave Act (UrlG) establishes that employees with up to 25 years of service are entitled to an annual paid leave of 30 calendar days (including Saturdays). After completion of 25 years of service, employees are entitled to an annual paid leave of 36 calendar days.

In Bulgaria, collective agreements may provide for longer annual leave. Miners with more than 15 years length of service, for example, are entitled to 23 days of leave.

In Belgium, sectoral agreements may provide for a general addition of up to five days to the statutory minimum annual paid leave of 20 days. Such agreements may also provide for additional days of leave after a certain period of service – one extra day after 10 years’ service, for instance. Further additional days of leave may also be given as compensation for workers with a normal weekly working time above the sectoral norm.

In Germany, according to the WSI Collective Bargaining Archive, the average agreed annual paid leave is 30 days, considerably more than the 20 days for a five-day week of work (or the 24 days of leave corresponding to a six-day week).

In Slovakia, data from the ISPP (Information System on Working Conditions) indicate that, on average, five working days over the statutory minimum of 20 days had been agreed in companies surveyed in 2014.

In other countries for which it was possible to obtain estimates of agreed annual paid leave – the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland and the Netherlands – these estimates amounted to an extra five days on top of the national statutory minimum. In the UK the average agreed annual leave is an extra 5.1 days over the statutory minimum while, in Ireland and Norway, it is four days more. In Romania, the difference is minimum one day extra over the statutory, and increases with the seniority of workers.

Annual working time

In order to calculate an annual estimate for collectively agreed normal working time in all countries for 2014, data for the average collectively agreed normal weekly hours (see Figure 1) are multiplied by a five-day working week for 52 weeks a year.

From this total annual figure, the average collectively agreed annual paid leave is subtracted or, where no data are available on this point, the minimum statutory annual leave (see Figure 12) is subtracted. As noted above, in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden and the UK, the average agreed leave is higher than the statutory minimum. Use of the statutory minimum leave in calculating collectively agreed annual normal working time thus makes the total figure higher than it might actually be, rendering the estimates for the other countries particularly crude.

The number of annual public holidays is also subtracted (excluding those falling on Sundays). Where there are varying numbers of regional public holidays (as in Germany), an attempt has been made to give a mid-range figure. It should also be noted that additional holidays may be observed locally or on the basis of collective agreements or custom, while the number of public holidays may vary from year to year, especially in countries that do not award a substitute holiday when a public holiday falls at the weekend. It must be noted that these variations are the main source of year-on-year changes in annual hours in many countries.

The resulting annual figures do not take into account factors such as overtime working, other forms of time off and leave (such as sick leave or parental/maternity leave), or exceptional reductions of normal working time such as short-time working. They are only estimates, but they allow some broad observations to be made.

Table 1 provides a breakdown of the calculation of the average collectively agreed normal annual working time. It shows that the number of public holidays in 2014 (excluding those falling on Sundays) varied from a minimum of eight in Portugal and the UK up to 14 in Bulgaria, Latvia, Spain and Cyprus, and 15 in Slovakia. In 2014, the average number of public holidays was 10.6 in the EU28, the NMS13 and the EU15.

Table 1: Average collectively agreed normal annual working time, 2014



 


A


B


C


D


E


F


Country


Weekly hours


Gross annual hours
(A x 52)


Annual leave (days)


Public holidays (days)**


All leave (C + D) expressed in hours


Annual hours
(B - E)


