EurWORK European Observatory of Working Life

Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Electricity sector

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  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Agreements,
  • Collective bargaining,
  • Social partners,
  • Representativeness,
  • Trade unions,
  • Industrial relations,
  • Date of Publication: 26 January 2014



About
Author:
Pablo Sanz de Miguel
Institution:

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This study provides information designed to aid sectoral social dialogue in the electricity sector. The study is divided into three parts: a summary of the sector’s economic and employment background; an analysis of the social partner organisations in all EU Member States, with emphasis on their membership, their role in collective bargaining, social dialogue and public policy, and their national and European affiliations; and finally, an analysis of the relevant European organisations, particularly their membership composition and their capacity to negotiate. The aim of the EIRO series of representativeness studies is to identify the relevant national and supranational social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in selected sectors. The impetus for these studies arises from the European Commission’s desire to recognise the representative social partner organisations to be consulted under the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

The study was compiled on the basis of individual national reports submitted by the EIRO correspondents. The text of each of these national reports is available below. The national reports were drawn up in response to a questionnaire and should be read in conjunction with it.


Objectives of the study

The aim of this representativeness study is to:

  • identify the relevant national and supranational social actors – that is, the trade unions and employer organisations – in the field of industrial relations in the electricity sector;
  • show how these actors relate to the sector’s European interest associations of labour and business.

The impetus for this study, and for similar studies in other sectors, arises from the aim of the European Commission to identify the representative social partner associations to be consulted under the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)(1.4 MB PDF). Hence, this study seeks to provide the basic information needed to set up sectoral social dialogue. The effectiveness of the European social dialogue depends on whether its participants are sufficiently representative in terms of the sector’s relevant national actors across the EU Member States. Only European associations that meet this precondition will be admitted to the European social dialogue.



Concept and methodology

To accomplish these aims, the study identifies the relevant national social partner organisations in the electricity sector, via a top-down approach (listing the members of the European affiliations) and a bottom-up approach (using national correspondents from the European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO).

This involves clarifying the unit of analysis at both national and European level of interest representation. The study includes only organisations whose membership domain is ‘sector-related’.

The study follows the conceptual and methodological approach of the EIRO series of representativeness studies.

A European association is considered a relevant sector-related interest association if:

  • it is on the Commission’s list of interest organisations to be consulted on behalf of the sector under Article 154 TFEU;
  • and/or it participates in the sector-related European social dialogue;
  • and/or it has requested to be consulted under Article 154 TFEU.

National associations are considered relevant sector-related interest associations if they meet both criteria A and B.

  • A: The association’s domain relates to the sector.
  • B: The association is: (1) either regularly involved in sector-related collective bargaining, and/or (2) affiliated to a ‘sector-related’ European association of business or labour on the Commission’s list of European social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU and/or which participates in the sector-related European social dialogue.

Sector-relatedness (criterion A) is defined in terms of the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE), to ensure the cross-national comparability of the study’s findings. More specifically, the electricity sector falls under NACE (Rev. 2) 35.1. This includes the following activities:

  • 35.1 Electric power generation, transmission and distribution;
  • 35.11 Production of electricity;
  • 35.12 Transmission of electricity;
  • 35.13 Distribution of electricity;
  • 35.14 Trade of electricity.

Organisations are considered ‘sector-related’ if their membership domain relates to the sector in one of the ways displayed in Figure 1. A more detailed description as to how this is established can be found in the methodological annex.

Figure 1: Sector-relatedness of social partner organisations: Domain patterns

Figure 1: Sector-relatedness of social partner organisations: Domain patterns

As regards criterion B.2, it must be said that taking affiliation to a European social partner organisation as sufficient to determine a national association as a social partner does not necessarily imply that the association is involved in industrial relations in its own country. Although this selection criterion may seem odd at first glance, a national association that is a member of a European social partner organisation will become involved in industrial relations matters through its membership of the European organisation. Furthermore, it is important to assess whether the national affiliates to the European social partner organisations are engaged in industrial relations in their respective countries. Affiliation to a European social partner organisation and/or involvement in national collective bargaining are of utmost importance to the European social dialogue, since they are the two constituent mechanisms that can systematically connect the national and European levels.

Data have been collected through the EIRO network, which approached the national organisations with a standard questionnaire. In order to ensure the quality of the information gathered, several verification procedures and feedback loops with the different parties involved (European and national level social partner organisations, the European Commission, Eurofound) have been applied.

The activities covered by this representativeness study are classes in group 35.1 of NACE Rev. 2. According to this definition, the organisations listed by the European Commission as social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU are:

On the employees’ side:

  • IndustriAll European Trade Union;
  • European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU).

On the employers’ side:

  • European Union of the Electricity Industry (Eurelectric).

In addition, the study considers any other sector-related European associations with sector-related national associations as defined below.



Employment and economic trends

Employment characteristics

According to a report by the European Commission in 2010 (1.23MB, PDF), the electricity sector employs more than 800,000 people in Europe. The large majority of electricity workers have employee status and full-time work is predominant. Some 78% of the workers are men, with 69% of the workforce having a low or intermediate education level. The size of enterprise varies widely between countries. While, in some countries, one or a few large companies dominate, in others, smaller companies play a more significant role.

Long-term trends

The Commission’s 2010 report and a report on industrial relations in the electricity sector by Eurofound in 2012 (404KB PDF) highlight that restructuring in the electricity sector since the second half of the 1990s has mainly been caused by the EU liberalisation of network industries. The first steps towards restructuring were taken with the 1996 Directive (96/92/EC), which came into effect in 1999. Further measures, introduced in 2003, were made into national law by 2004, with the provisions on the complete liberalisation of the market coming into force in 2007, including for domestic end-users. The most important recent European initiatives to transform the electricity sector are those included in the 2009 ‘third package’ to develop and reinforce further the internal market for electricity and gas, as well as the strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) introduced in 2001.

This legislation was explicitly aimed at benefiting customers and promoting employment in sectors heavily dependent on energy use, through lower prices generated by greater competition. At the same time, there were concerns that greater competition would lead to job losses and poorer working conditions in energy businesses. Besides, the EU commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% will require major technological change, and puts pressure on workers with regards to skill needs.

The study by ECOTEC (2007) on the impact of the opening of electricity and gas markets on employment in the EU (215KB PDF) concludes that the process of privatisation and liberalisation has had the effect of significantly reducing employment in the electricity sector. Radical shifts in employment within the electricity sector have been observed. Utilities in the EU15 (Member States before 2004) lost nearly 250,000 jobs (more than 25%) from 1995 to 2004. Around 50,000 jobs, or one-sixth of the workforce, were lost during the same period in the EU12 (Member States that joined between 2004 and 2012).

According to the ECOTEC study, the exact impact of liberalisation on these trends varies between countries and is hard to isolate, as it has not been the only factor responsible for the decline. Technological changes (such as the transition to less labour-intensive electricity generation), the growing importance of a few international market leaders, expansion abroad, and a trend of consolidation among the smaller municipal utilities have also led to drastic cuts in employment. Privatisation, commercialisation and outsourcing can be seen as consequences of liberalisation, but they may also occur regardless. Furthermore, liberalisation is in its early stages in many of the EU12 Member States, and the process is expected to have a profound impact on employment.

According to ECOTEC (2007), the impact of liberalisation on employees is diverse.

  • Job cuts have mostly targeted low-skilled personnel (maintenance, customer service and administration, low-skilled technicians). Demand has grown for highly educated and experienced technicians and legal experts.
  • The share of female workers has increased, partly as a result of emerging new occupational profiles being more attractive to female employees than traditional ‘technical’ jobs.
  • Many countries have seen large proportions of their older energy sector workforce retire early in response to corporate strategies seeking reductions in staff through early retirement.
  • Young workers and technical graduates have suffered as new employment opportunities in the sector have declined in the context of restructuring and cost cutting.

Tables 1 and 2 give a general overview of the development of the sector from 2001 to 2011. They present figures on companies, employment and employees in the sector and in relation to the national economy. Most of the data come from national sources (and are collected by national centres).

In light of the trends highlighted by Eurofound (2012), it is notable that the number of companies has increased in 17 of the 21 countries, where data was available, since 2001. This reflects the shift from vertically integrated, and often monopolistic, operators at national level to a plurality of smaller companies operating in the various sector segments – generation, transmission, distribution and marketing. In Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands, the number of companies has decreased, although the drop in the number of Dutch companies is almost insignificant (-2). In Denmark and Sweden, the decrease may be linked to an employment decrease. As for Malta, there is only one company.

Table 1: Total employers and employment in electricity sector between 2001 and 2011
 

Year

Number of companies

Total employment

Female employment

Male employment

Sectoral employment as a % of total employment

AT

2001

275

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

AT

2010

995

22,729

n.a.

n.a.

0.6

BE

2003

16

13,917

2,556

11,361

0.3

BE

2011

59

16,716

4,498

12,218

0.4

BG

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

BG

2010

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

CY

2001

1

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

CY

2011

7

2,469

n.a.

n.a.

0.6

CZ

2001

2,694

39,100

8,900

30,200

0.8

CZ

2011

5,986

37,500

7,100

30,400

0.8

DE

2001

n.a.

195,000

39,000

156,000

0.9

DE

2011

35,604

325,000

81,000

244,000

1.5

DK

2001

2,056

9,258

2,122

7,136

0.3

DK

2011

1,234

8,538

2,295

6,243

0.3

EE

2001

56 (2005)

8,600

1,300

7,300

1.5

EE

2011

92

8,200

1,600

6,600

1.3

EL

2001

n.a.

30,359

4,470

25,889

0.7

EL

2011

61

19,849

5,818

14,031

0.5

ES

2008

11,787

43,822

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

2011

15,687

48,093

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FI

2001

272

14,817

3,467

11,350

0.6

FI

2011

340

11,176

3,032

8,144

0.5

FR

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

2011

115

115,500

28,875

86,625

0.4

HU

2001

119

29,974

n.a.

n.a.

1.5

HU

2011

894

14,352

n.a.

n.a.

0.5

IT

2001

763

81,469

9,726

71,743

0.4

IT

2011

3,291

60,237

7,191

53,046

0.3

LT

2008

122

9,971

n.a.

n.a.

0.66

LT

2011

238

5,323

n.a.

n.a.

0.42

LU

2001

n.a.

1,200

n.a.

n.a.

0.4

LU

2011

n.a.

1,300

n.a.

n.a.

0.3

LV

2005

154

6,769

n.a.

n.a.

1

LV

2011

258

5,271

n.a.

n.a.

1

MT

2001

1

1,956

n.a.

n.a.

1

MT

2011

1

1,613

n.a.

n.a.

0.75

NL

2001

28

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

NL

2011

26

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PL

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PL

2011

5,247

91,305

n.a.

n.a.

0.6

PT

2000

115

16,923

n.a.

n.a.

0.6

PT

2010

166

7,488

n.a.

n.a.

0.3

RO

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

RO

2011

744

51,584

n.a.

n.a.

0.6

SE

2001

430

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SE

2011

359

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SI

2001

233

6,413

1,165

5,248

0.8

SI

2011

756

7,057

1,324

5,733

0.9

SK

2001

62

39,800

700

32,800

1.9

SK

2011

263

26,800

3,800

23,000

1.1

UK

2001

175

111,300

26,900

84,400

0.4

UK

2011

680

128,200

31,600

96,600

0.4

Note: n.a. = not available

Source: EIRO national contributions (2012), national statistics. For a detailed description of sources, please refer to the national reports.

Table 2: Total employees in the electricity sector between 2001 and 2011
 

Year

Total employees

Female employees

Male employees

Sectoral employees as a % of total employees

AT

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

AT

2010

22,398

n.a.

n.a.

0.7

BE

2003

13,917

2,556

11,361

0.4

BE

2011

16,716

4,498

12,218

0.5

BG

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

BG

2011

26,677

6,285

20392

1.3

CY

2004

2,046

n.a.

n.a.

0.8

CY

2011

2,453

n.a.

n.a.

0.7

CZ

2001

37,800

8,900

28,900

0.9

CZ

2011

35,300

7,200

28,100

0.9

DE

2001

189,665

41,530

148,135

0.7

DE

2011

202,967

50,771

152,196

0.7

DK

2001

8,700

2,020

6,680

0.3

DK

2011

7,910

2,140

5,770

0.3

EE

2001

8,600

1,300

7,300

1.6

EE

2011

8,200

1,600

6,600

1.5

EL

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

EL

2011

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

2008

32,855

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

2011

33,154

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FI

2001

14,817

3,467

11,350

0.7

FI

2011

11,174

3,032

8,142

0.5

FR

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

2011

115,500

28,875

86,625

0.4

HU

2001

28,968

n.a.

n.a.

1.1

HU

2011

14,147

n.a.

n.a.

0.5

IT

2001

80,550

9,626

70,924

0.5

IT

2011

56,634

6,768

49,866

0.3

LT

2008

9,952

n.a.

n.a.

0.74

LT

2010

7,884

n.a.

n.a.

0.66

LU

2001

1,100

n.a.

n.a.

0.4

LU

2011

1,300

n.a.

n.a.

0.4

LV

2005

6,768

n.a.

n.a.

1

LV

2011

5,251

n.a.

n.a.

1

MT

2001

1,956

n.a.

n.a.

1

MT

2011

1,613

n.a.

n.a.

0.75

NL

2001

28,000

5,000

23,000

0.4

NL

2011

35,000

9,000

26,000

0.4

PL

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PL

2011

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PT

2000

15,116

2,564

12,552

0.6

PT

2010

7,370

1,088

6,282

0.3

RO

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

RO

2011

50,915

n.a.

n.a.

1.2

SE

2001

20,545

n.a.

n.a.

0.5

SE

2011

15,908

n.a.

n.a.

0.3

SI

2001

6,397

1,163

5,234

0.9

SI

2011

7,003

1,319

5,684

1

SK

2001

37,800

7,000

30,800

2

SK

2011

25,600

3,600

22,000

1.3

UK

2001

109,100

26,000

83,100

0.4

UK

2011

121,900

31,600

90,300

0.5

Note: n.a. = not available

Source: EIRO national contributions (2012), national statistics. For a detailed description of sources, please refer to the national reports.

The data in Tables 1 and 2 show that female employment is lower than male employment in all countries with available data.

The tables also show that only 6 countries (Belgium, Germany, Spain, Luxembourg, Slovakia and the UK), out of the 18 with available information, recorded an increase in overall employment from 2001 (or the last figure available) to 2011. Data on change in employee numbers from 2001 to 2011 show the same pattern. On the other hand, Cyprus and the Netherlands, which do not provide figures on employment from 2001 to 2011, record an increase in the number of employees. None of the Member States records an increase in employment and a decrease in employees.

Data provided by national centres, in Figure 2, show the change in the share of employees in employment from 2001 to 2011. According to available data, the share of employees in employment has remained very stable in the majority of countries. The exception is Germany, where the share of employees in employment decreased from 97% to 62%. Of 16 countries with available data, 8 have recorded a decrease of employees in employment, while in 4 countries it has slightly increased. In Belgium, Estonia, Finland and Malta, the share of employees in employment has remained stable at 100%.

