EurWORK European Observatory of Working Life

Final Questionnaire for EWCO CAR on Use of Alcohol/Drugs at the Workplace

PDF version Printer-friendly version
  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 07 May 2012



About
Country:
Finland
Author:
Merja Perkiö-Mäkelä, Markku Sainio , Leena Hirvonen and Pirjo Lillsunde
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

There is 0 tolerance concerning alcohol and drug use at workplaces in Finland. Decision in principle of Council of State concerning alcohol policy, states that the fundamental objective of Finnish alcohol policy is to reduce alcohol-related harm. Labour market organization gave Guidelines for prevention of drug abuse at workplace in 2006. The aim is drug free workplace by improving and clarifying the process and treatment of drug use in workplaces. Workplaces should more actively exploit their opportunities to prevent alcohol-related harm and risky drinking. Without preventive actions, excessive drinking threatens work-related well-being, occupational safety, and the productivity of labour; moreover, it may lead to harmful use.

QUESTIONNAIRE

Block 1: Main sources of information dealing with the issue of alcohol/drug use at the workplace at national level and its relation with working conditions, etc.

1.1 Are there national statistical sources (surveys, administrative registers including company reports as surveys / reports from the Labour Inspectorate, Labour doctors, etc) that provide information on the issue of alcohol/drug use at the workplace in your country? If so, identify them and explain their characteristics and methodology. Please refer both to general population health surveys/sources or general alcohol/drug use surveys/sources as to working conditions or workplace specific surveys/sources

  • Name of the statistical source

  • Scope

  • Goals

  • Methodology

  • Periodicity

There is no national statistical sources about alcohol/drug use at the workplace, but information about alcohol/drug use in general is available.

The Yearbook of Alcohol and Drug Statistics 2010 offers key statistical information on alcohol and drugs and an overview of alcohol and drug trends in Finland. The Yearbook of Alcohol and Drug Statistics is compiled by the National Institute for Health and Welfare in co-operation with the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health Valvira. (http://www.thl.fi/thl-client/pdfs/85338d3b-c126-4914-9384-d5847d59d598)

The Finnish national Work and Health survey (www.ttl.fi/tyojaterveys) serves as a national surveillance system on perceived working conditions (physical, chemical, ergonomic and psychosocial) and the health of the working-age population. It has been conducted every three years by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health since 1997. The data has been collected through computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). In 2009 the sample size was 2355 currently working Finns aged 25-64. The survey describes also the alcohol use of currently working population in different occupations and sectors since 1997. The questionnaire included three alcohol consumption questions AUDIT-C questions (Bush et al. 1998): 1) How often do you drink alcohol?; 2) When you have a drink, how many units do you usually have per day? and 3) How often do you drink at least 6 units at a time? (Perkiö-Mäkelä ym. 2010).

1.2. Are there any other sources of information (published after mid-2000s) that may provide valuable information on the issue (i.e. ad-hoc studies, sectoral studies, administrative reports, articles, published case studies, etc). If so, identify and describe them.

Kivistö M, Jurvansuu H, Hirvonen L. Alcohol and the workplace – need for actions to prevent alcohol-related harm at the workplace 2010. People and Work Research Reports 38. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health 2010. (In Finnish with English summary)

This study examines the need for prevention and the present actions being undertaken to prevent the harmful effects of excessive alcohol use in eight Finnish organizations and their OHS (Occupational Health Services).

The report is available in http://www.ttl.fi/fi/tyo_ja_ihminen/Documents/tr38_alkoholi_ja_tyopaikka_www2.pdf

Forsell M, Virtanen A, Jääskeläinen M, Alho H, Partanen A. Drug situation in Finland 2010. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addition and National Institute for Health and Welfare, report 39/2010. Helsinki, Finland 2010.