Hungary


40


2,080


20*


10


240


1,840


Poland


40


2,080


20*


10


240


1,840


Romania


40


2,080


21


9


240


1,840


Estonia


40


2,080


20*


11


248


1,832


Slovenia


40


2,080


20*


11


248


1,832


Croatia


40


2,080


20*


12


256


1,824


Lithuania


40


2,080


20*


12


256


1,824


Bulgaria


40


2,080


20*


14


272


1,808


Latvia


40


2,080


20*


14


272


1,808


Portugal


39.3


2,043.6


22*


8


235.8


1,807.8


Greece


40


2,080


23*


12


280


1,800


Malta


40


2,080


24*


12


288


1,792


Luxembourg


39.8


2,067


25*


10


278.3


1,788.8


Ireland


39


2,028


24


9


257.4


1,770.6


Belgium


37.8


1,965.6


20*


9


219.2


1,746.4


Austria


38.8


2,017.6


25*


12


287.1


1,730.5


Spain


38.5


2,002


22*


14


277.2


1,724.8


Cyprus


38


1,976


20*


14


258.4


1,717.6


Czech Republic


38.1


1,981.2


25


10


266.7


1,714.5


Slovakia


38.9


2,022.8


25


15


311.2


1,711.6


Italy


38


1,976


25


11


273.6


1,702.4


UK


37.4


1,944.8


25.1


8


247.6


1,697.2


Finland


37.5


1,950


25


10


262.5


1,687.5


Norway


37.5


1,950


25


10


262.5


1,687.5


Netherlands


37.1


1,929.2


25


9


252.3


1,676.9


Sweden


37.2


1,934.4


25


11


267.8


1,666.6


Germany


37.7


1,960.4


30


11


309.1


1,651.3


Denmark


37


1,924


30


9


288.6


1,635.4


France


35.6


1,851.2


30*


11


291.9


1,559.3


NMS13


39.7


2,064.9


21.0


10.6


251.3


1,813.6


EU28


38.1


1,979.2


25.1


10.6


272.0


1,707.2


EU15


37.5


1,952.4


26.4


10.6


277.7


1,674.7

Note: * statutory minimum paid annual leave; ** public holidays falling on Sundays are subtracted.

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

The combined total of agreed annual leave and public holidays in the EU varied from 41 days in Germany and France to 29 days in Belgium – a difference of more than two working weeks. Other notably high-leave countries in 2014 are Slovakia (with 40 leave days in total), Denmark (with 39) and Austria (with 37). Other notably low-leave countries included Hungary, Poland and Romania, with 30 days each. The average figure for the EU28 in 2014 was 35.7 days – 37 days in the EU15 and 31.6 days in the NMS13.

Looking at the ranking of the 29 countries in terms of the length of their agreed working hours, the countries with the longest and shortest weekly hours are generally also those with the longest and shortest annual hours. However, the annual perspective results in rather different rankings, for some countries, than those provided by the figures for weekly hours. Germany, Italy, Malta and Slovakia have a relatively lower position in the ‘ranking’ for normal annual hours than for normal weekly hours. In other words, their hours are relatively ‘shorter’ if counted annually. This is because of the effects of relatively long annual leave and/or a relatively high number of public holidays. Conversely, other countries fall relatively higher in the ranking for normal annual hours than for normal weekly hours because of the effects of a relatively low number of public holidays and/or relatively limited annual leave. Countries in this category include Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Portugal, the Netherlands and the UK.

Figure 13: Average collectively agreed normal annual working time (hours), 2014

Source: NEC, EurWORK.

In 2014, the average collectively agreed annual normal working time was approximately 1,707 hours in the EU28, 1,675 hours in the EU15, and 1,813 hours in the NMS13. Workers in the NMS13 thus worked, on average, 138 hours longer than their counterparts in the EU15 – the equivalent of almost 3.5 working weeks in the NMS13. Overall, the EU’s longest hours were worked in Hungary, Poland and Romania, while the shortest hours were worked in France, Denmark, Germany and Sweden. If the collectively agreed hours are considered, in 2014, workers in Hungary, Poland and Romania were supposed to work, on average, 280 hours more than their counterparts in France, which, in Romania, for example, works out to the equivalent of seven additional weeks of work (Figure 13).

 

 

Annexes

Annex 1

Back to Figure 1

Figure 1: Average collectively agreed normal weekly working hours, 2014

The data in Figure 1 should be read in conjunction with the following notes.

AustriaThe figure is an estimate on the basis of the most important collective agreements that in general provide for 38.5 to 39 hours a week.

