EurWORK European Observatory of Working Life

Final Questionnaire for EWCO CAR on Use of Alcohol/Drugs at the Workplace

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  • Observatory: EurWORK
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  • Published on: 03 May 2012



About
Country:
Slovakia
Author:
Miroslava Kordosova
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

Use of alcohol, drugs and smoking in workplaces, and not only there, has been a widely discussed topic in the Slovak Republic. The statistics of accidents and deaths related to alcohol and drug use in public places and work places show that it is a problem that has to be addressed. The inspections of supervisory bodies in the field of work protection and public health protection often detect violation of regulations both by employees, as well as by employers. Preventive measures taken by governmental and nongovernmental bodies, campaigns and national programmes to promote and protect public health and health of employees are an appropriate tool to reduce these figures.

QUESTIONNAIRE

Block 1: Main sources of information dealing with the issue of alcohol/drug use at the workplace at national level and its relation with working conditions, etc.

1.1 Are there national statistical sources (surveys, administrative registers including company reports as surveys / reports from the Labour Inspectorate, Labour doctors, etc) that provide information on the issue of alcohol/drug use at the workplace in your country? If so, identify them and explain their characteristics and methodology. Please refer both to general population health surveys/sources or general alcohol/drug use surveys/sources as to working conditions or workplace specific surveys/sources

  • Name of the statistical source

  • Scope

  • Goals

  • Methodology

  • Periodicity

  1. The national statistical resource dealing with consumption of alcohol and drugs in workplace is the statistical system of the National Labour Inspectorate: Information System of Labour Protection (ISOP). The data and statistics from the supervisory activity of the NLI are collected in ISOP, e.g. statistics about accidents, statistics about infringement, statistics about checked subjects, etc. The data are processed centrally and the regional inspectorates, Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family and general public have access to it. The data are entered continuously and are processed once a year for the need of the Annual report and the Report on the status of labour protection and activities of the government bodies in the area of labour inspection. www.safework.gov.sk

  2. Statistical data of public health sector – National Health Information Center. http://www.nczisk.sk. . It keeps statistics for the needs of the healthcare sector. It provides the received and processed pieces of information in the form, scope and structure required to the Ministry of Health of SR, to the Statistical Office of SR, to the leading experts of the Ministry of Health of SR, as well as to foreign users WHO, OECD and Eurostat. It issues the publications “Drug addiction – Treatment of a drug user”, in which it publishes selected statistical information on treated drug users in the medical facilities of the Ministry of Health of SR, Ministry of Justice of SR and private health facilities.

However, it does not keep statistics on use of alcohol and drugs in workplace.

  1. Statistical Office of SR – in the sector of social and health statistics it also keeps statistics on use of drugs, but focusing on the entire population, not the workplaces. www.statistic.sk

1.2. Are there any other sources of information (published after mid-2000s) that may provide valuable information on the issue (i.e. ad-hoc studies, sectoral studies, administrative reports, articles, published case studies, etc). If so, identify and describe them.

There do not exist any resources about the issues of use of alcohol and drugs at workplace. All studies concentrate on children, youth and the whole population.

Block 2: Information on the extent of the use of alcohol and drugs at the workplace in your country, as well as the type of situations (sectors, occupations, working conditions, etc.) in which this use occurs, its consequences (production process, social relations at work) and the rationale behind it

2.1. Please provide the available data and information on the prevalence of drug/alcohol use at the workplace in your country, if possible differentiating data by:

  • Type of substance

  • Sectors => specific focus on the construction and transport sectors

  • Occupational profiles

  • Other relevant variables

  1. The data on each substances used at work are not available.

  2. Reporting and statistics, especially for drugs in the workplace are not available.

  3. Details of the professional profiles are not known.

  4. Statistics of the National Labour Inspectorate concerning alcohol in workplace :

Table 1 Fatal occupational accident- with consumption of alcohol in workplace

Alcohol detected during investigations of serious occupational accidents in promile

Fatal occupational accidents

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

In total

0,01 till 0,99 ‰

9

13

3

3

6

1

35

1,00 till1,99 ‰

3

4

5

0

1

1

14

2,00 till 2,99 ‰

4

1

1

0

1

1

8

3,00 ‰ and more

1

3

1

0

0

0

5

In total alcohol

17

21

10

3

8

3

62

0,00 ‰

64

54

63

36

37

23

277

undetected

7

21

8

5

4

2

47

In total

88

96

81

44

49

28

386

Source: National Labour Inspectorate

Note.: data for 2011 is for the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 September 2011

The number of fatal occupational accidents with consumption of alcohol in workplace is declining.