One of the national annual reports compiled by the National Focal Points in the European Information Network on Drugs and Drug Addiction (REITOX) which is co-ordinated

by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

The report is available in

http://www.thl.fi/thl-client/pdfs/7445c896-5bc1-4bbc-b9e3-f41be4fa94e5

Little is known about the U-shaped relation between alcohol intake and health beyond findings related to cardiovascular disease. Medically certified sickness absence is a health indicator in which coronary heart disease is only a minor factor. To investigate the relation between alcohol intake and sickness absence, records regarding medically certified sick leaves from all causes were assessed for 4 years (1997–2000) in a cohort of 1,490 male and 4,952 female municipal employees in Finland. For both men and women, a significant curvilinear trend was found between level of average weekly alcohol consumption and sickness absence. The rates of medically certified sickness absence were 1.2-fold higher (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.3) for never, former, and heavy drinkers compared with light drinkers. The U-shaped relation between alcohol intake and health is not likely to be explained by confounding due to psychosocial differences or inclusion of former drinkers in the nondrinkers category. Moderate alcohol consumption also may reduce health problems other than cardiovascular disease. (Vahtera et al 2002)

Block 2: Information on the extent of the use of alcohol and drugs at the workplace in your country, as well as the type of situations (sectors, occupations, working conditions, etc.) in which this use occurs, its consequences (production process, social relations at work) and the rationale behind it

2.1. Please provide the available data and information on the prevalence of drug/alcohol use at the workplace in your country, if possible differentiating data by:

  • Type of substance

  • Sectors => specific focus on the construction and transport sectors

  • Occupational profiles

  • Other relevant variables

There is 0 tolerance concerning alcohol and drug use at workplaces in Finland and we don't have the information about users at workplace.

According The Finnish national Work and Health survey 2009 (www.ttl.fi/tyojaterveys) 40% of currently working men and 18% of currently working women are risk users (AUDIT-C limit for men 6-12 points and for women 5-12 points) . Most often risk use was found among male manual workers (46%) and among male workers in construction industry (48%). One in six (16 %) craft and related trades workers and plant and machine operator and assemblers used alcohol at least six drinks at a time at least once a week (Perkiö-Mäkelä et al 2010). This is not the prevalence of alcohol use at the workplace, because we do not have that information from Finland.

In project Alert behind the Wheel with Health Nutrition (http://www.ttl.fi/en/research/research_projects/alert_behind_the_wheel/Pages/default.aspx) was found out that 16 % of professional drivers drink at least six drinks of alcohol at a time at least once a week in 2011 and 18 % in 2009. In 2009 every second professional drivers got at least five points in AUDIT-C. ). This is not the prevalence of alcohol use at the workplace, because we do not have that information from Finland.

According to the study results from 2008, the percentage of the population aged 15 to 69 who had at some point in their lives tried cannabis was 13%; 3% of the population had used cannabis within the previous 12 months. According to the population study results from 2006, 2% of the population had tried amphetamines at some point in their lives, and 0.6% had tried opiates Latest estimates suggest that there were between 14,500 and 19,100 problem drug users in 2005, representing 0.5% to 0.7% of the Finnish population aged 15 to 54. Nearly four fifths of problem drug users used amphetamines. The percentage of men was 80%, the majority of problem drug users being in the age group 25 to 34. As a rule, problem drug users are socially extremely marginalised. In 2009, 65% of drug treatment clients were unemployed and 12% were homeless. Drugs on the Finnish market are mainly cannabis products, synthetic drugs such as amphetamines and ecstasy, buprenorphine and pharmaceutical benzodiazepines. The supply of heroin is scarce. New modified intoxicants such as MDPV have appeared on the drug market alongside the traditional substances. (Forsell et al 2010). This is not the prevalence of drug use at the workplace, because we do not have that information from Finland.