Figure 2: Share of employees in employment between 2001 and 2011

Figure 2: Share of employees in employment between 2001 and 2011

Source: Own elaboration according to EIRO national contributions (2013). For a detailed description of sources, please refer to national reports.

Recent developments

The small size of the electricity sector, as defined in this study, means that figures from the European Labour Force Survey (Eurostat) are not available for several countries. Accordingly, it is not possible to provide accurate figures on recent employment developments in the sector. Figures available from this source show that the crisis has not particularly affected the electricity sector. Thus, employment has remained relatively stable or has even increased slightly. If other sources, such as the European Business Statistics (Eurostat), are considered, aggregate figures for the electricity sector are available only for 2008 and 2009. According to the European Business Statistics, employment decreased from 894,200 to 885,500 from 2008 to 2009.

Figure 3 shows employment change from 2008 to 2012 (or similar years) for those countries where accurate figures are available. Of the 16 countries with available figures, 10 record an increase in employment from 2008 to 2012. The greatest increases are recorded in:

  • Austria (24%);
  • Germany (25%);
  • France (31%).

However, three countries record drops of more than 20% in employment:

  • Greece (-27%);
  • Portugal (-27%);
  • Slovakia (-27%).

Figure 3: Change in employment (%), 2008–2012

Figure 3: Change in employment (%), 2008–2012

Note: Figures from Italy and the United Kingdom are for 2011–2012.

Source: Labour Force Survey (2013)Figure 4 illustrates the share of employees in employment in the countries with available data for 2011. The figure shows that self-employment and other non-employee relationships (such as apprentices and freelancers) are only widespread in countries such as Germany and Spain, with more than 30%. In the other countries, self-employment and other non-employee relationships appear to be low.

Figure 4: Share of employees in employment, 2011

Figure 4: Share of employees in employment, 2011

Source: Own elaboration according to EIRO national contributions (2012). For a detailed description of sources, please refer to national reports.



National level of interest representation

The analysis of the national level of interest representation focuses on:

  • the membership domain and strength of the organisations;
  • their role in collective bargaining;
  • their role in public policymaking.

Membership domain and strength

The study uses the quantitative data on membership and relative strength collected through the EIRO network of correspondents from the categories listed in Table 3.

Table 3: Definitions of membership

Type of organisation

Membership

Density

Trade union

Number of active members in employment

Number of active members in employment in electricity sector

Sectoral density: Number of active members in employment in electricity sector divided by total number of employees in electricity sector.

Employer organisation

Number of member companies

Number of employees working in member companies

Number of member companies in electricity sector

Number of employees working in member companies in electricity sector

Sectoral density (companies): Number of member companies in electricity sector divided by the total number of companies in the electricity sector.

Sectoral density (employees): Number of employees working in member companies in electricity sector divided by total number of employees in electricity sector

Trade unions and employee interest representations

Tables A2 and A3 in Annex 2 present data on employee organisations’ domains and membership strength. The tables list all sector-related organisations that are either involved in collective bargaining and/or affiliated to one of the European-level organisations.

All of the countries record at least one sector-related trade union. In total, 113 sector-related trade unions that fulfil the criteria to be included in the representativeness study are identified. A pluralistic union landscape prevails in the electricity sector. Accordingly, there is a rather fragmented picture as:

  • 2 countries have only 1 sector-related union (Greece and Latvia);7 countries have 2 unions;
  • 2 countries have 3 unions;
  • 16 have 4 or more.

Only six unions (5% of all the unions) demarcate their domain in a way that is congruent with the sector definition. This fact implies that statistical definitions of business activities of the sector differ from the lines along which employees identify their interests.

Domain demarcations resulting in overlap (41%) and sectional overlap (44%) are the dominant sector-related domain patterns in the electricity sector. Overlap is explained by two main different modes of demarcation. The first one refers to general or cross-sectoral domains (CSC-CNE in Belgium; Ver.di in Germany; GCT in Spain; GWU and UHM in Malta; FETESE in Portugal; and GMB and Unite in the UK). The second, and more frequent, mode in the sector relates to various forms of multi-sector domains, covering other sectors apart from electricity such as:

  • different energy sectors (ABVV-ACOD Gazelco/FGTB CGSP Gazelco in Belgium; CISAL FederEnergia in Italy; FNME-CGT, FNEM-FO and CFTC-CMTE in France; GENOP/DEI- KHE) in Greece; and ASOSI in Portugal);
  • chemical plus other sectors such as mining, textiles and clothing, or pharmaceuticals (OS ECHO in the Czech Republic; IG BCE in Germany; LPPSF in Lithuania; FITAG-UGT, FI-CCOO and FI-USO in Spain; LCGB Industrie in Luxembourg; FCE-CFDT in France; and Filctem-Cgil, UGL Federazione Chimici Sindacto Energia and Uiltec-Uil in Italy);
  • other activities developed within electricity companies such as repair, construction and cleaning (EEAÜL in Estonia and ZZZE in Poland);
  • different activities in the public sector (Jyty in Finland and Unison in the UK);
  • metal and paper sectors (KTN in Finland);
  • telecommunications, sport and real estate sectors (Syndicat Services et Energie, OGBL in Luxembourg).

Domain demarcations resulting in sectional overlap in relation to the sector occur in 44% of the cases. This circumstance usually arises from domain demarcations that focus on certain categories of employees, which are then organised across several or all sectors. Employee categories are specified by various parameters. These can be:

  • distinct occupations, such as managers, engineers or technicians (TL in Denmark; CFE-CGC Energies in France; Ledarna and Sveriges Ingenjörer in Sweden; YTN in Finland; and Prospect in UK), electricians (Sähköliitto in Finland and SEF in Sweden) or crafts (TEEU in Ireland)
  • employment status, such as white-collar workers (GPA-djp in Austria; Civilekonomerna and Unionen in Sweden; Pro and SKL in Finland; OS UNIOS in the Czech Republic; and HK/Privat in Denmark), blue-collar workers (PRO-GE in Austria; JHL in Finland; and Kommunal and SEKO in Sweden), workers from or public or semi-public companies (CSC Services Publics and VSOA-SLFP in Belgium, and Vision in Sweden)
  • employment status and geographic region, such as CSC-CNE in Belgium
  • geographic region, such as ELA-HAINBAT in Spain and BDSZ in Hungary

Finally, sectionalism (10% of all the unions) usually arises from the existence of several unions which are active only in a specific company, such as:

  • EPOPAI, SEPAIK, EAC-DIDIKEK and SYVAIC in Cyprus;
  • ESBOA in Ireland;
  • EPOU and ESSU in Malta;
  • ATYPE-CC in Spain.

In other cases, it is due to the existence of unions that cover only a part of the sector (KESA in Estonia, SKE ‘Solidarność’ in Poland and ZOES in Slovakia).

The domain descriptions of all the unions are shown in Table A4 in Annex 2.

Figure 5: Electricity sector-related trade unions and their domain patterns (N = 112)

Figure 5: Electricity sector-related trade unions and their domain patterns (N = 112)

Source: Author’s own based on EIRO national contributions (2013).

As has been mentioned above, in the electricity sector most of the countries have a pluralistic union landscape. Bearing this in mind, Table A2 in Annex 2 shows the overlap of the unions’ domain. In 21 out of 25 countries that have more than one sector-related trade union, their domain overlaps with the domain of all or most of the others. However, in Austria, Denmark and Ireland, none of the unions’ domains overlaps with the domain of the others. (Bulgaria did not provide information on this.)

Inter-union competition is recorded in Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, Portugal and Sweden, which, in most cases, is over-recruiting members. In France, unions compete for members but also for their subsequent support in the workplace elections that determine which trade union has a seat on the Works Council. According to the French national report, competition is expected to increase in 2013, when a new representativeness regulation, based on the outcomes of workplace elections, will come into force.

Membership of the sector-related trade union is, in principle, voluntary in the 27 countries under consideration.

The numbers of active trade union members differs widely, ranging from more than 2,061,198 (for Ver.di in Germany) to only a few dozen (such as SYVAIK in Cyprus). This considerable variation reflects differences in the size of the economy and the comprehensiveness of the membership domain, rather than the ability to recruit members. Therefore, density is the measure of membership strength, which is more appropriate for comparative analysis. In this context, it should be noted that density figures in this section refer to net ratios, which means that they are calculated on the basis of active members (employees) only, rather than taking all union members (those in a job and those who are not) into account. This is mainly because research usually considers net union densities as more informative compared to gross densities, since the former measure tends to reflect unionisation trends among the employees more quickly and accurately than the latter (only the employees are capable of taking industrial action).When looking at sector density (again referring only to active members), it is important to differentiate between the trade unions’ sectoral density and their domain density. The domain or overall density must be higher than the sectoral density if a trade union organises a particular part of the sector – that is, where the trade union’s membership domain is sectionalist – and equal if a trade union organises the whole sector as it is defined in the study – that is, where the trade union’s membership domain is congruent. In this study, we analyse only the sectoral density.

Sectoral density rates are available for more than half of the sector-related organisations covered (60 out of 111 cases). Statistics show that:

  • sectoral density exceeds 20% in 32% (19) of the trade unions that document figures on density;
  • 25% (15) of unions claim to gather between 10% and 20% of the sector’s employees;
  • 20% (12) of the trade unions, for which data are available, claim to organise between 5% and 10% of the active employees of the sector;
  • 23% (14) of the trade unions record a sector density rate of less than 5% of employees in the sector.

Generally, low and very low sectoral densities (fewer than 10%) are recorded in countries where there is a fragmented union landscape, and the domain of the unions overlap with each other. This is the case in Spain, Poland or Romania. Besides, in other countries where there are several trade unions whose domains overlap, such as Finland or Belgium, we find unions recording relatively high sectoral densities together with unions recording low sectoral densities. In Austria, for example, none of the unions’ domains overlaps with those of any of the others. In Austria trade unions record high sectoral densities. In Greece, where there is only one sectoral union, this trade union records a sectoral density close to 100%.

Employer organisations

Tables A5 and A7 in Annex 2 present membership data for the employer organisations in the electricity sector. Sectoral employer organisations are identified in all the European Member States.

In total, 48 sector-related employer organisations are identified. However, it is worth noting that three of these organisations included in the EIRO national reports are companies rather than employer associations (EAC in Cyprus, PPC in Greece and Enemalta in Malta). Since, in these countries, these companies concentrate the highest share of the electricity sector, the national reports include them as employer associations. Moreover, these companies are involved in collective bargaining and are affiliated to the European social partner Eurelectric, (even though PPC in Greece is indirectly affiliated by means of the employer association HELAS). In the case of EAC in Cyprus and Enemalta in Malta, the companies are also consulted by the government in sector-related matters.

A less fragmented system prevails for employers. Accordingly:

  • 15 countries record only 1 employer organisation;
  • 7 countries record 2 employer organisations;
  • 2 countries record 3 employer organisations;
  • 3 countries record 4 employer organisations or more.

In seven countries (Estonia, Spain, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Portugal and the UK), none of the sectoral employer associations included in the study is party to collective bargaining (see Table A5 in Annex 2). In Germany, Denmark, Greece, Hungary Ireland, Italy, Netherlands and Poland, at least one of the employer organisations included is not involved in collective bargaining. Generally, business organisations may also deal with interests other than those related to industrial relations. Organisations specialised in matters other than industrial relations are commonly defined as ‘trade associations’ (see TN0311101S). Bearing this in mind, all the 18 organisations not involved in collective bargaining (see Table A5 in the Annex 2), either primarily or exclusively act as trade organisations in their country although, in the case of VAEU in Germany, it concludes collective agreements by means of their regional member associations. Such sector-related trade associations thus account for a significant share of the employer organisations recorded in the study (36% of all the organisations).

All these organisations, except VAEU in Germany, are members of Eurelectric. (VAEU is included in the study because it concludes collective agreements by means of their regional member associations.) In this sense, it must be stressed that, according to our selection criteria described above, all national organisations affiliated to Eurelectric, the EU-level employer association, are included in the study, irrespective of whether they are involved in collective bargaining.

With regard to the domain patterns of the employer organisations, it is observed that its domain tends to be narrower than the domain of the trade unions. Of all of the organisations for which related information is available, 42.5% have overlap and 22.5% have sectional overlap compared with 42% and 43% respectively in the case of the unions.

Cases of domain overlaps arise from the coverage of different sectors and activities beyond the electricity sector such as:

  • design and research (ČSZE in the Czech Republic);
  • gas, heating and drinking water supply (BDEW in Germany);
  • transport (VAEU in Germany);
  • hospitals and care facilities (VKA in Germany);
  • hardware production (DE in Denmark);
  • producers of electric equipment, construction and education (LEEA in Latvia);
  • coalmining (GZS in Slovenia);
  • heat-supplier companies and secondary vocational schools (ZZES in Slovakia).

However, only one employer organisation has a cross-sectoral domain (IBEC in Ireland).

Sectional overlap is usually due to domain demarcations that cover one subsector of electricity (such as production and distribution), plus another sector or activities such as transport and distribution of gas (Synergrid and FEBEG in Belgium, ENA in United Kingdom) or gas and telecommunications (Federutility in Italy). In other cases, it occurs because employer organisations that represent only some kinds of companies within the electricity sectors, such as public municipalities (VKA in Germany, KFS in Sweden) or private companies (EFA in Sweden), also cover other activities or sectors beyond the electricity sector.

Sectionalism is not very significant (12.5% of all cases with available information). It is caused by domain demarcations that exclude from their scope some specific subsectors such as:

  • trade of electricity (UNESA in Spain);
  • distribution of electricity (UNEI in Italy);
  • transmission and distribution of electricity (Assoelettrica in Italy);
  • transmission, distribution and trade of electricity (ZPEC and ZPE in Poland).

On the other hand, nine organisations, 22.5% of all the organisations with available information, (show a domain more or less congruent with the sector definition:

  • OEE in Austria;
  • NEK EAD in Bulgaria;
  • ETL in Estonia;
  • Energiateollisuus ry in Finland;
  • UFE in France;
  • EAI in Ireland;
  • NLEA in Lithuania;
  • PKEE in Poland;
  • Swedenergy in Sweden.

This means that the domain of these organisations largely focuses on the electricity sector as defined above. However, it cannot be ruled out that these organisations may also organise companies of a contiguous sector, or do not really organise the entire sector.

No sector-related employer organisations rely on obligatory membership.

Figure 6: Electricity sector-related organisations/business associations and their domain patterns (N= 40)

Figure 6: Electricity sector-related organisations/business associations and their domain patterns (N= 40)

Source: Author’s own, based on EIRO national contributions (2013).

In countries with a pluralist structure for employer organisations (Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania and Sweden), these organisations have usually managed to arrive at non-competing relationships. In the case of Ireland, there is no rivalry as only IBEC has a negotiation licence to conclude collective agreements. Something similar happens in the Netherlands, where there is no rivalry since one of the two existing organisations, Energie-Nederland, does not conclude collective agreements.

In other countries (Belgium, Denmark and the UK), the activities of these organisations are complementary as a result of inter-associational differentiation by their membership demarcation.