▪ Table 2 Severe damage to health with consumption of alcohol in workplace

Alcohol detected during investigations of serious occupational accidents in promile

Severe damage to health

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

In total

0,01 till 0,99 ‰

6

6

6

8

9

4

39

1,00 till1,99 ‰

1

3

1

1

0

0

6

2,00 till 2,99 ‰

1

0

3

2

1

1

8

3,00 ‰ and more

1

1

1

1

1

0

5

In total alcohol

9

10

11

12

11

5

58

0,00 ‰

93

92

110

78

105

65

543

undetected

75

105

120

57

45

23

425

In total

177

207

241

147

161

93

1 026

Source: National Labour Inspectorate

Note.: data for 2011 is for the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 September 2011

The number of severe damage to health with consumption of alcohol in workplace fatal occupational accidents with consumption of alcohol in workplace is declining.

Table 3 Sickness leave at least 42 days with consumption of alcohol in workplace

Alcohol detected during investigations of serious occupational accidents in promile

Sickness leave at least 42 days

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

In total

0,01 till 0,99 ‰

1

18

18

19

1

3

60

1,00 till1,99 ‰

1

3

4

2

1

2

13

2,00 till 2,99 ‰

1

3

3

1

0

0

8

3,00 ‰ and more

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

In total alcohol

3

25

25

22

2

5

82

0,00 ‰

261

719

1 100

1 206

1 571

996

5 853

undetected

295

1 077

1 151

725

273

172

3 693

In total

559

1 821

2 276

1 953

1 846

1 173

9 628

Source: National Labour Inspectorate

Note.: data for 2011 is for the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 September 2011

The number of Sickness leave at least 42 days with consumption of alcohol in workplace is declining.

Table 4 Alcohol in total

Alcohol detected during investigations of serious occupational accidents in promile

Alcohol in total

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

In total

0,01 till 0,99 ‰

16

37

27

30

16

8

134

1,00 till1,99 ‰

5

10

10

3

2

3

33

2,00 till 2,99 ‰

6

4

7

3

2

2

24

3,00 ‰ and more

2

5

2

1

1

0

11

In total alcohol

29

56

46

37

21

13

202

0,00 ‰

418

865

1 273

1 320

1 713

1 084

6 673

undetected

377

1 203

1 279

787

322

197

4 165

In total

824

2 124

2 598

2 144

2 056

1 294

11 040

Source: National Labour Inspectorate

Note: data for 2011 is for the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 September 2011

Use of alcohol in the workplace in the context of occupational accidents has been decreasing.

Table 5 Number of violations of § 9 para. 1 letter b/ Act No. 124/2006 Coll. as amended

NACE - A-U

Performance in :

 

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

1. till 9. 2011

In total

AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND FISHING

A

2

7

1

22

16

16

64

MINING AND QUARRYING

B

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

MANUFACTURING

C

17

30

16

21

35

20

139

ELECTRICITY, GAS, STEAM AND AIR CONDIT. SUPPLY

D

0

0

0

0

2

0

2

WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE, WASTE MANAGEMENT

E

1

0

0

2

4

2

9

CONSTRUCTION

F

13

19

19

12

24

11

98

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE; REPAIR OF MOT. VEH.

G

13

25

18

33

77

68

234

TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

H

1

10

11

2

5

0

29

ACCOMMODATION AND FOOD SERVICE ACTIVITIES

I

6

21

2

1

19

34

83

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION

J

0

2

1

1

0

1

5

FINANCIAL AND INSURANCE ACTIVITIES

K

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES

L

1

4

0

0

2

2

9

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ACTIVIT.

M

0

1

0

3

5

4

13

ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPPORT SERVICE ACTIVITIES

N

1

3

4

2

6

4

20

PUBLIC ADMINIST. AND DEFENCE; COMP. SOC. SECUR.

O

2

3

0

0

0

11

16

EDUCATION

P

0

6

7

4

3

4

24

HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIAL WORK ACTIVITIES

Q

0

5

1

0

3

0

9

ARTS, ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION

R

1

1

0

0

0

1

3

OTHER SERVICE ACTIVITIES

S

1

1

1

3

2

1

9

ACTIVITIES OF HOUSEHOLDS AS EMPLOYERS

T

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

ACTIVITIES OF EXTRATERRITORIAL ORGANISATIONS

U

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

In total  

59

138

81

106

204

179

767

Source: National Labour Inspectorate

Note.: data for 2011 is for the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 September 2011,

-§ 9 Control activities,

-there is no special distinction between alcohol, drugs and smoking

2.2. Please provide data and information on the rationale and consequences of drug/alcohol use at work. Focus on construction, transport:

Reasons for consuming alcohol/drugs

  • Use of drugs related to certain working conditions (e.g. alcohol when working in cold / warm environments; stimulants when working at high rhythm, etc…)

  • Accessibility/availability

We do not have relevant data, not doing the surveys and studies.