Belgium – The figure is an estimate calculated by the Federal Public Service for Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue. The calculation takes into account (only) the provisions of sectoral collective agreements in the private sector. These agreements cover a very high proportion of the private sector, but not all employees. For example, the company agreements of state enterprises, such as railways or postal services, are not included. These sector agreements can furthermore be amended by company agreements (such as working time reduction or alternative working time regimes). It is also important to note that managerial staff (kaderleden/cadres) are generally not bound by Belgian working time rules and legislation. The Federal Public Service normally publishes not the exact figure, but separate indices for blue-collar and white-collar workers. For both categories this index has remained unchanged since the beginning of 2003.

Croatia – The figure is an estimate based on the assumption that provisions on working time in collective agreements are the same as provisions of the Labour Act on working time.

Cyprus – Source: Cyprus Labour Institute (INEK-PEO).

Czech Republic – The figure applies to the private sector in which 93.8% of company-level collective agreements (CLCAs) contain provisions on the number of working hours. The figure is an estimate based on the Working Conditions Information System (WCIS), 2014, a regular annual survey of wages and working conditions negotiated in collective agreements for the relevant year.

DenmarkThe figure is an estimate based on weekly working hours provided by various collective agreements.

Finland – The figure is an estimate, based on typical provisions of sectoral agreements.

France – The average collective weekly working hours figure is from the Ministry of Labour’s Directorate for Research, Studies and Statistics (DARES).

Germany – Source: Collective Bargaining Archive of the Economic and Social Research Institute (WSI)

Greece – Under the (National General Collective Employment Agreement, EGSSE) of the Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) of 14/2/1984, the 40-hours week became applicable as of 1/1/1984 for all workers employed by any employer throughout Greece under a private law employment agreement.

Hungary – Collective agreements usually reiterate the statutory working week of 40 hours. Although the Labour Code allows collective agreements to stipulate a shorter period, in practice deviations from the statutory hours are rare.

Ireland – The figure is an estimate based on the Programme for National Recovery (PNR), from 1987, which set a framework agreement on the shortening of the working week by one hour in cases where the normal working week was 40 hours or more; the implementation was to be negotiated locally, on an organisation-by-organisation basis.

Italy – The figure is an estimate based on 36–40 hours per week provided in national collective bargaining agreements.

Luxembourg – Database from the CEPS/INSTEAD and Statec on collective agreements (under construction).

Malta – The figure is an estimate based on the fact that, while no statistical data exist, most collective agreements tend to specify a normal weekly working time of 40 hours.

Netherlands – Source: Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, agreements on sustainable employability and collective funds. These are the CAO-afspraken 2013 (in Dutch, 1,0MB PDF).

Norway – The figure represents ‘normal working hours’ for employees covered by collective agreements; employees working shifts, or at night, work fewer weekly hours.

Portugal – Source: Ministry of Economy and Employment, Quadros de Pessoal, 2013.

Romania – Estimate based on some collective agreements.

Slovakia – Average figure is based on a sample survey conducted in companies employing about 43% of employees in the economy. Source: Information system on Working Conditions (ISPP), 2014, by The Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic (MPSVR SR) and statistical research firm Trexima, s.r.o. Bratislava.

Spain – Calculation based on provisional average agreed annual working time of 1,757.67 hours in 2014 (Statistics of collective agreements, Ministry of Employment), on the assumption of a six-day working week and 274 working days per year.

Sweden – Source: Statistics Sweden (SCB). The data are for employed people aged 15–74 years. Data for the months of January to November. A weighted average was calculated for those months.

UK – 2014 figure is mean average based on a database of information from 309 organisations (‘Review of basic working hours in 2014’, HR in Practice, November 2014, IDS).

Annex 2

Back to Figure 3

Figure 3: Average collectively agreed normal weekly hours in the chemicals sector, 2014

The data in Figure 3 should be read in conjunction with the following notes.

AustriaThe figure is an estimate based on collective agreement in the sector.

Belgium – At the sector level the rule is 38 hours. However, company agreements are important in the sector – especially in relation to working time regimes, including the annualisation of working hours (the conversion of weekly hours into annual working hours) and the link with shift work and night work. Belgium’s large chemical companies generally have a shorter working time arrangement. Source: Federal public service for employment, labour and social dialogue (FOD/SPF).