As far as the sectoral density of the employer organisations is concerned, it must be noted that figures, in terms of employees, are available only for 19 organisations. In terms of companies, figures are available for 30 organisations. When information is available, the sectoral domain densities of companies are, in all cases, lower than the densities in terms of employees. This may indicate a slightly higher propensity of the larger companies to associate, as compared to their smaller counterparts. Accordingly, 47% (9 out of 19) of the organisations with available data show a sectoral domain density exceeding 50% in terms of employees. However, in terms of companies, only 23% (7 out of 30) show a sectoral domain density exceeding 20%.

Collective bargaining

Tables A3 and A6 in Annex 2 list all social partners engaged in sector-related collective bargaining. With regard to the unions, 96% of all sector-related unions record participation in collective bargaining (information is available for all the cases):

  • 40% record participation in single-employer bargaining;
  • 21% show participation in multi-employer bargaining;
  • 35% show participation both in single and multi-employer bargaining.

As for employers, 62% of all the organisations for which information is available say they participate in collective bargaining (information is not available for only two employer organisations):

  • 11% participate in single-employer bargaining;
  • 40% in multi-employer bargaining;
  • 11% participate in single and multi-employer bargaining.

As has been mentioned before, this implies that sector-related trade associations account for a significant share of the employer organisations recorded in the study (36% of all the organisations).

Figure 7: Involvement of included organisations in collective bargaining

Figure 7: Involvement of included organisations in collective bargaining

Source: Author’s own, based on EIRO national contributions (2012).

The data presented in Table 4 provide an overview of the system of sector-related collective bargaining in the 27 countries under consideration. The importance of collective bargaining as a means of employment regulation is measured by calculating the total number of employees covered by collective bargaining as a proportion of the total number of employees within a certain segment of the economy (Traxler et al, 2001). Accordingly, the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is defined as the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector.

Table 4: System of sectoral collective bargaining, 2011
 

CBC (%)

(estimates)

Share of MEB (%) (estimates)

Extension

practicesa

AT

100

90

0

BE

100

100

2

BG

70

MEB prevailing

1

CY

100

SEB prevailing

0

CZ

47

n.a.

1

DE

n.a.

n.a.

0

DK

75

MEB prevailing

0

EE

n.a.

0

0

ES

n.a.

0

2

FI

100

100

2

FR

100

MEB prevailing

2

GR

80

0

1b

HU

90

MEB prevailing

1

IE

80

0

n.a.

IT

100

MEB prevailing

1

LT

80–90

SEB prevailing

0

LU

n.a.

MEB prevailing

0

LV

45

SEB prevailing

2

MT

99

0

n/a

NL

100

MEB prevailing

2

PL

n.a.

n.a.

0

PT

90–100

0

n/a

RO

70

85

0

SE

95

95

1

SI

100

MEB prevailing

0

SK

59

MEB prevailing

0

UK

54

0

0

Notes: CBC = collective bargaining coverage: employees covered as a percentage of the total number of employees in the sector; MEB = multi-employer bargaining relative to single-employer bargaining; SEB = single-employer bargaining

a= 0 = no practice, 1 = limited/exceptional, 2 = pervasive; b = extension practices abolished or limited in 2011 or 2012

n.a. = not available; n/a = not applicable

Source: Own elaboration according to EIRO national contributions (2012)

Collective bargaining coverage

In terms of the sector’s collective bargaining coverage, 15 of the 22 countries with available data record high rates of collective bargaining coverage, exceeding 80%. These countries are Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and Slovenia. Belgium, Denmark and Romania could be added to this group of countries since they record a coverage rate of around 70%.

The remaining countries with available information (the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and the UK) record a rate of collective bargaining coverage that varies between 40% and 60%.

This shows a relatively high collective bargaining coverage system among European countries in the electricity sector.

Generally, several factors which sometimes interact with each other, such as the predominance of multi-employer bargaining or the existence of pervasive extension practices, explain the highest coverage rates. However, these factors are not so determinant as in other sectors in explaining high coverage rates of collective bargaining. Accordingly, we find countries such as Greece, Ireland, Lithuania and Portugal, which record high coverage rates of collective bargaining, where single-employer bargaining prevails, and the use of extension practices is limited or non-existent.

Participation in public policy

Interest associations can influence public policy by being:

  • consulted by the authorities on matters affecting their members;
  • represented on ‘corporatist’ (in other words tripartite) committees and policy consultation boards.

This study considers only cases of consultation and corporatist participation which explicitly relate to sector-specific matters. Consultation processes can be wide-ranging and, therefore, the organisations consulted by the authorities may vary according to issues, and also depend on changes in government. Moreover, consultation may be occasional rather than regular.

Trade unions and employee interest representations

Some 78 of the 98 (80%) sector-related unions with available data are consulted. Authorities consult unions in 23 of the 27 countries where sector-related trade unions are recorded. Unions are not consulted in Greece and Estonia. Information is not available for Portugal and Luxembourg. Unions are regularly consulted in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Slovenia and the UK.

Since a multi-union system has been established in 25 of the 27 countries with sector-related trade unions, it cannot be ruled out that the authorities favour certain trade unions over others, or that the unions compete for participation rights. In some countries with a multi-union system where a noticeable practice of consultation is observed, any existing trade unions may take part in the consultation process. By contrast, in Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Italy, Malta, Sweden, Slovenia and the UK only part of the sector-related trade unions are consulted.

Employer organisations or business associations

Authorities consult 37 of the 42 (90%) employer organisations for which related data are available. Employer organisations are consulted by the government in all the countries with sector-related organisations except Hungary, where sectoral social dialogue is bipartite, and authorities are not involved. In Greece and Luxembourg, there is no information about this issue. Organisations are regularly consulted in Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Sweden and the UK. In seven of the countries with a multi-organisation system where a practice of consultation is recorded, all the existing employer organisations may take part in the consultation process. However, in Italy, Poland and Sweden, only some of the existing employer organisations take part in the consultation process.

Tripartite participation

The findings reveal that genuine sector-specific bodies have been established in 16 of the 27 countries under consideration (Table 5). Tripartite bodies have been established in Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia and the UK. The scope of activity of the tripartite bodies is focused on:

  • training, qualifications or education (Denmark, Finland, France and Italy);
  • welfare funds and social security issues (Belgium, Bulgaria and France);
  • health and safety (Bulgaria, Germany, Denmark, Italy and the UK);
  • collective bargaining (France);
  • equal opportunities issues (Italy);
  • energy policy issues (Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia).
Table 5: Tripartite and bipartite sector-specific boards of public policy, 2011
 

Body and scope of activity

Bipartite/

Tripartite

Origin

Trade unions participating

Employer organisations participating

BE

Commission for the Regulation of Electricity and Gas (Does not play a direct role in collective bargaining)

Tripartite

Statutory

n.a.

n.a.

Welfare Fund for the Gas and Electricity Sector

Bipartite

Agreement

n.a.

n.a.

BG

Sectoral Council for Tripartite Cooperation

Activities: health and safety, anti-crisis measures, sectoral legislation

Tripartite

Statutory

NSFEB, NFE, FEW-PODK

BBKE

Branch Council for Social Cooperation

Activities: branch collective bargaining, social security thresholds, Fund for Vocational Training

Bipartite

Statutory

NSFEB, NFE, FEW-PODK

BBKE

DE

Bipartite Board of the Self-governing Employers’ Liability Associations

Activities: health and safety issues

Bipartite

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

DK

Joint Council of Industry

Tripartite

Statutory

3F

DI

Education Committee for the Training of Electricians

Tripartite

Statutory

DEF

Tekniq

Education Committee of the Metal Industry

Tripartite

Statutory

3F, Dansk Metal

DI

Health and Safety Council in the Industry Sector

Tripartite

Statutory

3F, Dansk Metal, HK/Privat, DEF, NNF, TL

DI, Danish Fashion and Textile

FI

The WR of the Structure of Education and System of Degrees and Curricula in the Electricity Sector

Tripartite

Agreement

Sähköliitto,

JHL

Energiateollisuus ry

FR

Bipartite Sector Commission

In charge of the collective bargaining within the sector of gas and electricity industries

Bipartite

Statutory

FNME-CGT, FCE-CFDT, CFE-CGC Energies, CFTC-CMTE, FNEM-FO (each union has four representatives)

UFE, UNEmIG

 

Concertation and coordination meeting

The place for informal discussion between social partners without any power of negotiation

Bipartite

Agreement

FNME-CGT, FCE-CFDT, CFE-CGC Energies, CFTC-CMTE, FNEM-FO (each union has at least three representatives)

UFE, UNEmIG

 

Bipartite Observatory on Collective Bargaining

Bipartite

Agreement

FNME-CGT, FCE-CFDT, CFE-CGC Energies, CFTC-CMTE, FNEM-FO (each union has three representatives)

UFE, UNEmIG

 

National Bipartite Commission on Employment and Professional Training

Bipartite

Agreement

n.a.

UFE, UNEmIG

 

National High Commission of the Workforce

In charge of extension of collective agreements, disciplinary role, etc.

Bipartite

Statutory

FNME-CGT, FCE-CFDT, CFE-CGC Energies, CFTC-CMTE, FNEM-FO

UFE, UNEmIG

 

National Council of Energy

Tripartite

Statutory

FCE-CFDT, CGT, CGT-FO, CFE-CGC Energies

UFE, UNEmIG

EDF, RTE, GDF-Suez, Total, Association des nouveaux entrants sur le marché de l’énergie, Représentants des ELD, Regroupement d’Employeurs

 

National Pension Regime of the IEG

Bipartite

Statutory

FCE-CFDT, CGT, CGT-FO, CFE-CGC Energies

UFE, UNEmIG

HU

Sub-Sectoral Social Dialogue Committee

Bipartite, but Secretary is paid by the Ministry.

Statutory

EVDSZ, BDSZ

VTMSZ

IT

Sectoral Observatory

Bipartite

Agreement

Filctem-Cgil, Flaei-Cisl, Uiltec-Uil

Assoelettrica, Federutility and NCA signatory enterprises

 

Health and Safety

Bipartite

Agreement

Filctem-Cgil, Flaei-Cisl, Uiltec-Uil

Assoelettrica, Federutility and NCA signatory enterprises

 

Equal Opportunities

Bipartite

Agreement

Filctem-Cgil, Flaei-Cisl, Uiltec-Uil

Assoelettrica, Federutility and NCA signatory enterprises

 

Vocational Training

Bipartite

Agreement

Filctem-Cgil, Flaei-Cisl, Uiltec-Uil

Assoelettrica, Federutility and NCA signatory enterprises

LT

Energy Committee under the Tripartite Council of the Republic of Lithuania (LRTT)

Tripartite

Agreement

Lithuanian Trade Union Confederation (LPSK)

Lithuanian Confederation of Industrialists (LPK)

LV

Energetic Committee with the Council of National Economy of the Ministry of Economics

A national-level body for consultation on economic development and energy policy issues

Tripartite

Statutory

Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia, LAB Enerģija

LDDK, the Latvian Chamber of Commerce

 

National Tripartite Cooperation Council

Tripartite

Statutory

LBAS

LDDK, LTRK

MT

Public Administration Collective Bargaining Unit (PACBU) within the Ministry of Finance.

Each of the parastatal corporations or enterprises receives ad hoc instructions from the PACBU, which serve as guidelines to be followed during the collective bargaining process. The PACBU’s primary aim is to ensure that the financial side of collective agreements carried out by parastatal entities reflects government wage policy.

Tripartite

Statutory

n.a.

n.a.

PL

Team for Power Industry Sector of the Tripartite Commission for Social and Economic Affairs

Scope of activity: pay-related issues work organisation, working time, national energy policies, restructuring and consolidation of the power industry

Tripartite

Statutory

SKE ‘Solidarność’, SKEE ‘Solidarność’, ZZZE, OZZZPRC, ZZIT

ZPE (Związek Pracodawców Energetyki), ZPEC, ZPE (Związek Pracodawców Elektrowni)

RO

Commission at the level of the Ministry of the Economy

Tripartite

Statutory

All the national representative trade union confederations

All the national representative employer associations

SI

Economic and Social Committee in the energy sector (ESOE)

Monitors economic and social conditions in the sector and cooperates in the preparations of the legislation, provides recommendations and proposals for the legislative changes and initiatives for new regulations

Tripartite

Statutory

SDE

GZS-EZS

SK

Economic and Social Council (HSR)

Mainly energy policy, including the electricity, and related legislation

Tripartite

Statutory

KOZ SR represents ECHOZ and ZOES

AZZZ SR represents ZZES

UK

Energy and Utility Skills (EU Skills) (skills and training)

Tripartite

Statutory

Unite has a board member; Unison states that it is represented at EU Skills.

Individual employers (such as E.On UK and UK Power Networks) are members of board. ENA states that it is represented at EU Skills, and UK Energy states that it is an affiliate.

.

Cogent (skills and training)

Tripartite

Statutory

Prospect and Unite have board members

Individual employers (such as Magnox) are represented on the board.

National Joint Health, Safety and Environment Committee (HESAC)

Bipartite

Agreement

GMB, Prospect, Unison, Unite

ENA, Energy UK and individual employers

Source: Author’s own, based on EIRO national contributions (2013)



European level of interest representation

At European level, eligibility for consultation and participation in social dialogue are linked to three criteria defined under Article 1 of the Commission Communication COM(1998) 322 final (2.81MB PDF). Accordingly, a social partner organisation must:

  • relate to specific sectors or categories and be organised at European level;
  • consist of organisations which are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States’ social partner structures and have the capacity to negotiate agreements, and which are representative of several Member States;
  • have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the work of the Committees.

Regarding social dialogue, the constituent feature is the ability of such organisations to negotiate on behalf of their members and to conclude binding agreements. Accordingly, this section on European associations of the electricity sector will analyse:

  • these organisations’ membership domain;
  • the composition of their membership;
  • their ability to negotiate.

As outlined in greater detail below, two sector-related European employee associations, namely IndustriAll Europe and EPSU, and one employers’ association, Eurelectric, are particularly significant in the electricity sector; they are listed by the European Commission as social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU. Hence, the following analysis will concentrate on these organisations while providing supplementary information on others which are linked to the sector’s national industrial relations actors.

Membership domain

IndustriAll Europe is affiliated to the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and organises workers from the manufacture, mining and energy sectors on the European level. It represents 194 national organisations and 7,314,027 workers from 39 European countries.

EPSU organises workers from the public sector. It represents more than 265 unions and eight million public service workers from 40 countries.

Eurelectric represents the common interests of the electricity industry at pan-European level, plus its affiliates and associates on several other continents. It has over 30 full members which represent the electricity industry in 32 European countries.

Membership composition

Table 6 shows membership-related trade unions for IndustriAll drawn from the country reports. This membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration; hence, it does not include trade unions affiliated to the European-level organisations that do not have any members in the electricity sector. The membership of the employee organisations is obtained through the membership list provided by the organisations and a further check of the membership lists published on the organisations’ webpages.