In 2009, the total consumption of alcoholic beverages was down about 2 per cent on the previous year, being 10.2 litres of pure alcohol per capita (10.4 litres in 2008). In 2008 90 per cent of the adult population reported that they use alcohol. Of the people who use alcohol, heavy consumers are estimated to range between 300 000 and 600 000 of a total population of 4.3 million Finns aged 15+. In the 2000s, there has been an increase in both the number of heavy consumers and the amount of alcohol they consume. The growth in alcohol consumption in the 2000s is linked to the increasing number of alcohol-related diseases and alcohol-related deaths. In 2009, altogether 24 843 alcohol-related periods of care were recorded in hospital and health centre wards. The decrease on the previous year was some 1300 periods of care, or 5 per cent. The number of alcohol-related periods of care has fallen to about the level it was at in the early 2000s. In 2009, alcohol-related diseases and poisonings were still the most common cause of death among women and men of working age. In 2009, a total of 2954 persons died in Finland as a result of alcohol use. (Yearbook of Alcohol and Drug Statistics 2010)

2.2. Please provide data and information on the rationale and consequences of drug/alcohol use at work. Focus on construction, transport:

Reasons for consuming alcohol/drugs

  • Use of drugs related to certain working conditions (e.g. alcohol when working in cold / warm environments; stimulants when working at high rhythm, etc…)

  • Accessibility/availability

No information about this.

Consequences of consuming alcohol/drugs

  • working conditions affected by drug use (risk increase, accidents, absenteeism, sick leave…):

  • Accidents and fatalities due to alcohol/drug use

  • Sick leaves attributed to alcohol/drugs, absenteeism

In project Alcohol and the workplace – need for actions to prevent alcohol-related harm at the workplace 2010, 2% said that they have been on sick leave because of alcohol use during last 12 months (Kivistö et al 2010). http://www.ttl.fi/fi/tyo_ja_ihminen/Documents/tr38_alkoholi_ja_tyopaikka_www2.pdf

  • Assessment of costs

  • Use of alcohol/drugs negatively affecting other working conditions:

  • Uneven workload distribution…

  • Work organisation

  • working environment (deteriorated social relations at work, higher number of conflicts…)

Every third had noticed negative consequence because of alcohol use: quality of work decreased, work was to late or stopped, collaboration decrease, human relations decreased and accidents increased (Kivistö et al 2010). http://www.ttl.fi/fi/tyo_ja_ihminen/Documents/tr38_alkoholi_ja_tyopaikka_www2.pdf

Block 3: Identify legislation and agreements at national level concerning alcohol/drugs use at the workplace, specifically those related to testing practices

3.1. Please identify and describe the main existing legislation and agreements concerning the prohibition/limitation of alcohol/drug use at work:

  • Is there any legislation or agreement specifically intended to prohibit or limit alcohol/drug use at work? Please describe:

  • Type of legislation / agreement (Government or parliament laws, agreements from social dialogue, from the Governments and social partners, from other organisations, etc.)

  • Contents, stipulations

  • Collectives affected

  • Is there any sectoral legislation or agreement with the same purpose? Please focus on the construction and transport sectors

Decision in principle of Council of State concerning alcohol policy (http://pre20090115.stm.fi/is1208414751740/passthru.pdf)

The fundamental objective of Finnish alcohol policy is to reduce alcohol-related harm. According to the Government Resolution, the key objectives of alcohol policy are to reduce alcohol induced harm to the wellbeing of children and families, to reduce the hazardous use of alcoholic beverages and related problems, and to invert the trend in the overall consumption of alcoholic beverages.

Guidelines for prevention of drug abuse at workplace, Labour market organization 2006.

The aim is drug free workplace by improving and clarifying the process and treatment of drug use in workplaces. (http://www.tyoturva.fi/files/378/suositus_paihdeasioiden_kasittelysta.pdf)

3.2. Specific focus on legislation / agreements regarding testing practices intended to control the use of alcohol/drugs at work. Please consider questions such us:

  • how are the tests regulated (agreements / legislation or are there guidelines)?