Consequences of consuming alcohol/drugs

Working conditions affected by drug use (risk increase, accidents, absenteeism, sick leave…):

  • Accidents and fatalities due to alcohol/drug use

  • Sick leaves attributed to alcohol/drugs, absenteeism

  • Assessment of costs

Use of alcohol/drugs negatively affecting other working conditions:

  • Uneven workload distribution…

  • Work organisation

  • working environment (deteriorated social relations at work, higher number of conflicts…)

  • The following tables show the data on accidents at work supervised by the Labor inspection, which happened under the influence of alcohol in the transport sector and in construction sector and an overview of drunk driving accidents in total for the years 2006-2011.

  • The number of fatal work injuries in the years 2006 to 2011 in transport has been decreasing. It is caused by tightening the rules of the road and more frequent inspections of Labour Inspection focusing on the use of alcohol.

  • The number of fatal work injuries in the years 2006 to 2011 in the construction industry is also declining. This is due to more frequent inspections of Labour Inspection focusing on the use of alcohol at construction sites.

Transport sector:

Table 6 Fatal occupational accidents in transport sector

Alcohol detected during investigations of serious occupational accidents in promile

Fatal occupational accidents

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

In total

0,01 till 0,99 ‰

2

0

0

0

1

0

3

1,00 till1,99 ‰

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,00 till 2,99 ‰

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

3,00 ‰ and more

1

1

0

0

0

0

2

In total alcohol

3

2

0

0

1

0

6

0,00 ‰

15

10

11

7

11

5

59

undetected

1

2

0

0

0

1

4

In total

19

14

11

7

12

6

69

Source: National Labour Inspectorate

Note: data for 2011 is for the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 September 2011

Table 7 Alcohol in total in transport sector

Alcohol detected during investigations of serious occupational accidents in promile

Alcohol in total

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

In total

0,01 till 0,99 ‰

2

2

0

0

1

1

6

1,00 till1,99 ‰

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

2,00 till 2,99 ‰

0

2

0

0

0

0

2

3,00 ‰ and more

1

1

0

0

0

0

2

In total alcohol

3

6

0

0

1

1

11

0,00 ‰

54

92

158

170

212

138

824

undetected

31

84

86

72

27

15

315

In total

88

182

244

242

240

154

1 150

Source: National Labour Inspectorate

Note: data for 2011 is for the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 September 2011

Construction sector:

Table 8 Fatal occupational accidents in the construction sector

Alcohol detected during investigations of serious occupational accidents in promile

Fatal occupational accidents

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

In total

0,01 till 0,99 ‰

2

4

1

1

1

1

10

1,00 till1,99 ‰

1

1

1

0

0

0

3

2,00 till 2,99 ‰

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

3,00 ‰ and more

0

2

0

0

0

0

2

In total alcohol

4

7

2

1

1

1

16

0,00 ‰

13

12

14

10

2

1

52

undetected

1

2

1

3

0

0

7

In total

18

21

17

14

3

2

75

Source: National Labour Inspectorate

Note: data for 2011 is for the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 September 2011

Table 9 Alcohol in total in the construction sector

Alcohol detected during investigations of serious occupational accidents in promile

Alcohol in total

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

In total

0,01 till 0,99 ‰

3

9

5

4

2

3

26

1,00 till1,99 ‰

1

3

2

0

0

0

6

2,00 till 2,99 ‰

2

2

1

2

0

0

7

3,00 ‰ and more

1

1

0

0

0

0

2

In total alcohol

3

6

0

0

1

1

11

0,00 ‰

54

92

158

170

212

138

824

undetected

31

84

86

72

27

15

315

In total

88

182

244

242

240

154

1 150

Source: National Labour Inspectorate

Note: data for 2011 is for the period from 1 January 2011 to 30 September 2011

Block 3: Identify legislation and agreements at national level concerning alcohol/drugs use at the workplace, specifically those related to testing practices

3.1 Please identify and describe the main existing legislation and agreements concerning the prohibition/limitation of alcohol/drug use at work:

Is there any legislation or agreement specifically intended to prohibit or limit alcohol/drug use at work? Please describe:

  • Type of legislation / agreement (Government or parliament laws, agreements from social dialogue, from the Governments and social partners, from other organisations, etc.)