Table 6: Electricity trade unions affiliated to IndustriAll, 2013
 

Trade union

Collective bargaining

Geographical coverage

AT

PRO-GE

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

AT

GPA-djp

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

BE

ACLVB-CGSLB

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

BE

ACV-CSC BIE

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

BE

LBC

No

The whole country

BG

NFE

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

BG

FNE-PODK

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

CY

EPOPAI

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

CZ

OS ECHO

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

DE

IG BCE

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

DK

DEF

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

DK

CO-industri

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

EE

EEAÜL

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

EL

GENOP/DEI-KHE

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

ES

FITAG-UGT

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

ES

ELA-HAINBAT

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Only the Basque region

ES

FI-CCOO

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FI

Sähköliitto

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FI

YTN

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FR

FCE-CFDT

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FR

FNEM-FO

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FR

CFE-CGC

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

HU

EVDSZ

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

HU

BDSZ

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Northern-Hungary and in Trans-Danubia

IE

SIPTU

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

IT

Uiltec-Uil (Uilcem previous name)

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

IT

Filctem-Cgil

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

LT

LPPSF

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

LU

Syndicat Services et Energie, OGBL

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

LU

LCGB

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

PL

SKE ‘Solidarność’

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

PT

SINDEL

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

PT

Fiequimetal

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

RO

UFS Atlas

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

RO

FNME

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

RO

Hidrosind

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

SE

Unionen

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

SE

SEF

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer

Yes, multi-employer bargaining The whole country only

The whole country

SK

ZOES

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

SK

ECHOZ

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

SI

SDE

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

UK

GMB

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

UK

Unite

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

In all countries, except Latvia, the Netherlands and Malta, there is at least one sectoral affiliation to IndustriAll. IndustriAll has 44 direct affiliations from the countries under consideration, and all of them participate in sectoral collective bargaining except LBC in Belgium. Moreover, all the unions affiliated to IndustriAll cover the sector in all their countries’ regions except in the case of ELA-HAINBAT in Spain and BDSZ in Hungary. Therefore, 39% of the unions listed in Tables A2 and A3 in Annex 3 are directly affiliated to IndustriAll.

According to the information provided by the national correspondents, there are several members of IndustriAll which do not have members in the electricity sector. For this reason, they are not included in Table 6. However, they are shown in Table 6a, below.

Table 6a: Trade unions affiliated to IndustriAll without members in the electricity sector, 2013

Country

Trade union

BE

SETCA-BBTK

BG

NEWF Podkrepa

DK

DK Funktionærforbund

EL

PFEPPRCI

ES

FITEQA-CCOO

LV

LINA

NL

FNV

NL

CNV Vakmensen

RO

FSLCP

Table 7 documents a list of membership-related trade unions for EPSU drawn from the country reports. Again, this membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration, hence it does not include trade unions affiliated to the European-level organisations that do not have any members in the electricity sector. The membership of employee organisations is obtained through the membership list provided by the organisations and a further check of the membership lists published on the organisations’ webpages.

Table 7: Electricity trade unions affiliated to EPSU, 2013
 

Trade union

Collective bargaining

Geographical coverage

AT

GDG

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

BE

CSC

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

BE

VSOA-SLFP

No

The whole country

BE

ABVV-ACOD Gazelco/FGTB CGSP Gazelco

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

BG

NSFEB

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

BG

FEW-PODK

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

BG

NFE

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

CZ

OS UNIOS

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

CZ

OS ECHO

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

CZ

OS Transgas

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

DE

Ver.di

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

DK

3F

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

DK

Dansk Metal

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

EE

EEAÜL

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

ES

FITAG-UGT

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FI

Pro

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FI

JHL

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FI

Jyty

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FI

KTN

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FR

FNME-CGT

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

FR

FNEM-FO

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FR

CFTC-CMTE

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FR

UNSA Energie

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

HU

EVDSZ

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

IE

ESBOA

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

IE

IMPACT

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

IE

SIPTU

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

IT

Uiltec-Uil

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

IT

Flaei-Cisl

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

IT

Filctem-Cgil

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

LT

LPPSF

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

LV

LAB Enerģija (LTUE according to EPSU)

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

MT

GWU

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

NL

CNV- Publieke Zaak

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

NL

Abvakabo FNV

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

PL

SKEE Solidarność

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

PT

SINDEL

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

RO

Federaţia Univers

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

RO

Federaţia Energetica

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

RO

Federaţia Gaz România

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

SE

SEKO

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

SE

Kommunal

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

SE

Vision

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

SI

SDE

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

SK

ECHOZ

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

UK

Prospect

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

UK

Unison

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

UK

Unite

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

UK

GMB

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

In all countries, except Cyprus, Greece and Luxembourg, at least one sectoral affiliation to EPSU is found. In Cyprus there are no sectoral affiliations to EPSU, although EPOPAI is indirectly affiliated to EPSU through its federation OHO-SEK. EPSU has 49 direct affiliations from the countries under consideration, and 48 of them are involved in sectoral collective bargaining. Moreover, all the unions affiliated to EPSU cover the sector in all the regions of their countries. Accordingly, 44% of the unions listed in Tables A2 and A3 are directly affiliated to EPSU.

According to the information provided by the national correspondents, there are several members of EPSU which do not have members in the sector. For this reason, they are not included in Table 7. However, they are shown in Table 7a, below.

Table 7a: Trade unions affiliated to EPSU without members in the electricity sector, 2013

Country

Trade union

BG

CG-FGTB

BG

PK Services

BG

NDWU

BG

FCIW-PODK

BG

FITUGO

BG

VODOSNABDITEL

CY

FSGEC (OHO-SEK according correspondent)

CY

PASYDY

CZ

OS DLV

DK

PEU

DK

FOA

ES

FSAP-CCOO (current name FSC-CCOO)

ES

FSP UGT

FI

PARDIA

FR

FPSPSS-FO

FR

CGT-SP

FR

INTERCO CFDT

HU

VKDSZ

HU

HVDSZ 2000

IT

FEMCA

IT

FP-Cgil

LT

LVPF

LT

LTUSE

LU

LCGB

LV

LAKRS

NL

FNV Bondgenoten

PL

PSS Solidarność

PT

STAL

PT

SINTAP

PT

STE

RO

APA NOVA

RO

GAZ MEDIAS

RO

Federatia Sindicatelor ‘Gaz Romania’

SE

NOFS

SE

TRANSPORT

SE

FACKFÖRBUNDET ST

SK

SOZE

SK

TUWIFWS

SK

POZ

SK

Slovak Gas Industry Trade Union

SK

Slovak Trade Union of Health and Social Services

SK

SOZPS

SK

SPP

UK

NIPSA

UK

FDA

UK

T&G

It is important to note that in the case of France, FPSPSS-FO, CGT-SP and INTERCO-CFDT could have members in municipal companies within the electricity sector. According to the French correspondent, it is possible that some employees working in an electrical company managed by a municipality could be covered by one of those unions; however, those are exceptional cases. In the case of Luxembourg, the correspondent there notes that LCGB (a confederation) is a member of EPSU, but the federation that is active in the electricity sector, namely LCGB Industry, is not a member of EPSU.

Table 8 lists the employer organisations that are members of Eurelectric. Again, this membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration; hence it does not include employer organisations affiliated to the European-level organisations which do not have any members in the electricity sector.

Table 8: Electricity employer organisations affiliated to Eurelectric, 2013
 

Employer organisation

Collective bargaining

Geographical coverage

AT

OEE

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

The whole country

BE

FEBEG

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

BE

Synergrid

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

BG

NEK EAD

n.a.

The whole country

CY

AHK/EAC 

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

CZ

ČSZE

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

DE

BDEW

No

The whole country

DK

DE

No

The whole country

EE

ETL

No

The whole country

EL

HELAS

No

The whole country

ES

UNESA

No

The whole country

FI

Energiateollisuus ry

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FR

UFE

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

HU

EMT

No

n.a.

IE

EAI

No

The whole country

IT

UNEI

No

The whole country

LT

NLEA

No

The whole country

LU

Organisation des Entreprises d’Electricité du Luxembourg 

n.a.

The whole country

LV

LEEA

No

The whole country

MT

Enemalta Corporation

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

The whole country

NL

WENb

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

NL

Energie-Nederland

No

The whole country

PL

PKEE

No

The whole country

PT

ELECPOR

No

The whole country

RO

IRE

No

The whole country

SE

Swedenergy

No

The whole country

SI

GZS-EZS

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

SK

ZZES

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

UK

ENA

No

The whole country

UK

Energy UK

No

The whole country

In total, Eurelectric has 30 direct affiliations, 11 of which participate in sectoral collective bargaining. Moreover, it is worth noting that there are two companies included in their affiliations (AHK/EAC in Cyprus and Enemalta Corporation in Malta). Accordingly, 62% of the employer organisations listed in Tables A5 and A6 in Annex 2 are directly affiliated to Eurelectric. Thus, it covers the sector’s most important sectoral employer organisations.

Capacity to negotiate

The third criterion of representativeness at European level refers to the organisations’ capacity to negotiate on behalf of their members. They have been asked whether or not they have the capacity to negotiate on behalf of their members. IndustriAll and EPSU have been given a general mandate to negotiate on behalf of their members. In the case of Eurelectric, it has been given a general mandate to negotiate on behalf of its members, although it states that it does not negotiate collective agreements with the European trade union federations.

As final proof of the weight of IndustriAll, EPSU and Eurelectric, it is useful to look at the other European organisations to which the sector-related trade unions and employer organisations are affiliated. The affiliations of the trade unions are listed in Table A3 in Annex 2, and there we find several European organisations other than IndustriAll and EPSU. Accordingly, there are five European organisations mentioned here, which cover at least three countries: UNI Europa, the European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT), the Council of European Professional and Managerial Staff (Eurocadres), the European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW) and the European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF). The presence of these organisations reflects the overlapping domains of many trade unions, because these organisations do not claim to attract unions belonging to the electricity sector. This overview of affiliates underlines the principal status of IndustriAll and EPSU as the sector’s labour representative.

A similar review of the membership of the national employer or business associations is shown in Table A6 of Annex 2. Some have associations at European level other than Eurelectric. There are three European associations that cover at least three countries: GEODE, Eurogas and CEEP. As in the case of the trade unions, the presence of these organisations reflects the overlapping domains of some employer organisations because these organisations do not claim to attract employer organisations from the electricity sector. In conclusion, Eurelectric is by far the most important sector-related European organisation since it covers 27 Member States under discussion here.



Conclusions

A pluralist associational system prevails on the employee side of the electricity sector, where 113 unions have been identified. Only 1 sector-related union is recorded in 2 countries, 2 unions in 7 countries and 3 unions are present in 2 countries. However, 16 countries record 4 or more sector-related unions, thus showing a fragmented landscape.

On the employer side, a less fragmented system exists. Thus, 15 countries record only 1 employer organisation, while 7 countries record 2 employer organisations, 2 countries record 3 employer organisations, and 3 countries record 4 employer organisations or more.

Differences between unions and employer associations also appear with regard to their domain demarcation. In the case of the unions, overlap and sectional overlap are the dominant domain patterns while, in the case of the employer associations, domain tends to be narrower. Thus, 41% of unions have an overlap domain and 44% have a sectional overlap domain, compared to 42% and 22% respectively in the case of the employer associations. On the other hand, 22% of all the employer organisations with available information show a domain more or less congruent with the sector definition, while only six unions (5% of all the unions) demarcate their domain in a way that is congruent with the sector definition.

With regard to the densities of the trade unions, the situation differs widely among countries and unions. Generally, low and very low sectoral densities (fewer than 10%) are recorded in countries where there is a fragmented union landscape, and the domain of the unions overlap with each other. In other countries where there are several trade unions whose domains overlap, such as Finland or Belgium, we find unions recording relatively high sectoral densities alongside unions recording low sectoral densities.

With respect to the employer organisations, figures are available only for a few organisations, especially in terms of employees (available for only 19 organisations). When information is available, the sectoral domain densities in terms of companies are, in all cases, lower than the densities in terms of employees. This may indicate a slightly higher propensity of the larger companies to associate, as compared to their smaller counterparts. Accordingly, 47% (9 out of 19) of the organisations with available data show a sectoral domain density exceeding 50% in terms of employees. However, in terms of companies, only 23% (7 out of 30) show a sectoral domain density exceeding 20%.

Collective bargaining coverage is relatively high in the electricity sector. Some 18 of the 22 countries with available data record high rates of collective bargaining coverage, exceeding 70%. The remaining countries with available information record a rate of collective bargaining coverage which varies between 40% and 60%. Several factors, which sometimes interact with each other, such as the predominance of multi-employer bargaining or the existence of pervasive extension practices, explain the highest coverage rates. However, these factors are not as decisive as in other sectors in explaining the high coverage rates of collective bargaining. Accordingly, in countries such as Greece, Ireland, Lithuania and Portugal, which record high coverage rates of collective bargaining, single-employer bargaining prevails, and the use of extension practices is limited or non-existent.

As far as participation in public policy is concerned, a relatively high proportion of unions (78 of the 98 unions with available data) are consulted. On the employer side, authorities consult 37 of the 42 (90%) employer organisations for which related data are available. On the other hand, the study reveals that genuinely sector-specific bodies have been established in 16 of the 27 countries under consideration.

According to the three criteria defined under Article 1 of the Commission Communication COM(1998) 322 final (2.81MB PDF) organisations that are eligible to be consulted shall:

  • relate to specific sectors or categories and be organised at European level;
  • consist of organisations which are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States’ social partner structures and have the capacity to negotiate agreements, and which are representative of several Member States;
  • have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the work of the Committees.

In the light of the present study, the three European social partners under consideration, IndustriAll, EPSU and Eurelectric, fulfil the above criteria.

As seen from the bottom-up mapping of individual organisations, IndustriAll has 44 direct affiliations (39% of the unions identified in the study) in 24 European Member States, and all of them participate in sectoral collective bargaining except LBC in Belgium. In the case of EPSU, 49 direct affiliations are identified (44% of the unions identified in the study), 48 of which are involved in sectoral collective bargaining. Finally, Eurelectric has 30 direct affiliations (46% of the employer organisations identified in the study) in the 27Member States under discussion, 11 of which participate in sectoral collective bargaining. Moreover, it is worth noting that no further European-level actors with a comparable coverage could be found on either side of the industry.

Top-down and bottom-up analyses of the electricity sector in these EU27 show that IndustriAll and EPSU for the employees and Eurelectric for the employers ought to be regarded as the most important EU-wide representatives of the employers’ and employees’ within the sector.



References

Traxler, F., Blaschke, S. and Kittel, B. (2001), National labour relations in internationalised markets, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Pablo Sanz de Miguel, CIREM Foundation



Annex 1: Methodological approach

The study first identifies the relevant national social partner organisations in the electricity sector, subsequently analysing the structure of the sector’s relevant European organisations, in particular their membership composition.

This involves a clarification of the unit of analysis at both the national and European level of interest representation. The study includes only organisations whose membership domain is ‘sector-related’.

Conceptual framework

The study follows the conceptual and methodological approach of the EIRO series of representativeness studies.

A European association is considered a relevant sector-related interest association if:

  • it is on the Commission’s list of interest organisations to be consulted on behalf of the sector under Article 154 TFEU;
  • and/or it participates in the sector-related European Social Dialogue;
  • and/or it has requested to be consulted under Article 154 TFEU.