The legislation was prepared in tripartite negotiations with representation of government, central labour organisations and employees:

  1. Act on the Protection of Privacy in Working Life 759/2004

The Act permits workplace drug testing, paid for by the employer, for successful job applicants, or current employees. This is in certain defined circumstances, where intoxication or addiction may endanger life, health, national or traffic safety, security of information in the public interest, or business or professional confidentiality.

http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2004/20040759

  1. Occupational Health Care Act 1383/2001

The Occupational Health Care Act requires that the need for a test is assessed by a health care professional, not by the employer. Only a general conclusion on the health of an employee (fit, fit with restrictions, or not fit) can be given to the employer. The employer is also obliged to prepare a written comprehensive prevention programme on alcohol and drugs policy in the enterprise in cooperation with the workers.

http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/2001/en20011383

  1. The decision of the Council of State enlists the substances defined as drugs (Valtioneuvoston asetus huumausaineina pidettävistä aineista, valmisteista ja kasveista 28.8.2008/543) controlled by the Narcotics Act http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2008/en20080373.pdf

  2. The decision of the Council of State describes the conditions for drug testing (Valtioneuvoston asetus huumausainetestien tekemisestä 7.4.2005/218)

Ministry of Social affairs and Health provides a quideline for the entire procedure of Drug testing in worklife (Huumausainetestaus työelämässä 2006, http://pre20090115.stm.fi/is1144401025525/passthru.pdf).

  • what type/forms of tests – testing methods and for what type of substances?

The testing laboratory and the used methods have to be accreditated. Testing is done in two levels: 1) Preliminary testing: different kind of accreditated testing methods can be used e.g. immunological, chromatographic. 2) Confirmation of positive test results with a chromatographic - mass spectrometric method.

Analyses can be done from different kinds of samples but mainly from urine and blood. Urine is the golden standard for the detection and differential diagnosis of drug use. Blood samples are mainly used for the detection of acute intoxication.

It's allowed to test an exhaustive range of alcohols and of drugs listed in the decision of the Council of State. In practice, due to economical reasons, only the most prevalent substances are tested.

  • who can ask for tests, on who's initiative are tests initiated? for what purpose/reasons?

  1. Employers can require and handle drug test certificates based on the Act on the Protection of Privacy in Working Life. Testing is done to reveal whether the employee has used drugs for non-medicinal purposes when entering or during work with the requirement for no drug abuse.

  1. The occupational health service (OHS) requires and handles drug test results based on Occupational Health Care Act. Drug tests can be taken if the examination is necessary for investigating the employee’s health, working or functional capacity for the purposes of the health requirements associated with the job. Drug testing shall be laid down separately to the occupational health care action plan and action programme on substance abuse prevention (760/2004).

  • is the consent of the person to be tested needed?

Yes, always. The employee must know in detail for what reason and for what substances she/he is tested.

However, an employee may not without good cause refuse to attend a medical examination referred to in the Occupational Health Care Act.

  • is pre-employment testing (before work contract signing) allowed? can tests be included as a clause in work contracts?

It is only allowed to test the employee(s) chosen for the predetermined job with specific grounds to possess risks to the employer by drug abuse. There can be a clause in the work contract to require drug testing.

  • by whom are the tests undertaken? are tests limited to safety sensitive positions or specific sectors (transport, etc.) or are they overall?

The work tasks intended for drug testing shall require precision, reliability, independent judgement or quick reactions and if performing the work while under the influence of drugs or while addicted to drugs could endanger employer's interests (more detailed description in Act on the Protection of Privacy in Working Life). This is a wider interpretation than the traditional safety sensitive work.

  • when, at what moment can tests be undertaken?

'Employer initiated' tests can be taken at the recruiting stage when he/she has been chosen for the predetermined job. The employer can also require the employee to present a drug test certificate during his/her employment relationship in the predetermined job if the employer has justifiable cause to suspect that the employee is under the influence of drugs at work or that the employee has a drug addiction and if testing is essential to establish the employee’s working or functional capacity.

OHS initiated testing can be undertaken at any stage as a part of the job applicant’s or employee’s health examination performed by the Occupational Health Care Act.

  • What are the necessary established pre-conditions for proceeding for a test?