Bulgaria – There is no collective agreement signed at sectoral level. Collective agreements of individual companies in the industry refer to the provisions of the Labour Code regarding weekly working time.

Croatia – Collective agreements in the sector tend to adhere to the provisions of the Labour Act for a 40-hour working week.

Cyprus – Average collectively agreed working time. Source: Cyprus Labour Institute (INEK).

Czech Republic – The figure represents an average based on the CLCAs concluded in the private sector by members of the trade union ECHO (Odborový svaz ECHO), which represents workers in electricity and heat supply, chemical, pharmaceutical and oil industry. Source: Working Conditions Information System, ISPP, 2014.

Denmark – Source: industry agreement.

FinlandThe figure is an estimate based on collective agreements in the sector.

France – Source: branch agreement in force since 1999.

Germany – Source: collective bargaining archive of the WSI.

Greece – Source: OEΧΒE (Federation of Chemical Industry Workers of Greece).

Ireland – Based on the Programme for National Recovery (PNR), from 1987.

Italy – Source: National collective agreements of the sector, National Archive of Collective Agreements (Archivio Nazionale dei Contratti collettivi di lavoro) of the National Council for Economic Affairs and Labour (CNEL).

Luxembourg – The figure is an estimate based on data from CEPS/INSTEAD and Statec on collective agreements.

Malta – The figure is an estimate based on information provided by the Chemicals and Energy section of the General Workers’ Union (GWU).

Netherlands – The figure is an estimate calculated from a sample of company agreements in the sector.

Norway – Collective agreement for the chemical technical industry.

Portugal – The figure is an estimate based on collective agreements in the chemical industries in 2013.

Slovakia – Chemical multi-employer collective agreement for 2012–2014.

Slovenia – As set by the Law on Labour Relations and the Collective Agreement for Chemical and Rubber Industry of Slovenia.

Spain – Calculated on the basis of provisional data for 2014 from the Statistics of Collective Agreements of the Ministry of Labour (including NACE divisions 20, 21 and 22) on the assumption of a six-day week and 274 working days per year.

Sweden – Source: Statistics Sweden, Labour Market Survey (SCB) (NACE sectors B to E); figure is weighted average covering period from January to November.

UK – Figure from IDS is mean basic weekly hours of agreements in ‘Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals’.

Annex 3

Back to Figure 4

Figure 4: Average collectively agreed normal weekly hours in the metalworking sector, 2014

The data in Figure 4 should be read in conjunction with the following notes.

Austria – The figure is an estimate based on collective agreement in the sector.

BelgiumThe figure is for blue-collar workers in metal, mechanical and electrical engineering (Joint Committee 111) and white-collar workers in metal engineering (Joint Committee 209). Agreements within these committees are differentiated by province and/or subsector, and in general set normal weekly working time at 38 hours.

Bulgaria – There is no collective agreement signed at sectoral level. Collective agreements of individual companies in the industry refer to the provisions of the Labour Code regarding weekly working time.

Croatia – Collective agreements in the sector tend to adhere to the provisions of the Labour Act for a 40-hour working week.

Cyprus – Sectoral agreement in metalworking, concluded between: the Federation of Industrial Workers of Cyprus (ΟΒΙΕΚ), affiliated to the Cyprus Workers’ Confederation (SΕΚ); the Cyprus Metalworkers, Mechanics and Electricians Trade Union (SΕΜΜΗΚ), affiliated to the Pancyprian Federation of Labour (PΕΟ); and the Cyprus Metalworking Industry Employers’ Association (SYMEBIK).

Czech Republic – The figure represents an average based on the CLCAs concluded in the private sector by members of the trade union KOVO (Odborový svaz KOVO), which represents workers mostly (but not exclusively) in the metal-working industry. The figure expresses the average weekly working hours agreed in CLCAs without differentiation of working modes, which was the case in 69.7% of CLCAs concluded by TU KOVO. Source: ISPP, 2014.