National associations are considered a relevant sector-related interest association if:

  • The association’s domain relates to the sector.
  • The association is: either regularly involved in sector-related collective bargaining, and/or affiliated to a ‘sector-related’ European association of business or labour on the Commission’s list of European social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU and/or which participates in the sector-related European social dialogue.

Demarcation of the sector

For the purpose of this study, the electricity sector is defined in terms of the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE), to ensure the cross-national comparability of the findings. More specifically, the electricity sector is defined as embracing NACE (Rev. 2) 35.1. This includes the following activities:

  • 35.1 Electric power generation, transmission and distribution;
  • 35.11 Production of electricity;
  • 35.12 Transmission of electricity;
  • 35.13 Distribution of electricity;
  • 35.14 Trade of electricity.

The domains of the trade unions and employer organisations and the scope of the relevant collective agreements are likely to vary from this precise NACE definition. The study therefore includes all trade unions, employer organisations and multi-employer collective agreements which are ‘sector-related’ in terms of any of the following four patterns:

  • Congruence: the domain/purview is identical to the NACE classification;
  • Sectionalism: the domain/purview only covers a certain part of the sector as demarcated by NACE classification, while no group outside the sector is covered;
  • Overlap: the domain/purview covers the entire sector plus (parts of) one or more other sectors;
  • Sectional overlap: the domain/purview covers part of the sector plus (parts of) one or more other sector.

As regards criterion A, the domains of the associations are likely to vary from the precise NACE demarcation of the electricity sector. To ascertain whether the domain of an association relates to the sector, the following questions must be answered by the EIRO national correspondent based on interviews conducted with the respective national organisations.

Table A1: Determining the electricity ‘sector-relatedness’ of an organisation

Scope

Question: Does the association’s domain …

Possible answers

Notes and Explanations

Domain of the organisation within the sector

... cover the ‘whole’ electricity sector in terms of economic activities, (including all sub-activities)

Yes/No

This question refers to the economic sub-activities of the NACE code chosen. Some organisations may limit their domain to some of the sub-activities.

… cover employees in all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes/No

Some organisations may limit, for instance, their domain to public sector companies/employees only.

… cover employees in enterprises of all sizes in the electricity sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably employer organisations) may limit their domain to enterprises by size class (such as SMEs only).

… cover the electricity sector in all the regions?

Yes/No

This question refers to geographical coverage. Some organisations may not be national in scope and limit their domain to some of the regions.

... cover all occupations in the electricity sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) delimit their domain to certain occupations only.

... cover blue-collar and white- collar employees in the electricity sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) delimit their domain to either blue-collar or white-collar employees

… cover employees with other than standard employment contracts in the electricity sector? (self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed-term contracts…)

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) cannot potentially cover certain types of workers, like self-employed, free-lancers, temporary agency workers, etc.

Domain of the organisation outside the sector

… also cover employees or enterprises outside the electricity sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations may enlarge their domain to other activities not included in the electricity sector.

Source: Standardised questionnaire sent to EIRO national correspondents

As regards criterion B.2, it must be said that taking affiliation to a European social partner organisation, as sufficient to determine a national association as a social partner, does not necessarily imply that the association is involved in industrial relations in its own country. Although this selection criterion may seem odd at first glance, a national association that is a member of a European social partner organisation will become involved in industrial relations matters through its membership of the European organisation. Furthermore, it is important to assess whether the national affiliates to the European social partner organisations are engaged in industrial relations in their respective country. Affiliation to a European social partner organisation and/or involvement in national collective bargaining are of utmost importance to the European social dialogue, since they are the two constituent mechanisms that can systematically connect the national and European levels.

Collective bargaining

The second indicator considers whether statutory extension schemes have been applied to the sector. For reasons of brevity, this analysis is confined to extension schemes which widen the scope of a collective agreement to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisation. Extension regulations targeting the employees are therefore not included in the research. Regulations concerning the employees are not significant to this analysis for two reasons:

  • Extending a collective agreement to employees who are not unionised in a company covered by the collective agreement is a standard rule of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), aside from any national legislation.
  • If employers did not extend a collective agreement concluded by them, even when not formally obliged to do so, they would set an incentive for their workforce to unionise.

Collection of data

The collection of quantitative data is essential for investigating the representativeness of the social partner organisations is done two-fold through a bottom-up (EIRO correspondents) and a top-down approach (list of members of European Social Partners at national level). Unless cited otherwise, this study draws on country studies provided by EIRO, a network of national industrial relations experts, based on a standard questionnaire, which they have completed by contacting the sector-related social partner organisations in their countries. The contact was generally made via telephone interviews in the first place, but might also have been established via email. In case of non-availability of any representative, the national correspondents were asked to fill out the relevant questionnaires based on secondary sources, such as information given on the social partner’s website, or derived from previous research studies.

It is often difficult to find precise quantitative data. In such cases, the EIRO national centres are requested to provide rough estimates rather than leaving a question blank, given the practical and political relevance of this study. However, if there is any doubt over the reliability of an estimate, this will be noted.

In principle, quantitative data may stem from three sources:

  • official statistics and representative survey studies;
  • administrative data, such as membership figures provided by the respective organisations, which are then used for calculating the density rate on the basis of available statistical figures on the potential membership of the organisation;
  • personal estimates made by representatives of the respective organisations.

Quality control

In order to ensure the quality of the information gathered, several verification procedures and feedback loops are already foreseen in the series of EIRO representativeness studies:

  • First, the coordinators, in collaboration with Eurofound, will check the consistency of the national contributions.
  • Second, Eurofound sends the national contributions to both their national members of governing board, as well as to the European-level sector-related social partners’ organisations. The peak-level organisations then ask their affiliates to verify the information. Feedback received from the sector-related organisations is then taken into account, if it is in line with the methodology of the study.
  • Third, the complete study is finally evaluated by the European-level sectoral social partners and Eurofound’s Advisory Committee on Industrial Relations, which consists of representatives from both sides of industry, governments and the European Commission.



Annex 2: Individual organisations

Employee organisations

Table A2: Domain coverage and membership of employee organisations, 2013
 

Trade union

Domain coverage

Type of membership

Active members total

Active members in sector

AT

GPA-djp

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

172,000

11,000

AT

PRO-GE

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

232,226

3,713

AT

PRO-GE

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

135,000

68,500

BE

ABVV-ACOD Gazelco/FGTB CGSP Gazelco*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

6,000

n.a.

BE

ACV-CSC BIE*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

285,000

6,100

BE

CSC Services Publics*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

160,000

500

BE

CSC-CNE*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

BE

ACLVB-CGSLB*

Overlap

Voluntary

285,000

600

BE

VSOA-SLFP*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

BE

LBC

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

153

BG

NSFEB

Congruence

Voluntary

6,000

6,000

BG

NFE

Congruence

Voluntary

9,179

9,179

BG

FNE-PODK

Congruence

Voluntary

2,200

2,200

BG

FEW-PODK

Congruence

Voluntary

5,200

5,200

CY

EPOPAI*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

1,569

1,569

CY

SEPAIK*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

210

210

CY

EAC-SIDIKEK*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

496

496

CY

SYVAIC

Sectionalism

Voluntary

135

135

CZ

ČOSE (Český odborový svaz energetiků) *

Overlap

Voluntary

4,000

3,000

CZ

OS ECHO (Odborový svaz EEECHOdborový ECHO) *

Overlap

Voluntary

22,500

8,000

CZ

OS UNIOS (Odborový svaz UNIOS) *

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

10,339

447

CZ

OS Transgas (Odborový svaz Transgas) *

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

100

30

DE

IG BCE*

Overlap

Voluntary

668,982

17,500

DE

Ver.di*

Overlap

Voluntary

2,061,198

n.a.

DK

CO-industri

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

239,871

7,000

DK

3F

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

280,019

800

DK

DEF

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

23,530

5,500

DK

Dansk Metal

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

86,561

269

DK

TL

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

24,700

391

DK

IDA

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

86,000

n.a.

DK

HK/Privat

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

205,931

n.a.

EE

EEAÜL*

Overlap

Voluntary

2,013

2,013

EE

KESA*

Sectional

Voluntary

2,400

2,400

EL

GENOP/DEI-KHE (ΓΕΝΟΠ/ΔΕΗ-ΚΗΕ)

Overlap

Voluntary

33,744

19,993

ES

FI-CCOO*

Overlap

Voluntary

163,000

6,000

ES

FI-USO*

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

ES

CGT*

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

3,713

ES

ELA-HAINBAT*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

19,990

n.a.

ES

SIE*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

3,000

ES

ATYPE-CC*

Sectional

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

ES

Asociación de Cuadros del Grupo Hidrocantábrico*

n.a.

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

FI

Sähköliitto*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

21,000

5,500

FI

Pro (Ammattiliitto Pro)*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

90,000

2,600

FI

JHL (Julkisten ja hyvinvointialojen liitto)

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

180,000

2,100

FI

Jyty (Julkis- ja yksityisalojen toimihenkilöliitto)*

Overlap

Voluntary

55,000

150

FI

KTN (Tekniikka ja Terveys)

Overlap

Voluntary

20,000

960

FI

YTN (Ylemmät Toimihenkilöt) *

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

120,000

2,400

FI

SKL (Suomen Konepäällystöliitto)

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

2,500

600

FR

FNME-CGT*

Overlap

Voluntary

36,000

20,000

FR

CFE-CGC Energies*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

5,300

4,400

FR

FCE-CFDT*

Overlap

Voluntary

62,000

13,000

FR

FNEM-FO*

Overlap

Voluntary

5,000

4,000

FR

CFTC-CMTE*

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

FR

UNSA Energie*

Overlap

Voluntary

90

10

FR

SUD Energie*

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

HU

EVDSZ*

Congruence

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

HU

BDSZ*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

4,223

1,752

IE

SIPTU

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

199,881

2,100

IE

Unite

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

31,594

3,000

IE

ESBOA

Sectional

Voluntary

1,740

1,740

IE

IMPACT

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

63,566

n.a.

IE

TEEU

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

39,000

1,500

IT

Filctem-Cgil *

Overlap

Voluntary

223,500

13,400

IT

Flaei-Cisl*

Congruence

Voluntary

16,000

16,000

IT

Uiltec-Uil (previously named Uilcem-Uil)*

Overlap

Voluntary

79,263

7,500

IT

UGL Federazione chimici sindacato energia*

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

IT

CISAL FederEnergia*

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

LT

LPPSF*

Overlap

Voluntary

5,000

2,000

LT

LEPS ‘Solidarumas’*

Overlap

Voluntary

500

400

LU

Syndicat Services et Energie, OGBL*

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

400

LU

LCGB Industrie*

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

LV

LAB Enerģija

Overlap

Voluntary

3,394

3,394

MT

GWU*

Overlap

Voluntary

44,971

900

MT

EPOU*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

110

107

MT

ESSU*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

37

37

MT

UHM*

Overlap

Voluntary

26,273

306

NL

Abvakabo FNV*

Overlap

Voluntary

350,000

6,200

NL

CNV Publieke Zaak*

Overlap

Voluntary

80,000

1,800

NL

VMHP-N*

Overlap

Voluntary

60,000

1,800

PL

SKE ‘Solidarność’ (part of SGiE ‘Solidarność’) *

Sectionalism

Voluntary

17,000

n.a.

PL

SKEE ‘Solidarność’ (part of SGiE ‘Solidarność’) *

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

10,000

10,000

PL

ZZIT*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

10,500

3,500

PL

ZZZE*

Overlap

Voluntary

17,000

n.a.

PL

OZZZPRC*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

16,000

10,000

PT

SINDEL*

Overlap

Voluntary

9,000

3,500

PT

Fiequimetal*

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

PT

FETESE

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

PT

ASOSI*

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

RO

Federaţia Univers (Federaţia Naţională a Sindicatelor din Electricitate Univers)*

Overlap

Voluntary

26,506

25,000

RO

Federaţia Energetica (Federaţia Sindicatelor Libere şi Independente Energetica)*

Overlap

Voluntary

13,669

2,000

RO

UFS Atlas (Uniunea Federativă Sindicală Atlas) *

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

10,000

RO

FNME*

Overlap

Voluntary

17,794

4,500

RO

Hidrosind (Federaţia Sindicală Hidroelectrica Hidrosind) *

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

6,000

4,500

RO

Federaţia Termoelectrica (Federaţia Sindicală Termoelectrica) *

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

7,000

3,500

SE

Vision *

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

135,000

5,000

SE

Ledarna*

Sectionalism overlap

Voluntary

90,000

3,000

SE

SEF*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

25,000

1,500

SE

Unionen*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

580,000

6,300

SE

Kommunal*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

505,000

1,200

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

111,831

3,550

SE

SACO*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

636,000

1,500

SE

SEKO*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

90,000

4,500

SE

Civilekonomerna*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

40,070

170

SI

SDE*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

SI

KNSS-Neodvisnost*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

19,000

n.a.

SK

ECHOZ*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

12,312

3,861

SK

ZOES*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

1,930

1,930

UK

GMB*

Overlap

Voluntary

610,116

n.a.

UK

Prospect*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

93,137

1,4138

UK

Unison*

Overlap

Voluntary

1,300,000

14,000

UK

Unite*

Overlap

Voluntary

1,500,000

50,000

a = A more detailed description of the trade unions membership domain, with regard to the sector, is in Table A1 in Annex 1

*= Domain overlap with other sector-related trade unions

n.a. = not available or not applicable

Table A3: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of employee organisations, 2013
 

Trade union

Sectoral density (%)

Collective bargaining

Consultation

International, European and national affiliations

AT

GPA-djp

48.4

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union, ITUC-CSI-IGB (International Trade Union Confederation), UNI Global Union, WOW (World Organisation of Workers)

European: IndustriAll Europe, ETUC, EPSU, EFFAT, UNI Europa

National: ÖGB (Austrian Trade Union Federation)

AT

PRO-GE

16.3

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union, ILO, ITUC-CSI-IGB, TUAC (Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD), IUF-UITA-IUL (Uniting Food, Farm and Hotel Workers World-Wide)

European: IndustriAll Europe, ETUC, EPSU, EFFAT, UNI Europa

National: ÖGB

AT

GdG-KMSfB

30.1

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

n.a.

International: Public Services International (PSI), International Transport Workers Federation (ITF), International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), Union Network International – Media and Entertainment (UNI-MEI), Federation of International Musicians (FIM), Federation International des Associations Footballeurs Professionals (FIFPro), Federation of International Actors (FIA)

European: IndustriAll Europe, ETUC, EPSU, EFFAT UNI Europa

National: ÖGB

BE

ABVV-ACOD Gazelco/FGTB CGSP Gazelco

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

International: PSI

European: EPSU

National: ACOD, ABVV

BE

ACV-CSC BIE

36.5

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union

European: IndustriAll Europe

National: ACV-CSC (Confédération des Syndicats Chrétiens)

BE

CSC Services Publics

3.0

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

No

n.a.

International: ITF

European: EPSU, ETF

National: ACV

BE

CSC-CNE

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

International: ITUC, UNI Global Union

European: EPSU, IndustriAll Europe

National: ACV-CSC

BE

ACLVB-CGSLB 

3.6

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

International: IVV, ITUC, EVV

European: ETUC, IndustriAll Europe

BE

VSOA –SLFP

n.a.