  1. The employer must have written action programmes on alcohol and drugs which state the medical examination and drug testing performed by mutual agreement with the employee as provided in the Act on the Status and Rights of Patients (785/1992).

  2. Task specific grounds for testing and also the testing procedure have to be predetermined and discussed in a cooperation procedure as laid down in the Act on Cooperation within Undertakings (334/2007).

Employer should have a contract with parties qualified to perform work place drug testing.

  • what are the conditions/rules/procedure under which tests can be undertaken? what is the role of the labour doctor and labour inspectorate in testing?

The entire procedure is described in the guideline. The labour inspectorate can be the main actor at work place in acute intoxications. Usually, it is the OHS which carry out employee health examinations and tests, provide health care professionals, and usually also properly trained laboratory personnel and the doctors with a medical review officer qualification.

  • To whom will the results be communicated and under what reporting form/

The certificate of 'employer initiated' drug testing is given to the employee who delivers it to the employer. The certificate issued by a health care professional (MRO) and laboratory designated by the employer states that the employee has been tested for the use of a drug.

The 'OHS initiated' drug test results stay in the OHS, and the employee/employer receives a certificate written on the basis of the medical examination of an overall evaluation of the employee’s health qualifications for the job.

 

  • who has access to the results of the tests?

Testing done based on the Act on the Protection of Privacy in Working Life it is the employer, and in practice also the OHS providing the drug testing.

Testing done based on the Occupational Health Care Act, only the OHS. 

 

  • what can be the consequences of positive results on the work contractual relation?

The intention of the law is that the worker with a positive result enters a comprehensive action programme on alcohol and drugs which has been established at the work place before drug testing.

Describe changes, evolution development of regulation / agreements on testing, drawing the attention to the review in light of the improvement of the testing methods

Block 4: Identify and describe national prevention programmes to combat the use of alcohol/drugs at the workplace, especially those based on agreements and cooperation of the social partners:

  • Organisation(s) responsible for these programmes

  • Drivers and motivations. Objectives

  • Target groups (sectors, specific occupations…)

  • Content and activities developed (campaigns for alcohol/drug free workplaces, information to workers, training, professional counselling and personal assistance, reintegration programmes…)

  • Tools (seminars, brochures, toolkits, guidelines, polls, tests…)

  • Inter-relation with other (health) programmes. Participation of health professionals

  • Are the prevention programmes integrated in the general working conditions/OSH training programmes and management systems?

  • Are the prevention programmes based on joint assessment of the social partners and defined in an agreed policy for the enterprises? Role of work councils and H/S committees.

  • Performance and outcomes of the programmes

  • Changes overtime

  • Assessment of the programmes. Point of view of the social partners.

In Finnish Institute of Occupational Health is ongoing project "Implement Alcohol Harms Management on Workplace and Occupational Health Services (OHS)" (AHA-model) (2011-2013). The target of this project is to implement actions to prevent alcohol related harms on workplaces and occupational health units/services. Method includes questionnaire relating alcohol harms on workplace, workplace alcohol policy guide, A-Step -tool and workplace alcohol abuse prevention education programmes directed to manager, substance abuse prevention work group and OH professionals. This project is associated with research which estimates success of implementation. The report plan is available in http://www.ttl.fi/fi/tutkimus/hankkeet/alkoholihaitat_hallintaan/Sivut/default.aspx