Denmark – Source: industry agreement.

FinlandThe figure is an estimate based on collective agreements in the sector.

France – Source: branch agreement in the sector (Accords nationaux dans la métallurgie).

Germany – Source: collective bargaining archive of the WSI.

Greece – Source: POEM, metalworkers’ trade union.

Ireland – Based on the Programme for National Recovery (PNR), from 1987.

Italy – Source: National collective agreements of the sector collected in the National Archive of Collective Agreements (Archivio Nazionale dei Contratti collettivi di lavoro) of the National Council for Economic Affairs and Labour (CNEL).

Luxembourg – The figure is an estimate based on data from CEPS/INSTEAD and Statec on collective agreements.

Malta – The figure is an estimate based on the Transport Equipment, Metal and Allied Industries Wages Council Wage Regulation Order (1977) and confirmed by the General Workers’ Union (GWU).

Netherlands – As set in the sectoral agreement.

Norway – In the industry agreement.

Portugal – The figure is an estimate based on collective agreements in metal industries in 2013.

Romania – As set by Collective Agreement 314/2010, no longer valid, but tacitly observed.

Slovakia – ISPP 2014 data for trade union OZ Kovo, which overlaps metalworking.

Slovenia – As set by collective agreement for metalworking industry of Slovenia (Kolektivna pogodba za kovinsko industrijo Slovenije, 2005).

Spain – Calculated on the basis of provisional data from the Statistics of Collective Agreements of the Ministry of Labour (including NACE divisions 24 and 25) on the assumption of a six-day week and 274 working days per year.

Sweden – Source: Statistics Sweden, Labour Market Survey (SCB). NACE 25-30 and 33. Figure is weighted average covering period from January to November.

UK – Figure from IDS is the mean basic weekly hours of agreements in ‘engineering’.

Annex 4

Back to Figure 5

Figure 5: Average collectively agreed normal weekly hours in the banking sector, 2014

The data in Figure 5 should be read in conjunction with the following notes.

Austria – The figure is an estimate by the correspondent on the basis of collective agreements in the sector.

Belgium – The figure is an estimate based on the provisions of sector agreement joint committee 310; Source: FOD WASO.

Croatia – The figure is an estimate based on a sample of collective agreements in the sector; these contain identical provisions on working time as those set out in the Labour Act.

Cyprus – According to the sectoral collective agreement in the banking sector concluded between the Cyprus Union of Bank Employees (ETYK) and the Cyprus Bankers Employers’ Association (KEST), collectively agreed working time is set at 37 hours per week. It is allocated as 35 hours per week during the summer, from May to August, and 37.5 hours per week during the rest of the year.

Czech Republic – The figure represents an average based on the CLCAs concluded in the private sector by members of the Trade Union of Banking and Insurance Employees (Odborový svaz pracovníků peněžnictví a pojišťovnictví, OS PPP). The figure expresses the average weekly working hours agreed in CLCAs without differentiation of working modes, which was the case in 60% of CLCAs concluded within OS PPP. Source: ISSP 2014.

Denmark – As set in the financial sector agreement.

Finland – The figure is an estimate based on collective agreements in the sector. Regular working hours are 37 hours; individual working time is up to 40 hours.

France – The banking sector obeys the 35 hour working week although there may be discrepancies according to the occupation or job.

Germany – Source: Collective Bargaining Archive of the WSI.

Greece – According to the sectoral collective agreement of 2002–2003.

Ireland –Based on Programme for National Recovery, from 1987.

Italy – The figure is an estimate based on national collective agreements of the sector collected in the National Archive of Collective Agreements (Archivio Nazionale dei Contratti collettivi di lavoro) of the National Council for Economic Affairs and Labour (CNEL).

Luxembourg – Database from CEPS/INSTEAD and Statec on collective agreements.

Malta – The figure is an estimate calculated on the basis of collective agreements concluded at company level and confirmed by the Malta Union of Bank Employees.

Netherlands – The figure is an estimate calculated on basis of a sample of collective agreements in the sector.

Norway – Source: Sentralavtalen, the collective agreement covering the financial sector.