No

No

n.a.

European: EPSU

BE

LBC

0.9

No

n.a.

n.a.

European: IndustriAll Europe

BG

NSFEB

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

No

n.a.

International: PSI

European: EPSU

National: CITUB

BG

NFE

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

No

n.a.

International: IndustriALL Global Union

European: EPSU

National: CITUB

BG

FNE-PODK

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union

National: CL Podkrepa

BG

FEW-PODK

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union, ICEM, PSI

European: EPSU, European Mine, Chemical and Energy Workers’ Federation (EMCEF)

National: CL Podkrepa

CY

EPOPAI

63.5

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No information on international affiliations

European: IndustriAll Europe, EPSU (is a member of EPSU through its federation OHO-SEK)

National: SEK

CY

SEPAIK

8.5

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No affiliations at European or international level

National: Pancyprian Federation of Independent Trade Unions (POAS)

CY

EAC-SIDIKEK

20.1

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No affiliations at international or European level

National: Pancyprian Federation of Labour (PEO)

CY

SYVAIC

5.5

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No affiliations at international or European level.

National: POAS

CZ

ČOSE

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No affiliations at international or European level

National: Association of Independent Trade Unions (ASO)

CZ

OS ECHO

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: EPSU, IndustriAll Europe

National: Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions (Českomoravská konfederace odborových svazů, ČMKOS)

CZ

OS UNIOS

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

International: PSI

European: EPSU

National: ČMKOS

CZ

OS Transgas

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

International: PSI

European: EPSU

National: Asociace pro rozvoj kolektivního vyjednávání a pracovních vztahů (AKV)

DE

IG BCE

5.4

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: ICEM

European: EMCEF, IndustriAll Europe

National: DGB

DE

Ver.di

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: PSI, UNI Global Union

European: EPSU, UNI Europa

National: DGB

DK

CO-industri

2.2

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union, IUL

European: IndustriAll Europe, EFFAT

National: Danish Confederation of Trade Unions(LO)

DK

3F

0.2

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union, IUL, UNI Global Union, ITF

European: IndustriAll Europe, EFFAT, EPSU, UNI Europa, ETF, EFBWW

National: LO

DK

DEF

1.7

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union

European: IndustriAll Europe

National: LO

DK

Dansk Metal

0.1

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union

European: IndustriAll Europe

National: LO

DK

TL

0.1

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

No affiliation at international level

European: EPSU

National: LO

DK

IDA

n.a.

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union

European: IndustriAll Europe

No affiliation at national level

DK

HK/Privat

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union, UNI Global Union

European: IndustriAll Europe, UNI Europa, EPSU

No affiliation at national level

EE

EEAÜL

24.5

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

International: IndustriALL Global Union

European: EPSU

National: EAKL (Estonian Trade Union Confederation)

EE

KESA

29.3

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

National: EAKL

EL

GENOP/DEI-KHE

100

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

International: ICEM, IndustriALL Global Union

European: EMCEF

National: Greek General Confederation of Labour

ES

FITAG-UGT

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

European: IndustriAll Europe, EPSU

ES

FI-CCOO

12.5

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

European: IndustriAll Europe

National: CCOO

ES

FI-USO

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No affiliations

ES

CGT

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

No affiliations

ES

ELA-HAINBAT

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

European: IndustriAll Europe

National: ELA

ES

SIE

6.2

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

No affiliations

ES

ATYPE-CC

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

No affiliations

ES

Asociación de Cuadros del Grupo Hidrocantábrico

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

No information on affiliations

FI

Sähköliitto

49.2

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: International Metalworkers’ Federation (IMF), ICEM, Building and Woodworkers’ International (BWI)

European: IndustriAll Europe; also a member of Nordisk Tele Organisation (NTO), the Nordic Building and Woodworkers’ Federation (Nordiska Byggnads- och Träarbetarefederationen, NBTF), NEF, IndustriAll, UNI Europa, EFBWW

National: Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK)

FI

Pro

23.3

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IMF, ICEM, UNI Global Union, International Federation of Building and Woodworkers (IFBWW), International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers’ Federation (ITGLWF), International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers’ Associations (IUF), International Transport Workers’ Union (ITF)

European: EPSU; also a member of Nordic-IN, UNI-IBITS Norden NTO, NBTF, Nordic Industry Workers’ Federation (Nordiska Industriarbetarefederationen, NIF), Nordic Food and Allied Workers’ Union (Nordiska Unionen innen Nærings- og Nytelsesmiddelarbeiderforbund, NNN), Nordic Transport Workers’ Federation (Nordisk Transportarbetarefederation, NTF), EMF, EMCEF, UNI Europa, EFBWW, the European Trade Union Federation: Textiles, Clothing and Leather (ETUF-TCL), EFFAT and ETF

National: Finnish Confederation of Professionals (STTK)

FI

JHL

18.8

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: PSI, ITF

European: EPSU; also the following affiliations: Nordic Public Service Unions (NOFS), Nordic Federation of Unions of Municipal Employees (KNS/KPY), Nordic Union for the Service Sectors (SUN), NTF, ETUC

National: SAK

FI

Jyty

1.3

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: PSI

European: EPSU

National: STTK

FI

KTN

8.6

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: PSI

European: EPSU

National: STTK

FI

YTN

21.5

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

No higher-level memberships, but its member associations do have affiliations

European: IndustriAll Europe (via the Union of Professional Engineers in Finland (UIL))

National: Confederation of Unions for Professional and Managerial Staff (AKAVA)

FI

SKL

5.4

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: International Maritime Organisation (IMO), ITF, ILO

European: ETUC

National: STTK

FR

FNME-CGT

17.3

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: Organisation Internationale de l’Energie et des Mines (OIEM)

European : IndustriAll Europe, EPSU

CGT

FR

CFE-CGC Energies

3.8

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union

European : IndustriAll Europe, Fédération Européenne des Cadres de l’Energie et de la Recherche (FECER)

National: Confédération Française de l’Encadrement – Confédération Générale des Cadres (CFE-CGC)

FR

FCE-CFDT

11.3

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union

European : IndustriAll Europe

National: Confédération française démocratique du travail (CFDT)

FR

FNEM-FO

3.5

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: PSI

European: IndustriAll Europe

National: Confédération Générale du Travail – Force Ouvière (CGT-FO)

FR

CFTC-CMTE

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

No information on international affiliations

European: EPSU

National: Confédération française des travailleurs chrétiens (CFTC)

FR

UNSA Energie

0

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

European: Through UNSA is affiliated to EPSU, but is thinking of affiliating to IndustriALL Global Union and IndustriAll Europe

National: Union nationale des syndicats autonomes (UNSA)

FR

SUD Energie

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

No affiliation at international or European levels

National: Solidaires

HU

V.D.Sz.Sz(EVDSZ)

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

n.a.

International: PSI, IndustriALL Global Union

European: EPSU, IndustriAll Europe

National: Metal and Iron Industry Association (LIGA)

HU

BDSZ

12.2

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union

European: IndustriAll Europe

National: National Association of Hungarian Trade Unions (Szakszervezetek Országos Szövetsége, MSZOSZ)

IE

SIPTU

21.4

Yes, single-employer bargaining Orly

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: EPSU, IndustriAll

National: ICTU, ESB Group of Unions

IE

Unite

30.6

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

National: ICTU, ESB Group of Unions

IE

ESBOA

17.8

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: EPSU

National: ICTU, ESB Group of Unions

IE

IMPACT

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: EPSU

National: ICTU

IE

TEEU

15.3

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

National: ICTU, ESB Group of Unions

IT

Filctem-Cgil

22.2

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union, PSI

European: IndustriAll Europe, EPSU

National: General Confederation of Italian Workers (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro, Cgil)

IT

Flaei-Cisl

26.6

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

European: EPSU, ETUC

National: Italian Confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori, Cisl)

IT

Uiltec-Uil (previously named Uilcem-Uil)

12.5

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union

European: EPSU (as Uilcem), IndustriAll Europe (as Uilcem)

National: Union of Italian Workers (Unione Italiana del Lavoro, UIL)

IT

UGL Federazione chimici sindicato energia

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

National: General Union of Work (Unione generale del lavoro, UGL)

IT

CISAL FederEnergia

37.6

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

National: Italian Confederation of Workers’ Autonomous Trade Unions (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Autonomi Lavoratori, CISAL)

LT

LPPSF

37.6

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: PSI

European: EPSU, IndustriAll Europe

National: LPSK

LT

LEPS ‘Solidarumas’

7.5

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

National: Lithuanian Trade Union ‘Solidarumas’ (LPS ‘Solidarumas’)

LU

Syndicat Services et Energie, OGBL

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

International: UNI Global

European: UNI Europa, IndustriAll Europe, Eurocadres

National: OGBL

LU

LCGB Industrie

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

European: IndustriAll Europe

National: LCGB

LV

LAB Enerģija

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: PSI

European: EPSU, IndustriAll Europe

National: LBAS

MT

GWU

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: PSI, ITUC, ILO, ITF, IUF, IFBWW, IMF, IICEM, International Textiles, Garment and Leather Workers’ Federation (ITGLWF), UNI Global Union, International Federation of Musicians (IFM) and the International Federation of Workers’ Education (IFWEA)

European: EPSU, ETUC, UNI Europa, European Workers’ Education Association (EURO WEA), European Federation of Retired and Older People (FERPA), Eurocadres, ETF, EFBWW, Metalworkers Federation (EMF), EFFAT

No affiliations at national level

MT

EPOU

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

No affiliations at international or European levels

National: Forum Unions Maltin (ForUM)

MT

ESSU

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

On an ad-hoc basis

No affiliations

MT

UHM

n.a.

No

n.a.

n.a.

International: International Organisation of Public Service Employees (INFEDOP); a member of the CMTU, is indirectly affiliated with Commonwealth Trade Union Council (CTUC) and ITUC

European: European Organisation of Public Service Employees (Eurofedop); as a member of the CMTU, is indirectly affiliated with ETUC, and FERPA

National: Confederation of Malta Trade Unions (CMTU)

NL

Abvakabo FNV

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: PSI

European: EPSU (is a member arising from its role in the gas sector)

National: FNV

NL

CNV Publieke Zaak

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: PSI

European: EPSU

National: CNV

NL

VMHP-N

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: Eurocadres MHP (only via Federation of Managerial and Professional Staff Unions –Vakcentrale voor middengroepen en hoger personeel, MHP)

PL

SKE ‘Solidarność’

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international or national affiliations

European: IndustriAll Europe (as a sector relevant part of the Secretariat of Mining and Power Industry of the NSZZ ‘Solidarity’ – SGiE)

PL

SKEE ‘Solidarność’

11

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international or national affiliations

European: EPSU

PL

ZZIT

3.8

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international or European affiliations

National: Trade Unions Forum (Forum Związków Zawodowych, FZZ)

PL

ZZZE

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international or European affiliations

National: All-Poland Alliance of Trade Unions (OPZZ)

PL

OZZZPRC

11

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international or European affiliations

National: FZZ

PT

SINDEL

47

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

On an ad-hoc basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union, PSI

European: IndustriAll Europe, EPSU

National: UGT (General Union of Workers), FETESE (Federation of Service Workers’ Unions)

PT

Fiequimetal

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

No information available on international affiliations

European: IndustriAll Europe (manufacturing)

National: General Confederation of Portuguese Workers (CGTP)

PT

FETESE

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

Information not obtained for international or European affiliations

National: UGT (according to UGT website)

PT

ASOSI

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

Information not obtained on affiliations

RO

Federaţia Univers

48.5

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: EPSU

National: National Trade Union Bloc (Blocul Naţional Sindical, BNS)

RO

Federaţia Energetica

3.9

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: EPSU

National: BNS

RO

UFS Atlas

19.4

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: IndustriAll Europe

National: National Free Trade Union Confederation from Romania Frăţia (Confederaţia Naţională a Sindicatelor Libere din România Frăţia, CNSLR Frăţia)

RO

FNME

8.7

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: ICEM

European: EMCEF, IndustriAll Europe

National: National Trade Union Confederation Cartel Alfa (Confederaţia Naţională Sindicală Cartel Alfa, CNS Cartel Alfa)

RO

Hidrosind

8.7

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: IndustriAll Europe

National: CNSLR Frăţia

RO

Federaţia Termoelectrica

6.8

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

National: CNSLR Frăţia

SE

Vision

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No affiliation at international level

European: EPSU, PSI, NOFS, Nordiska tjänstemannarådet (NTR)

National: Swedish Confederation for Professional Employees (TCO), Public Employees’ Negotiation Council (OFR), Ingenjörsamfundet (ISF)

SE

Ledarna

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

European: European Confederation of Managers (CEC), Eurocadres

National: Council for Negotiation and Cooperation (Privattjänstemannakartellen, PTK)

SE

SEF

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

No affiliation at international level

European: IndustriAll Europe, Nordic Federation of Building and Wood Workers (NFBWW)

National: Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen i Sverige, LO)

SE

Unionen

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: UNI Global Union, European: IndustriAll Europe

National: TCO, PTK 

SE

Kommunal

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: ITF, PSI, International Union of Food Workers (IUL)

European: ETUC, EPSU

Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen, LO)

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union, ICEM, IMF, UNI Global Union

European: Confédération européenne des cadres (CEC), Federation of Professional Engineers (FEANI), Association for Nordic Engineers (ANE), Industri-anställda i Norden (IN)

National: TCO

SE

SACO

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

No affiliations

SE

SEKO

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: PSI

European: ETUC, ETF, UNI Europa, EPSU

National: Nordic Transport Federation (NTF), Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO)

SE

Civilekonomerna

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

International: UNI Global Union, ILO, International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)

European: ETUC, Nordic Association of Economics or Business School Graduates (Nordiska Civilekonomförbundet, NCF), Council of Nordic Trade Unions (Nordens Fackliga Samorganisation, NFS)

National: Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations (Sveriges Akademikers Centralorganisation, SACO)

SI

SDE

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

European: EPSU

National: Union of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia (Zveza svobodnih sindikatov Slovenije, ZSSS)

SI

KNSS-Neodvisnost

n.a.

No

No

n.a.

National: Economic and Social Council of Slovenia

SK

ECHOZ

14.4

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: EPSU, IndustriAll Europe

National: KOZ SR

UK

GMB

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

International: IndustriALL Global Union, BWI, ITF, IUF, PSI, UNI Global Union

European: IndustriAll Europe Union, EFBWW, EFFAT, EPSU, ETF, UNI Europa

National: TUC

UK

Prospect

11

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: ITF, PSI, UNI Global Union

European: Eurocadres, EPSU, ETF, UNI Europa

National: TUC

UK

Unison

10.9

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: PSI

European: EPSU

National: TUC

UK

Unite

39

Yes,

single-employer

bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: IndustriALL Global Union, BWI, ITF, IUF, PSI, UNI Global Union

European: IndustriAll Europe, EFBWW, EFFAT, EPSU, ETF, UNI Europa

National: TUC

Table A4: Domain coverage descriptions of employee organisations, 2012
 

Trade union

Domain coverage

Domain description

AT

GPA-djp

Sectional overlap

White-collar employees in all sectors of the private economy

AT

PRO-GE

Sectional overlap

Blue-collar employees in the private sector from the following industries: electricity, metalworking, mining, energy (other than electricity), agriculture, food-processing, tobacco, chemicals, glass production, paper, textile and clothing, vulcanisation, mineral oil and gas, waste, and temporary agency workers.