  • Contents, stipulations

  • Collectives affected

Is there any sectoral legislation or agreement with the same purpose? Please focus on the construction and transport sectors

In Slovakia, there are several legal regulations in the field of inspection and the use of alcohol and drugs in general and in workplaces.

  1. The Act No. 219/1996 Coll. on protection against the abuse of alcoholic beverages and on the establishment and operation of detoxification centres as amended

The § 4 of this Act provides also for the specific duties of natural persons:

  • Persons engaged in an activity, during which they could endanger life, or health of themselves or other persons or damage property, are not allowed to use alcoholic drinks or other addictive substances at the time of carrying out this activity or prior to it, if during this activity they still might be under the influence of these,

  • The obligation of the employees to abstain from alcohol and narcotic substances in workplaces of their employers and during the working hours also outside these workplaces and to refrain from going to work under their influence is provided for by a separate regulation.

  1. The Act No. 257/2011 Coll. amending the Act No. 311/2001 Coll. Labour Code as amended.

In the sixth Section, Labour protection in §147 para. 2 points out to the fact that further duties of the employer in the field of OHS are provided for by a separate Act. Similarly, § 148 para. 2 states that further duties of the employees in the field of OHS are provided for by a separate Act.

  • Part Six - Labour protection - § 147Obligations of employer

(1) Within the scope of his/her capacity, an employer shall be obliged to permanently

secure the occupational health and safety, and to take the necessary measures including

securing prevention, necessary funds and appropriate system of labour protection

management. An employer shall be obliged to improve the level of labour protection in

93 all activities and to accommodate the level of labour protection to changing

circumstances.

(2) Further obligations of an employer in the area of occupational health and safety are

stipulated by a special law.(the Act No. 124/2006 Coll. on OHS )

  • Part Six – Labour protection§ 148 Employees’ rights and obligations

(1) Employees shall have the right to occupational health and safety secured, to

information on dangers arising from the working process and working environment and

on measures for protection against effects thereof. Employees shall be obliged to mind

their occupational health and safety and the health and safety of persons affected by their

activities.

(2) Further obligations of employees in the area of occupational health and safety are

stipulated by a special law..(the Act No. 124/2006 Coll. on OHS )

These provisions relate to the prevention of alcohol and drug use in the workplace.

Source: Labour Code: http://www.zbierka.sk/zz/predpisy/default.aspx?PredpisID=210439&FileName=zz2011-00341-0210439&Rocnik=2011&#xml=http://www.zbierka.sk/zz/predpisy/default.aspx?HitFile=True&FileID=351&Flags=160&IndexFile=zz2011&Text=341/2011

  1. As already mentioned above, this separate act is the Act No. 124/2006 Coll. on OHS and on amendment and supplement to certain acts as amended.

  • The § 9 states that an employer is obliged to continuously monitor and require compliance with the legal regulations and other regulations to ensure OHS and safe conduct in the workplace and safe working practices, especially (among others) to check whether the employee is not under the influence of alcohol, narcotic or psychotropic substance during the working hours and whether s/he respects the ban on smoking on the premises of the employer.

  • The § 12 lists the duties of an employee, including the obligation of the employee (among other things) to abstain from use of alcoholic beverages, narcotic substances and psychotropic substances in the workplaces and on the premises of the employer and during the working hours also outside these workplaces and premises to refrain from going to work under their influence and to undergo an examination carried out by the employer or by the relevant state authority to find out, whether the employee is or is not under the influence of alcohol, narcotic or psychotropic substances.

  • The act directly puts on the employers in all production and non-production industries, even on a natural person who is an entrepreneur and not an employer, the duty to develop working rules and regulations or internal or service regulations, which feature the ban on use of alcoholic beverages in workplaces and on the premises of the employer and during the working hours also outside these workplaces.

  1. The issue of use of alcohol and drugs in workplaces is also included in the Act No. 126/2006 Coll. on promotion and protection of public health as amended, as well as in further legislation related to public health, protection of children and youth against alcohol, legislation on traffic rules and the like.

Last, but not least it is also the Act No. 377/2004 Coll. on protection of non-smokers as amended, which prohibits, inter alia, smoking in public places and workplaces.