PortugalSource: Ministry of Economy and Employment, Quadros de Pessoal, 2013.

Slovakia – Source: ISPP, 2014, by Trexima Bratislava (NACE – K: Financial service and insurance activities).

Slovenia – Source: Collective agreement for the banking activity in Slovenia (Kolektivna pogodba dejavnosti bančništva slovenije, 2014)

Spain – Calculated on the basis of provisional data from the Statistics of Collective Agreements of the Ministry of Labour on the assumption of a six-day week and 274 working days per year.

SwedenSource: Statistics Sweden, Labour Market Survey (SCB), (NACE 64-82).

UK – The figure from IDS is mean basic weekly hours from agreements in ‘financial services’.

Annex 5

Back to Figure 6

Figure 6: Average collectively agreed normal weekly working hours in the retail sector, 2014

The data in Figure 6 should be read in conjunction with the following notes.

Austria – The figure is an estimate based on sector’s collective agreement.

Belgium – The figure is an estimate based on the provisions of various subsectoral agreements. Source: FOD WASO.

Bulgaria – Collective agreement for municipal, cooperative and private companies and enterprises, and other organisations from the trade and retail sector for 2014 and 2015.

Cyprus – Normal weekly working hours in retail is fixed at 38 hours per week according to the provisions of Law 155(I)/2006 on the operation of retail shops and the terms of employment of retail workers. This is in the few collective agreements, currently in place, according to information provided by the Cyprus Federation of Private Employees (OIYK/SEK) and the Cyprus Union of Workers in Industry, Trade, Press and Printing and General Services (SEVETTYK/PEO).

Czech Republic – The figure represents an average based on the CLCAs concluded in the private sector by members of the Trade Union of Workers in Commerce (Odborový svaz pracovníků obchodu, OSPO). The figure expresses the average weekly working hours agreed in CLCAs without differentiation of working modes, which was the case in 33.3% of CLCAs concluded within OSPO. Source: ISSP 2014.

Denmark - Source: Retail collective agreement.

Finland – The figure is an estimate based on collective agreements in the sector.

France – The figure is an estimate based on collective agreements of some retail subsectors such as: ‘jewellery and watch making’, ‘fruits, vegetables, grocery and dairy products’, ‘non-alimentary products’ and ‘stationery retail’.

Germany – Source: Collective Bargaining Archive of the WSI.

Greece – Source: Federation of Private Employees of Greece (OIYE).

Ireland – Based on the Programme for National Recovery (PNR), from 1987.

Italy – Source: National collective agreements of the sector collected in the National Archive of Collective Agreements (Archivio Nazionale dei Contratti collettivi di lavoro) of the National Council for Economic Affairs and Labour (Consiglio Nazionale dell’Economia e del Lavoro, CNEL).

LuxembourgDatabase from the CEPS/INSTEAD and Statec on collective agreements.

Malta – The figure is an estimate confirmed by the General Workers’ Union (GWU).

Netherlands – The figure is an estimate calculated on the basis of a sample of sector agreements.

Portugal – The figure is estimate based on collective agreements in the retail sector in 2013.

Slovakia – Information system on Working Conditions (ISPP) data for NACE G (wholesale, retail trade).

Slovenia – As set by collective agreement for the commercial sector (kolektivna pogodba dejavnosti trgovine, 2014).

Spain – Calculated on the basis of provisional data provided by the Ministry of Labour, on the assumption of a six-day week and 274 working days.

Sweden – Source: Statistics Sweden, Labour Market Survey (SCB). NACE G45–47.

UK – The figure from Incomes Data Services (IDS) is mean the basic weekly hours of agreements in ‘retail and wholesale’.

Annex 6

Back to Figure 7

Figure 7: Average collectively agreed normal weekly working hours in public administration, 2014

The data in Figure 7 should be read in conjunction with the following notes.

Austria – Public sector employment law.

Belgium – The figure corresponds to the general, statutory rule in the public sector.

Croatia – Collective agreement for public officers and employees, OG 104/13, 150/13, 153/13.