The study Alcohol and the workplace – need for actions to prevent alcohol-related harm at the workplace (http://www.ttl.fi/fi/tyo_ja_ihminen/Documents/tr38_alkoholi_ja_tyopaikka_www2.pdf) examined the need for prevention and the present actions being undertaken to prevent the harmful effects of excessive alcohol use in eight Finnish organizations and their OHS (Occupational Health Services). The data were collected from eight organizations (three university faculties, two tax offices, two stevedoring companies, two chains of hotels) (N=2024, 61% women, 39% men, mean age 42.6) and their OHS (N = 60) in 2007. Both response rates were 47%. As areas needing preventive actions we examined risky drinking, alcohol-related harm, and organizational attitudes towards alcohol which in some cases may even encourage overuse. We also examined the quality and quantity of preventive actions, including the collaboration of personnel and their OHS, and the existing alcohol policy documents. The results are reported according to age, gender, organization, and drinking habits. The need for preventive work was considerable at both the workplaces and their OHS, but the actions mainly focused on acute problems. A quarter of the respondents proved to be risky drinkers. Half had noticed alcohol-related harm, and a third had recognized the negative consequences of alcohol. The exact alcohol policy documents were still missing. Psychosocial support, information, and co-operation in alcohol-related issues were found to support the preventive work most of all. Drinking was brought up in OHS, but advisory material was poorly shared. Practices for preventing alcohol-related harm were not in place, and co-operation between the workplace and OHS was far from effective. This study highlights new knowledge regarding a previously unexplored research theme in Finland – “alcohol and the workplace”, and thus helps support workplaces and OHS.

In Finland alcohol consumption and its consequences are growing. The recent decrease in 2004 especially in spirit taxation, and the decrease of import regulations increased the rate of this growth. Between the years 1999 - 2005 for example the number of deaths due to alcoholic liver cirrhosis has doubled. The weakening of the possibilities for strong policy actions was challenging to other preventive policy measures and it has led to decisions on alcohol policy. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health was charged with the preparation and implementation of a comprehensive alcohol programme for the years 2004-2007. The Alcohol Programme is about to continue during the new four-year governmental period starting in 2007. Also, there is now legislation to add warnings of alcohol-related health risks on labels.

National Occupational Brief Intervention Project 2004-2007 which aim was to implement alcohol intervention in Occupational Health Care. Evaluation of the Finnish case. (http://www.gencat.cat/salut/phepa/units/phepa/pdf/_finland_country.pdf)

During the past government period (2007-2011), there was a rather strong political support to implement brief intervention in primary health care in Finland. The basis for the Finnish implementation strategy lay in Clinical Guidelines, two implementation projects (National Brief Intervention Project VAMP (Valtakunnallinen Mini-interventioProjekti) and National Occupational Brief Intervention Project). These two projects were supplemented by a nationwide training programme organized by the Society for Municipal Physicians. All the three projects were funded by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. Clinical Guidelines all by the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim were used with the PHEPA ( The Primary Health Health Care European Project on Alcohol, www.phepa.net).

The government-based funding for the VAMP, the biggest of the projects, was 2,4 million €. Additionally, the project had a national co-ordinator for the nationwide project. Altogether, 46 regions’ primary health care covering about a quarter of the Finnish population participated to this 4-year project. There have been 14 regional co-ordinators, nurse-GP couples, in doing the implementation. The specific features of the project have been education and training of professionals, flexibility, focus on early identification and brief intervention; not on treating alcoholics, communication with leaders, general public and with media. The project has also organised big educational sessions for a wider range of professionals and educated trainers for other projects. In collaboration with the Alcohol Programme, VAMP has produced the material needed for implementation: This material is based on WHO Phase I and PHEPA materials: Clinical Guidelines on Identification and Brief intervention, Alcohol and Primary Health Care. Training programme and Brief Interventions, AUDIT and tailored for national needs. The end-point measurements of the VAMP project are on-going. The preliminary results show that the number of those doing brief intervention permanently in Finland has doubled and the number of those who do it not permanently but ‘sometimes’ has increased with 10%. This can be considered a good result in circumstances where the lack of professionals in primary health care is big. Brief intervention is widely considered important among health care leaders and its further implementation is included in the new government programme. This means that targeted funding to increase and maintain brief intervention in health care will be guaranteed. However, to reach wide implementation several years of work and collaboration are still needed, as are changes in legislation related to adding preventive actions in patient documents.^

During this parliamentary term 2007-2011 alcohol consumption has decreased for two successive years. In 2009, absolute alcohol consumption per capita was 10.2 litres. The number of alcohol-related diseases treated through health care services fell to the same level as in the early 2000s. There was an approximately 10% decrease in drink-driving crimes and the number of alcohol-related accidents leading to death declined by over a fifth (23%). There remains a clear gender division in alcohol-related harm; 45–65-year-old men suffer most from alcohol-related diseases.