Sectoral legislation or contracts related to the use and inspection of drugs and alcohol at workplaces aren’t currently known. All economic sectors follow the Labour Code, the Act on OHS and the Act on promotion and protection of public health.

3.2. Specific focus on legislation / agreements regarding testing practices intended to control the use of alcohol/drugs at work. Please consider questions such us:

Testing, supervisory activities and inspection of alcohol and drug use in the workplace follow the above mentioned Act No. 124/2006 Coll. on OHS and the Act No. 125/2006 Coll. on labour inspection as amended. According to these acts, a general duty of continuous inspection in OHS is imposed upon the employer. Neither the scope, nor the content, nor periodicities of the inspections are set in general. Inspections in the particular organisations and particular workplaces are specified by the employers themselves. The duty of inspection is being met especially in the course of the daily managerial (managing and control) activity of senior executives.

The legislator doesn’t require (except for the cases when specific regulations require it) the results of inspections in a written form; however, this form of proving inspections, e.g. in the case of an occupational accident, is desirable and most conclusive from the practical perspective.

In the case of inspections on alcohol and drugs:

  • first and foremost is the daily visual inspection of all employees,

  • if suspicion arises or problems in workplaces occur in relation to alcohol or drugs, breath testing is carried out,

  • if a positive result is found, also an examination of blood or urine directly in the workplace by medical staff sent for or by sending it to a medical facility follows.

  • in the case of a labour law dispute, these results prove to be the most conclusive.

Usually, two employees as witnesses, a senior executive, a safety technician or an employees’ representative for OHS are involved in the inspection.

The periodicity of the inspections and follow-up steps are specified in more detail in the enterprise regulation – e.g. in working rules and regulations or a special directive – Directive on the inspection of use of alcoholic beverages or other narcotic substances in workplace, e.g.:

For each inspection on use of alcohol or other narcotic preparation a written record has to be prepared, which contains:

  • Name, surname and occupational category of the employee inspected,

  • Name and surname of inspecting persons,

  • Date and hour, when the inspection was carried out,

  • Result of the inspection,

  • Statement of the employee inspected,

  • Signatures – of the inspected person, the inspecting person and witnesses.

If an employee refuses to undergo an inspection, this will be considered serious violation of work discipline under the Labour Code and further steps will be taken in accordance with the labour law regulations. Every record on the inspection on ingestion of alcohol or other narcotics with a positive result has to be submitted to the senior executive. An employee with a positive finding has to immediately leave the workplace and under no circumstances may continue working. Records are filed into the personal records of the employees. In the case of a medical examination on ingestion of addictive substances or alcohol in a medical facility, an employee with a positive result is obliged to pay for all the costs incurred due to this examination to the employer.

If an employee of an employer refuses to undergo the examination carried out by the employer or labour inspector (or other persons authorized to issue instructions to inspect on ingestion of alcoholic beverages, narcotic and psychotropic substances) to find out whether the employee is or is not under the influence of alcohol, narcotic or psychotropic substances without any provable medical reasons, this refusal will be regarded as if s/he had ingested alcoholic beverages and were under the influence of narcotic or psychotropic substances. Such a behaviour is considered serious professional misconduct in the case of civil servants (indicate the employer employing under the Act No. 312/2001 Coll. on civil service and on amendments and supplements to certain acts, as amended) and serious violation of work discipline (indicate the employer employing under the Labour Code or under the Act No. 552/2003 Coll. on performance of the work in public interest).

An employee may refuse to undergo the inspection on ingestion of alcoholic beverages only in exceptional cases due to his/her health condition, e.g. his/her life and health being endangered by blood collection. However, nothing keeps an employee from undergoing a urine collection, which may be also used to detect ingestion of alcoholic beverages in a laboratory.

  • how are the tests regulated (agreements / legislation or are there guidelines)?

  • what type/forms of tests – testing methods and for what type of substances?

  • who can ask for tests, on who's initiative are tests initiated? for what purpose/reasons?

  • is the consent of the person to be tested needed?

  • is pre-employment testing (before work contract signing) allowed? can tests be included as a clause in work contracts?

  • by whom are the tests undertaken? are tests limited to safety sensitive positions or specific sectors (transport, etc.) or are they overall?

  • when, at what moment can tests be undertaken?

  • What are the necessary established pre-conditions for proceeding for a test?

  • what are the conditions/rules/procedure under which tests can be undertaken? what is the role of the labour doctor and labour inspectorate in testing?