Cyprus – The figure was provided by the Pancyprian Public Employees Trade Union (PASYDY).

Denmark – Collective agreement between the ministry of Finance and The Danish Central Federation of State Employees’ Organisations, CFU.

Finland – The estimate is based on collective agreements in the sector.

France – Normal weekly working time for civil servants at central and regional levels.

Germany – Source: Collective Agreement Archive of the WSI.

Greece – Weekly working hours of civil servants as set by law.

Hungary – As set by law regarding public service officials.

Ireland The Public Service Stability Agreement 2013–2016.

Italy – Source: National collective agreements of the sector collected in the National Archive of Collective Agreements (Archivio Nazionale dei Contratti collettivi di lavoro) of the National Council for Economic Affairs and Labour (CNEL).

LuxembourgDatabase from the CEPS/INSTEAD and Statec on collective agreements (under construction)/ Law.

Malta Figure from the Collective agreement for employees in the public service 2011–2016.

Netherlands – Sample of collective agreements, taken from the annual report on collective agreements.

PortugalAs set by law 68/2013.

Romania – Labour Code and the Collective Agreement of District 1 Mayor’s Office.

Slovakia Multi-employer collective agreements for civil service for 2014.

Slovenia – As set by the Collective Agreement for the Public Sector (Kolektivna pogodba za

javni sektor, 2013).

Spain – Provisional data provided by the Ministry of Labour, on the assumption of a six-day week and 274 working days.

Sweden Source: Statistics Sweden, Labour Market Survey (SCB). NACE 84 and 99.

UK – The figure is from IDS and refers to mean total paid hours in ‘central government’. (IDS changed its sectoral classifications from 2012 to 2013.)

 

Annex 7

Back to Figure 12

Figure 12: Statutory minimum annual paid leave (in days), 2013

The data in Figure 12 should be read in conjunction with the following notes.

Austria – Paid leave act (UrlG); 30 calendar days (including five Saturdays).

Belgium – The figure refers to the private sector; the minimum statutory entitlement in the public sector is 24 days.

Bulgaria – Higher statutory entitlements apply to groups such as: young workers (under 18 years old); workers with reduced work capacity, who get 26 paid leave days; and workers in hazardous work or working irregular hours, with 25 paid leave days.

Croatia – Expressed as four weeks, that is, 20 working days for workers working a five-day week and 24 working days for workers on a six-day week; Labour Act, articles 55 and 56.

Cyprus – 25 days for those working a six-day week.

Czech Republic – Expressed as four weeks.

Demark – Holiday Act, which contains provisions implementing parts of the Council Directive 93/104/EC of 23 November 1993 concerning working time organisation.

Estonia – Source: Employment Contracts act.

Finland – Source: Working Hours Act (605/1996); amended by several acts including No.164/2005.

France – Expressed as 30 working days for full-time workers, including Saturdays.

Germany – Expressed as 24 working days or four weeks (that is, Monday to Saturday).

Greece – 24 working days for those working a six-day week; entitlement increases after one year’s service.

Hungary – According to the Labour Code, minimum of 20 days complemented by additional days according to age and number of dependent children.

Ireland – Expressed as 20 working days in the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997.

Italy – Expressed as four weeks plus five compensation days (in relation to Law 54 of 1977).

Latvia – Expressed as four calendar weeks.

Lithuania – Expressed as 28 calendar days; certain groups, such as lone parents and people with disabilities, have an entitlement of 35 calendar days.

Malta – Expressed as 24 working days.

Netherlands – Expressed as four times the number of weekly working days or hours.

Norway – 21 days, in Annual Holiday Act.

Poland – Entitlement increases from 20 to 26 days after 10 years of employment.

Portugal – up to 25 days in case of low absenteeism.

Slovakia – Expressed as 20 working days or four weeks.

Slovenia – Source: Employment Relationship Act.

Spain Expressed as 30 calendar days.

Sweden – Expressed as 25 working days in Annual Leave Act.

UK – Since April 2009, the statutory entitlement has included eight public holidays.

 

EF/15/39

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