AT

GdG-KMSfB

Sectional overlap

Workers in public companies in the following activities: electricity, municipalities, employees, arts, media and sports

BE

ABVV-ACOD Gazelco/FGTB CGSP Gazelco

Overlap

All kind of employees in the electricity sector and gas sector

BE

ACV-CSC BIE

Sectional overlap

All employees in the private electricity sector. It does not cover the workers in the public distribution facilities

BE

CSC Services Publics

Sectional overlap

All employees in the public sector. In the electricity sector, domain is limited to operators in the public sector

BE

CSC-CNE

Sectional overlap

All French-speaking white-collar employees in the private sector

BE

ACLVB-CGSLB 

Overlap

All the sectors

BE

VSOA–SLFP

Sectional overlap

All public employees. In the electricity sector, it covers public sector employment in distribution

BE

LBC

Sectional overlap

White collar workers in the electricity sector

BG

NSFEB

Congruence

All employees in the electricity sector

BG

NFE

Congruence

All employees in the electricity sector

BG

FNE-PODK

Congruence

All employees in the electricity sector

BG

FEW-PODK

Congruence

All employees in the electricity sector

CY

EPOPAI

Sectionalism

Workers employed in EAC

CY

SEPAIK

Sectionalism

Scientific staff in the electricity sector

CY

EAC-SIDIKEK

Sectionalism

Workers employed in EAC

CY

SYVAIC

Sectionalism

Technical personnel working on a shift basis in EAC

CZ

ČOSE

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers employed in the following companies operating outside the electricity sector: ČEZ Teplárenská, Severočeské doly – kolejová doprava, I+C Energo, Energetické opravy, Energotrans.

CZ

OS ECHO

Overlap

Employees in the electricity sector plus employees in the chemical sector (who make up the majority of this trade union membership) as well as security staff of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant

CZ

OS UNIOS

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers in the trade of electricity subsector, plus workers in the gas industry, heating industry, and also in companies run by municipalities, mostly in social and health care

CZ

OS Transgas

Sectional overlap

Trade of electricity subsector plus gas industry

DE

IG BCE

Overlap

All of the energy sector, the chemical sector and the mining sector

DE

Ver.di

Overlap

Most of the public and private service sector

DK

CO-industri

Sectional overlap

All electricity workers except engineers, plus all manufacturing industry sectors

DK

3F

Sectional overlap

Skilled and unskilled workers (except white collar workers) in many sectors within the private as well as the public sector

DK

DEF

Sectional overlap

Blue-collar employees in the electricity sector plus workers in the EL-installation sector

DK

Dansk Metal

Sectional overlap

Blue-collar employees in the electricity sector plus workers in the metal industry

DK

TL

Sectional overlap

Technicians and technical designers in all industry sectors

DK

IDA

Sectional overlap

All engineering activities

DK

HK/Privat

Sectional overlap

White-collar employees in many sectors

EE

EEAÜL

Overlap

The union is active only in the electricity sector, but besides electricity workers represents metal workers, repair workers, construction workers, cleaning workers working in electricity sector

EE

KESA

Sectionalism

Only workers employed in the production of electricity

El

GENOP/DEI-KHE

Overlap

Electricity plus hydroelectric production (including all of the subsectors), renewables and photovoltaic systems

ES

FITAG-UGT

Overlap

Electricity sector plus the following sectors: agriculture, food and drink, textile and leather, mining and chemical

ES

FI-CCOO

Overlap

Electricity sector plus the metal and mining sectors

ES

FI-USO

Overlap

Electricity sector plus textile and clothing, chemical, mining, construction, graphic arts and agriculture

ES

CGT

Overlap

All sectors

ES

ELA-HAINBAT

Sectional overlap

Electricity sector plus chemical, textile, paper, graphics, fisher, mass media and construction in the Basque Country

ES

SIE

Sectional overlap

Workers employed in the companies ENDESA and HIBERDROLA

ES

ATYPE-CC

Sectionalism

Only covers the company group IBERDROLA

ES

Asociación de Cuadros del Grupo Hidrocantábrico

Info not available

Information not available

FI

Sähköliitto

Sectional overlap

Electricians plus workers in other sectors such as metalworking or paper

FI

Pro

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers in several sectors

FI

JHL

Sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in several sectors, mostly in local government

FI

Jyty

Overlap

Electricity sector plus different occupations in the public sector

FI

KTN

Overlap

Employees in the electricity sector plus employees working in other sectors, for instance, in the metalworking or paper sector

FI

YTN

Sectional overlap

Senior salaried employees work in specialist, supervisory and managerial positions in several sectors

FI

SKL

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers in several sectors

FR

FNME-CGT

Overlap

Electricity and gas, energy, mining, petrol and nuclear energy

FR

CFE-CGC Energies

Sectional overlap

Managers, engineers, technicians in the electricity sector and in the gas industry

FR

FCE-CFDT

Overlap

Electricity plus chemicals, pharmaceutical industry, gas, rubber, petrol, pulp and paper, plastic and glass industry

FR

FNEM-FO

Overlap

Electricity, gas industry and mining

FR

CFTC-CMTE

Overlap

Electricity, textile, mining, gas and energy

FR

UNSA Energie

Overlap

Electricity and other industries.

FR

SUD Energie

Overlap

Electricity and gas industry

HU

EVDSZ

Congruence

All employees in the electricity sector

HU

BDSZ

Sectional overlap

Big companies within the production of electricity subsector in northern Hungary and Trans-Danubia, plus mining, textile, clothing, leather sectors

IE

SIPTU

Sectional overlap

Certain grades in Bord Gais, ESB and Bord na Mona, plus employees in nearly all the sectors

IE

Unite

Sectional overlap

Certain grades in ESB, Bord na Mona and Bord Gais, plus members in a large number of private and public sector organisations

IE

ESBOA

Sectionalism

Workers in ESB only

IE

IMPACT

Sectional overlap

Commercial semi-state company Coillte

IE

TEEU

Sectional overlap

Certain craft grades in Bord Gais, ESB and Bord na Mona plus another sectors (not specified in the national report)

IT

Filctem-Cgil

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus employees in chemical, textiles and gas sectors

IT

Flaei-Cisl

Congruence

All employees in the electricity sector

IT

Uiltec-Uil (previously named Uilcem-Uil)

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus employees in chemicals and textiles sectors

IT

UGL

Federazione chimici sindicato energia

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus employees in chemicals and textiles sectors

IT

CISAL FederEnergia

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in gas and water industries

LT

LPPSF

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in the chemicals sector

LT

LEPS ‘Solidarumas’

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in the thermal sector

LU

Syndicat Services et Energie, OGBL

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in telecommunications, sport, real estates, etc.

LU

LCGB Industrie

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in metal and other industry sectors

LV

LAB Enerģija

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in other sectors (not specified in the national report)

MT

GWU

Overlap

All categories of workers, from within all employment sectors

MT

EPOU

Sectionalism

Professional ranks within Enemalta

MT

ESSU

Sectionalism

Senior managerial staff within Enemalta

MT

UHM

Overlap

All categories of workers, from all employment sectors

NL

Abvakabo FNV

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in other sectors (not specified in the national report)

NL

CNV Publieke Zaak

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in other sectors (not specified in the national report)

NL

VMHP-N

Overlap

Potentially covers all kinds of employees, but mainly represents middle and higher personnel in the electricity sector plus workers in other sectors (not specified in the national report)

PL

SKE ‘Solidarność’

Sectionalism

All employees in the electricity sector except those involved in the production of electricity

PL

SKEE ‘Solidarność’

Sectional overlap

Workers within the production of electricity subsector plus workers in other sectors (not specified in the national report)

PL

ZZIT

Sectional overlap

Qualified workers with at least secondary education within a wide range of sectors beyond electricity such as automotive industry, metallurgy, telecommunications, chemical industry, etc.

PL

ZZZE

Overlap

Electricity workers and workers in construction, engineering and maintenance enterprises linked to the electricity sector

PL

OZZZPRC

Sectional overlap

Workers employed under the system of continuous working in the electricity sector and employees of chemical industry, metallurgy and mining industry

PT

SINDEL

Overlap

Workers in all other parts of the energy sector (namely natural gas), environment, water, waste, metal manufacturing, communication and information systems and related activities

PT

Fiequimetal

Overlap

Workers in the electricity sector and workers in a broad range of manufacturing branches (metal, chemical, electrical, pharmaceutical, paper and printing), the non-electric energy sectors (namely gas) and mining

PT

FETESE

Overlap

All categories of workers in the whole economy

PT

ASOSI

Overlap

Workers in electricity sector, all other parts of the energy sector and telecommunications

RO

Federaţia Univers

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in other sectors (not specified in the national report)

RO

Federaţia Energetica

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in other sectors (not specified in the national report)

RO

UFS Atlas

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in other sectors (not specified in the national report)

RO

FNME

Overlap

All employees in the electricity sector plus workers in other sectors (not specified in the national report)

RO

Hidrosind

Sectional overlap

Hydroelectricity and specific services

RO

Federaţia Termoelectrica

Sectional overlap

Production of electricity and specific services

SE

Vision

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers in the public sector and in public owned (fully or partly owned) companies

SE

Ledarna

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers (managers) in the electricity sector and in many other sectors (not specified in the national report)

SE

SEF

Sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in the private electricity sector and installation electricians

SE

Unionen

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers in all the sectors

SE

Kommunal

Sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in all the sectors

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers (managers) in the electricity sector and in other sectors (not specified in the national report)

SE

SACO

Sectional overlap

Workers employed in municipal enterprises

SE

SEKO

Sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in nine sectors: rail transportation, public administration, postal, roads and railways, telecommunications, correctional treatment, energy, defence and maritime

SE

Civilekonomerna

Sectional overlap

White-collar workers in all the sectors

SI

SDE

Sectional overlap

Workers in domestic companies with public or mixed ownership in the electricity sector and in the manufacture and distribution of gas and mining

SI

KNSS-Neodvisnost

Sectional overlap

Workers in domestic companies with public or mixed ownership in the transmission and distribution of electricity, and electronics, metal industry, food products, commerce and other sectors

SK

ECHOZ

Sectional overlap

Workers in transmission, distribution and trade of electricity subsectors and in the chemicals sector

SK

ZOES

Sectionalism

Workers in production and trade of electricity subsectors

UK

GMB

Overlap

Covers the whole economy

UK

Prospect

Sectional overlap

Engineering, scientific, management and specialist grades in the electricity sector and in a wide range of industries

UK

Unison

Overlap

Workers in the electricity sector plus workers across public services (for example, in local government, healthcare and education) and also has members in the voluntary sector and at private contractors providing public services

UK

Unite

Overlap

Covers the whole economy

Employer organisations

Table A5: Domain coverage and membership of employer/business organisations, 2013
 

Employer organisation

Domain coverage

Type of membership

Firms total

Firms in sector

Total employees

in sector

AT

OEE

Congruence

Voluntary

140

140

21,000

21,000

BE

Synergrid

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

35

13

18,288

10,008

BE

FEBEG

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

21

15

16,800

7,550

BG

NEK EAD 

Congruence

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

2,600

2,600

CY

AHK/EAC 

It does not apply

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

2,319

2,319

CZ

ČSZE (Český svaz zaměstnavatelů v energetice)

Overlap

Voluntary

36

14

19,669

14,895

DE

BDEW

Overlap

Voluntary

1849

1127

258,233

134,628

DE

VAEU*

Overlap

Voluntary

453

406

152,609

140,858

DE

VKA*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

10

n.a.

2,280,000

n.a.

DK

DI

Overlap

Voluntary

10

60

1,000,000

n.a.

DK

DE

Overlap

Voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

EE

ETL

Congruence

Voluntary

6

6

8,000

8,000

EL

PPC (ΔΕΗ)

It does not apply

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

EL

HELAS

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

UNESA

Sectionalism

Voluntary

5

5

29,000

29,000

FI

Energiateollisuus ry

Congruence

Voluntary

250

250

15,000

10,000

FR

UFE

Congruence

Voluntary

115

115

115,500

115,500

HU

VTMSZ

Overlap

Voluntary

21

19

103,14

10,314

HU

EMT

n.a.

n.a.

20

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IE

IBEC*

Overlap

Voluntary

7,500

6

n.a.

n.a.

IE

EAI*

Congruence

Voluntary

11

11

n.a.

n.a.

IT

UNEI

Sectionalism

Voluntary

120

120

n.a.

n.a.

IT

Assoelettrica*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

100

100

n.a.

n.a.

IT

Federutility*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

398

80

50,000

11,300

LT

NLEA

Congruence

Voluntary

4

4

3,500

3,500

LU

Organisation des Entreprises d’Electricité du Luxembourg 

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LV

LEEA

Overlap

Voluntary

50

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

MT

Enemalta

Sectionalism

Compulsory

1

1

1

1,613

NL

WENb*

Overlap

Voluntary

50

n.a.

35,000

n.a.

NL

Energie-Nederland*

Overlap

Voluntary

49

n.a.

25,000

n.a.

PL

ZPEC*

Sectionalism

Voluntary

16

16

9,117

9,117

PL

ZPE (Związek Pracodawców Elektrowni) *

Sectionalism

Voluntary

17

17

20,000

20,000

PL

ZPE (Związek Pracodawców Energetyki)*

Overlap

Voluntary

54

26

21,309

15,552

PL

PKEE

Congruence

Voluntary

87

87

81,000

81,000

PT

ELECPOR

Sectional Overlap

Voluntary

6

n.a

10,000

n.a

RO

FPEN*

Overlap

Voluntary

300

250

n.a.

n.a.

RO

APEN*

Overlap

Voluntary

201

100

n.a.

n.a.

RO

PUER*

Overlap

Voluntary

23

12

n.a.

n.a.

RO

ACUE*

Overlap

Voluntary

14

11

20,000

15,000

RO

IRE

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SE

EFA*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

150

130

18,000

14,000

SE

KFS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

574

212

30,000

12,000

SE

Pacta*

n.a.

Voluntary

605

n.a.

48,000

n.a.

SE

Swedenergy

Congruence

Voluntary

169

169

n.a.

n.a.

SI

GZS-EZS*

Overlap

Voluntary

68

n.a.

11,109

n.a.