  • To whom will the results be communicated and under what reporting form/

  • who has access to the results of the tests?

  • what can be the consequences of positive results on the work contractual relation?

Describe changes, evolution development of regulation / agreements on testing, drawing the attention to the review in light of the improvement of the testing methods

Block 4: Identify and describe national prevention programmes to combat the use of alcohol/drugs at the workplace, especially those based on agreements and cooperation of the social partners:

National preventive programmes related to the use of alcohol and drugs in Slovakia generally focus on all strata of the population of Slovakia. Interest groups of youth, children and drug addicts are at the forefront. There are no special programmes related to workplaces.

  • The National Health Promotion Programme http://www.uvzsr.sk/docs/info/podpora/narodny_program_sk.pdf – under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and the Office of Public Health of SR (going on continuously since 1991) – involves intervention, counselling and health promotion. It is implemented via health advisory centres on the regional level. The particular programmes target specific subgroups of the population, children, and adult population; however, they haven’t been specifically oriented towards working population as such. The healthcare sector neither has its own special statistics on the use of drugs and alcohol in the workplace, nor does it develop them. The clients (as well as employees) coming to health advisory centres are included into the statistics of general population.

  • The National Action Plan for Alcohol Problems http://www.cpldz.sk/storage/data/nappa.pdf – on the level of the Government of SR (since 2006). It focuses generally on the whole population. Its main principles are:

  • Changing the indifferent social attitude towards the problems related to alcohol consumption in Slovakia,

  • Changing the social attitudes towards the alcohol consumption of an individual, towards teetotalism, towards respecting the rights of an individual not to drink alcohol…

  • Improving the access to treatment for addicts.

  • The National Programme for the Fight against Drugs – under the auspices of the Government of SR (going on continuously since 1995) and the National Anti-Drug Strategy for the Period 2009-2012 http://www.infodrogy.sk/index.cfm?module=Library&page=Document&DocumentID=739 It focuses generally on the whole population. Its main principles are:

  • Reduction of drug use and of the risks and damages associated with it,

  • Improvement of interventions and procedures in accordance with the knowledge and experience gained,

  • Supply reduction with the emphasis on the development of activities aimed at prevention,

  • Detection and prevention of drug criminality, abuse of precursors, production and distribution of narcotic and psychotropic substances and cross-border drug trafficking,

  • Development of coordination and enhancement of cooperation on national and regional level and with the EU member states and relevant international organizations

Much attention is being paid to the issue of smoking, abuse of addictive substances and alcohol by public health sector; however, it does not specifically focus on professions, employments, industries. Although the topic is timely, no incentives from the employers have been registered so far.

The Centre for Treatment of Drug Dependencies (CTDD) http://www.cpldz.sk

in Bratislava is the largest, central, specialized healthcare institution in Slovakia designated for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up care provided to citizens in relation to the problems arising with the use of psychoactive substances.

Social partners, trade unions, as well as employers’ representatives have not developed any special, individual programmes or documents relating to the prevention of drug and alcohol use in workplaces. They follow the implemented principles from the national programmes.

  • Organisation(s) responsible for these programmes

  • Drivers and motivations. Objectives

  • Target groups (sectors, specific occupations…)

  • Content and activities developed (campaigns for alcohol/drug free workplaces, information to workers, training, professional counselling and personal assistance, reintegration programmes…)

  • Tools (seminars, brochures, toolkits, guidelines, polls, tests…)

  • Inter-relation with other (health) programmes. Participation of health professionals

  • Are the prevention programmes integrated in the general working conditions/OSH training programmes and management systems?

  • Are the prevention programmes based on joint assessment of the social partners and defined in an agreed policy for the enterprises? Role of work councils and H/S committees.

  • Performance and outcomes of the programmes

  • Changes overtime

  • Assessment of the programmes. Point of view of the social partners.

Commentary by the NC

Use of alcohol and drugs doesn’t belong to the workplaces. This view is not questioned (at least in theory) anymore in Slovak Republic. However, it is not possible to declare that there is no problem with alcohol in workplaces at all and that employers deal with it without any difficulties. Our legal regulations do not know a reason to tolerate or even permit the use of alcohol and drugs at workplaces during working hours. The use of alcohol and drugs at workplace is clearly a violation of work discipline. Employers are obliged to formulate clearly the ban on the use of alcohol, psychotropic and narcotic substances in the work rules or other internal regulations. Our law and order doesn’t accept any tolerated limit of use of alcohol.

Miroslava Kordosova, Institute for Labour and Family Research

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