(http://www.vnk.fi/julkaisut/julkaisusarja/julkaisu/fi.jsp?oid=331371)

Co-ordinated by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, the Alcohol Programme 2004 to 2007 aimed to prevent and reduce alcohol harms. In accordance with the Government Programme, the Government decided to continue implementing the Alcohol Programme. The National Institute for Health and Welfare is co-ordinating implementation of the Alcohol Programme 2008-2011. The Alcohol Programme is based on the joint efforts of the state, municipalities and various associations and organisations (e.g. logal- , civic- and professional organisations, workplaces, and economic life, church). The programme consists of effective interventions forming an integral whole. The goals of the programme can be attained through regional and sub-regional co-operation rather than by solitary efforts.

(http://www.thl.fi/en_US/web/en/research/programmes/alcohol_programme)

Commentary by the NC

NCs are requested to provide a very brief commentary on main obtained results

There is 0 tolerance concerning alcohol and drug use at workplaces in Finland. Decision in principle of Council of State concerning alcohol policy states, that the fundamental objective of Finnish alcohol policy is to reduce alcohol-related harm. Labour market organization gave Guidelines for prevention of drug abuse at workplace in 2006. The aim is drug free workplace by improving and clarifying the process and treatment of drug use in workplaces. Workplaces should more actively exploit their opportunities to prevent alcohol-related harm and risky drinking. Without preventive actions, excessive drinking threatens work-related well-being, occupational safety, and the productivity of labour; moreover, it may lead to harmful use.

Merja Perkiö-Mäkelä, Markku Sainio, Leena Hirvonen ,Finnish Insitute of Occupational Health, Pirjo Lillsunde, National Institute for Health and Welfare

REFERENCES

  • Bush, K., Kivlahan, D.R., McDonell, M.B., Fihn, S.D., Bradley, K.A. The AUDIT alkohol consumption questions (AUDIT_C): An effective brief screening test for proclem drinking (1998). Arch Intern Med, 158 (16): 1789-1795.

  • Drug use testing at workplaces in Finland. Helsinki 2006. 54pp.

  • Publications of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, ISSN 1236-2050; 2006:2)

  • ISBN 952-00-1981-2 (print) ISBN 952-00-1982-0 (PDF)

  • Forsell M, Virtanen A, Jääskeläinen M, Alho H, Partanen A. Drug situation in Finland 2010. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addition and National Institute for Health and Welfare, report 39/2010. Helsinki, Finland 2010.

  • Kivistö M, Jurvansuu H, Hirvonen L. Alcohol and the workplace – need for actions to prevent alcohol-related harm at the workplace 2010. People and Work Research Reports 38. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health 2010. (In Finnish with English summary)

  • Perkiö-Mäkelä, M., Hirvonen, M., Elo, A.L., Kandolin, I., Kauppinen, K., Kauppinen, T., Ketola, R., Leino, T., Manninen, P., Miettinen, S., Reijula, K., Salminen, S., Toivanen, M., Tuomivaara, S., Vartia, M., Venäläinen, S. & Viluksela, M. 2010. Work and Health Survey 2009. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health [network document]. Available http://www.ttl.fi/tyojaterveys (in Finnish).

  • Vahtera J, Poikolainen K, Kivimäki M, Ala-Mursula L and Pentti J. Alcohol Intake and Sickness Absence: A Curvilinear Relation. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:969-976.

  • Yearbook of Alcohol and Drug Statistics 2010 National Institute for Health and Welfare. Official statistics of Finland. Social protection.

Useful? Interesting? Tell us what you think. Hide comments

Add new comment

Click to share this page to Facebook securely

Click to share this page to Twitter securely

Click to share this page to Google+ securely

Click to share this page to LinkedIn securely