SI

ZDS*

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

1400

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SK

ZZES

Overlap

Voluntary

29

7

15,000

10,100

UK

ENA (Energy Networks Association)

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

12

8

68,000

40,000

UK

Energy UK

Sectional overlap

Voluntary

71

43

n.a.

n.a.

a= Please find a more detailed description of the trade unions membership domain with regard to the sector in Table A1 in Annex 1

*= Domain overlap with other sector-related employer organisations

n.a. = not available or not applicable

Table A6: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of employer/business organisations, 2013
 

Employer organisation

Sectoral density (%), companies

Sectoral density (%), employees

Collective bargaining

Consultation

National, European international affiliations

AT

OEE

14.1

92.4

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

International: International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE), International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CIRED)

European: Eurelectric, GEODE (European independent gas and electricity distribution companies)

BE

Synergrid

22

59.9

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international affiliations

European: Eurelectric

National: VBO/FEB

BE

FEBEG

25.4

45.2

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international affiliations

European: Eurelectric, Eurogas

National: VBO/FEB

BG

NEK EAD 

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

On a regular basis

International: CIGRE

European: Eurelectric

National: BBKE

CY

AHK/EAC 

Does not apply

Does not apply

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No information on international affiliations

European: Eurelectric, European Centre of Employers and Enterprises providing Public Services (CEEP)

National: Cyprus Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCCI), Cyprus Employers and Industrialists Federation (OEB)

CZ

ČSZE

0.2

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

European: Eurelectric

National: Live Working Association (Asociace práce pod napětím, LWA), Confederation of the Industry of the Czech Republic (Svaz průmyslu ČR, SP ČR)

DE

BDEW

3.2

41.4

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: World Energy Council (WEC) DNK

European: Eurogas, Eureau, Eurelectic, CEEP

No national affiliations

DE

VAEU

1.1

43.3

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international or European affiliations

National: German Confederation of Employers’ Associations (BDA)

DE

VKA

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No national or international affiliations

European: CEEP

DK

DI

0.2

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: BIAC

European: BusinessEurope

National: Confederation of Danish Employers (DA)

DK

DE

n.a.

n.a.

No

Yes

On a regular basis

International: CIGRE

European: Eurelectric

No national affiliations

EE

ETL

6.5

97.6

No

Yes

n.a.

International: WEC

European: Eurelectric

National: Estonian Employers’ Confederation (ETTK)

EL

PPC

Does not apply

Does not apply

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

No information on international affiliations

European: Eurelectric

Hellenic Electricity Association (HELAS)

EL

HELAS

n.a.

n.a.

No

n.a.

n.a.

No information on national or international affiliations

European: Eurelectric

ES

UNESA

0

60.3

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international affiliations

European: Eurelectric

National: CEOE

FI

Energiateollisuus ry

73.5

89.5

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: WEC, International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)

European: Eurelectric, Euroheat and Power, FORATOM, GEODE, EWEA, Nordenergi and European Energy Forum (EEF)

National: Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK)

FR

UFE

100

100

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: Eurelectric

National: Medef

HU

VTMSZ

2.1

71.9

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

On an ad-hoc basis

National: Confederation of Hungarian Employers and Industrialists (Munkaadók és Gyáriparosok Országos Szövetsége, MGYOSZ)

HU

EMT

n.a.

n.a.

No

 

n.a.

European: Eurelectric

IE

IBEC

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: BusinessEurope

IE

EAI

n.a.

n.a.

No

Yes

On a regular basis

European: Eurelectric

IT

UNEI

3.6

n.a.

No

No

n.a.

European: Eurelectric

IT

Assoelettrica

3

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

National: General Confederation of Italian Industry (Confederazione Generale dell’Industria Italiana, Confindustria)

IT

Federutility

2.4

18.8

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

International: WEC

European: Eurelectric, CEEP, European Confederation of Local Energy Companies (CEDEC)

National: UNEI

LT

NLEA

1.7

65.8

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: Eurelectric

LU

Organisation des Entreprises d’Electricité du Luxembourg 

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

European: Eurelectric

LV

LEEA

n.a.

n.a.

No

Yes

On a regular basis

International: WEC

European: Eurelectric

National: LDDK

MT

Enemalta

Does not apply

Does not apply

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On a regular basis

European: Eurelectric

NL

WENb

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: Eurelectric

National: VNO-NCW

NL

Energie-Nederland

n.a.

n.a.

No

Yes

n.a.

European: Eurelectric

PL

ZPEC

0.3

10

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international or European affiliations

National: Federation of Polish Power Industry Employer Unions (FZPEP), Employers of Poland (Pracodawcy RP)

PL

ZPE (Związek Pracodawców Elektrowni)

0.3

21.9

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international or European affiliations

National: FZPEP, Pracodawcy RP

PL

ZPE (Związek Pracodawców Energetyki)

0.5

17

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No international or European affiliations

National: FZPEP, Pracodawcy RP

PL

PKEE

1.7

88.7

No

No

n.a.

No international or national affiliations

European: Eurelectric

PT

ELECPOR

n.a.

n.a.

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: WEC

European: Eurelectric

No national affiliations

RO

FPEN

33.6

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

National: Employer Confederation Concordia (Confederaţia Patronală Concordia, CP Concordia)

RO

APEN

13.4

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

National: FPEN (sectoral level); CP Concordia (national level)

RO

PUER

1.6

n.a.

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

National: FPEN (sectoral level); CP Concordia (national level)

RO

ACUE

1.5

29.1

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

National: CP Concordia

RO

IRE

n.a.

n.a.

No

n.a.

n.a.

European: Eurelectric

SE

EFA

36.2

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

European: Eurelectric

National: Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Näringsliv)

SE

KFS

59.1

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

No

n.a.

European: CEEP

SE

Pacta

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

na

n.a.

European: CEEP

National: Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Region (Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting, SALAR)

SE

Swedenergy

47.1

n.a.

No

Yes

On a regular basis

International: WEC

European: Eurelectric, GEODE, Nordenergi

National: EnergiFöretagens Arbetsgivareförening (EFA)

SI

GZS-EZS

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

European: Eurelectric

SI

ZDS

n.a.

n.a.

No

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

International: Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD (BIAC), International Organisation of Employers (IOE)

European: BusinessEurope

SK

ZZES

2.7

37.7

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad-hoc basis

No affiliations at international level

European: Eurelectric

National: AZZZ SR

UK

ENA

1.2

31.2

No

Yes

On a regular basis

International: International Social Security Association (ISSA)

European: Eurelectric, GEODE, Eurogas, CIGRE, European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC)

National: CBI, Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), British Standards Institution (BSI)

UK

Energy UK

6.3

n.a.

No

Yes

On a regular basis

No affiliations at international level

European: Eurelectric

National: CBI, British Institute of Energy Economics (BIEE), Parliamentary Group for Energy Studies (PSEG), Industry Forum, UK Emissions Trading Group (ETG), Energy and Utilities Skills Council (EU Skills)

A7: Domain coverage descriptions of employer organisations, 2013
 

Employer organisation

Domain coverage

Domain description

AT

OEE

Congruence

Electricity sector

BE

Synergrid

Sectional overlap

Transmission and distribution of electricity plus transport and distribution of gas

BE

FEBEG

Sectional overlap

Producers of electricity, as well as suppliers of electricity and gas

BG

NEK EAD 

Congruence

Electricity sector

CY

AHK/EAC 

It does not apply

EAC is the biggest enterprise in Cyprus in the electricity sector, covering the entire national network

CZ

ČSZE

Overlap

Electricity sector plus the heating industry, specialised schools (universities, colleges of higher education, secondary technical schools), design and research activities

DE

BDEW

Overlap

Electricity sector plus the gas, heating and drinking water supply as well as sewage disposal

DE

VAEU*

Overlap

Electricity sector plus short-distance public transport, rail passenger services. Other members are also involved in disposal services (waste incineration), general business services and gas supply

DE

VKA*

Sectionalism Overlap

Municipal employer associations in the

electricity sector, plus organisations from hospitals and care facilities, public administration, waste disposal companies, public transport and airports

DK

DI

Overlap

Electricity, manufacturing industry, transport, service

DK

DE

Overlap

Electricity sector and companies that produce hardware

EE

ETL

Congruence

Electricity sector

EL

PPC

Does not apply

It is the biggest power producer and electricity supply company in Greece

EL

HELAS

Information not available

Information not available

ES

UNESA

Sectionalism

Electricity sector except trade of electricity

FI

Energiateollisuus ry

Congruence

Electricity sector

FR

UFE

Congruence

Electricity sector

HU

VTMSZ

Overlap

Electricity sector plus two companies (MVM, OVIT) outside the sector

HU

EMT

Information not available

Information not available

IE

IBEC*

Overlap

It represents companies in almost all sectors of the economy

IE

EAI*

Congruence

Electricity sector

IT

UNEI

Sectionalism

Production, distribution and trade of electricity

IT

Assoelettrica*

Sectionalism

Production and trade of electricity

IT

Federutility*

Sectional overlap

Production, distribution and trade of electricity plus gas, water, telecommunications, funeral services

LT

NLEA

Congruence

Electricity sector

LU

Organisation des Entreprises d’Electricité du Luxembourg

n.a.

n.a.

LV

LEEA

Overlap

Electricity sector plus producers of electric equipment, construction and education sector

MT

Enemalta

It does not apply

Enemalta is the sole company in the

electricity sector in Malta

NL

WENb*

Overlap

Electricity sector plus other activities or

sectors not specified in the national report

NL

Energie-Nederland*

Overlap

Electricity sector plus other activities or sectors not specified in the national report

PL

ZPEC*

Sectionalism

Production of electricity

PL

ZPE (Związek Pracodawców Elektrowni)*

Sectionalism

Production of electricity

PL

ZPE (Związek Pracodawców Energetyki)*

Overlap

Companies producing, transmitting, distributing and trading energy of any kind and also their subsidiaries being employer regardless of their activity.

PL

PKEE

Congruence

Electricity sector

PT

ELECPOR

Sectional overlap

Companies in the electricity sector with their HQ in Portugal. Besides, two companies affiliated at ELECPOR have business outside electricity

RO

FPEN*

Overlap

Electricity sector plus other activities or sectors not specified in the national report

RO

APEN*

Overlap

Electricity sector plus other activities or sectors not specified in the national report

RO

PUER*

Overlap

Electricity sector plus other activities or sectors not specified in the national report

RO

ACUE*

Overlap

Electricity sector plus other activities or sectors not specified in the national report

RO

IRE

n.a.

n.a.

SE

EFA*

Sectional overlap

Private companies in the whole energy sector

SE

KFS*

Sectional overlap

Municipality owned companies in the electricity sector and beyond this sector

SE

Pacta*

n.a.

n.a.

SE

Swedenergy

Congruence

Electricity sector

SI

GZS-EZS*

Overlap

Electricity sector and coalmining

SI

ZDS*

Sectional overlap

Domestic companies with public, mixed and private ownership in the production and distribution of electricity plus construction, commerce, textile, chemicals, metal, agriculture and food production and transport

SK

ZZES

Overlap

Electricity sector plus heat-supplier companies and secondary vocational schools

UK

ENA

Sectional overlap

Electricity sector except production and trade plus gas transmission and distribution

UK

Energy UK

Sectional overlap

Electricity sector except distribution plus other parts of energy industry and related activities

Organisation names and abbreviations

Table A7: Abbreviated employee organisation names
 

Abbreviation

Full association name in English

AT

GPA-djp

Union of Salaried Employees, Graphical Workers and Journalists

AT

PRO-GE

Austrian Trade Union for Production Workers

BE

ABVV-ACOD Gazelco/FGTB CGSP Gazelco

Belgian Federation of Labour – General Confederation of Public Services in the gas and electricity sector

BE

ACV-CSC BIE

Confederation of Christian Trade Unions Building, Industry and Energy

BE

CSC Services Publics

Christian Union – Public Services

BE

ACLVB - CGSLB 

Federation of Liberal Trade Unions of Belgium

BE

CSC-CNE

Confederation of Christian Trade Unions – National Federation of White Collar Workers

BE

VSOA –SLFP

Free Trade Union of Civil Servants

BE

LBC

National Federation of White-Collar Workers

BG

NSFEB

Independent Trade Union Federation of Power Engineers in Bulgaria

BG

NFE

National Federation of Energy Workers

BG

FNE-PODK

Federation ‘Nuclear Energy’

BG

FEW-PODK

Federation ‘Energetics’

CY

EPOPAI

Free Pancyprian Organisation of EAC Personnel

CY

SEPAIK

Union of EAC Scientific Personnel

CY

EAC-SIDIKEK

EAC-Local Authority Workers' and Employees' Trade Union

CY

SYVAIK

Union of EAC Shift Workers

CZ

ČOSE

Czech Trade Union of Energy Workers

CZ

OS ECHO

Trade Union of Chemical and Energy Workers

DE

IG BCE

Mining, Chemicals and Energy Union

DE

Ver.di

United Services Union

DK

CO-industri

Central Organisation of Industrial Employees in Denmark

DK

3F

United Federation of Danish Workers

DK

DEF

Danish Union of Electricians

DK

TL

Danish Association of Professional Technicians

DK

IDA

Danish Society of Engineers

DK

HK/Privat

Union of Commercial and Clerical Employees in Denmark

EE

EEAÜL

Association of Estonian Energy Workers’ Trade Unions

EE

KESA

Independent Trade Union of Miners and Energy Workers

EL

GENOP/DEI-KHE

General Federation of Employees at the Public Power Corporation – Electricity Sector

ES

FITAG-UGT

Federation of Industry and Farmer Workers of the General Workers’ Union

ES

FI-CCOO

Federation of Industry of the Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions

ES

FI-USO

Federation of Industry of the Workers’ Trade Unionist Confederation

ES

CGT

General Labour Confederation

ES

ELA-HAINBAT

Basque Workers’ Solidarity

ES

SIE

Independent Union of Energy Sector

ES

ATYPE-CC

Association of Professionals and Technicians of the Energy Sector Iberdrola group

FI

JHL

Trade Union for the Public and Welfare Sectors

FI

Jyty

Federation of Public and Private Sector Employees

FI

KTN

Technics and Health

FI

YTN

Federation of Professional and Managerial Staff

FI

SKL

Finnish Engineers’ Association

FR

FNME-CGT

National Federation of Mining and Energy Workers – General Confederation of Labour

FR

CFE-CGC Energies

Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff – General

Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff Energy sector

FR

FCE-CFDT

Chemical and Energy Federation – French Democratic Federation of Labour

FR

FNEM-FO

Energy and Mine National Federation – Force Ouvrière

FR

CFTC-CMTE

French Christian Workers’ Confederation – Chemical, Mine, Textile and Energy Federation

FR

UNSA Energie

National Federation of Independent Unions, Energy Sector

FR

SUD Energie

Solidarity, Unity, Democracy Energy

HU

EVDSZ

Federation of Electricity Workers’ Unions

HU

BDSZ

Trade Union of Mining, Energy and Industry Workers

IE

SIPTU

Services, Industrial, Professional, Technical Union

     
IE

ESBOA

Electricity Supply Board Officers’ Association

IE

IMPACT

Irish Municipal Public and Civil Trade Union

IE

TEEU

Technical Electrical and Engineering Union

IT

Filctem-Cgil

Italian Federation of Chemical, Textiles, Energy and Manufacturing Workers

IT

Flaei-Cisl

Federation of Workers in Italian Electrical Enterprises

IT

Uiltec-Uil (previously Uilcem-Uil)

Italian Union of Textile, Energy and Chemical Workers

     
IT

CISAL FederEnergia

Italian Confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions, Energy Federation

LT

LPPSF

Lithuanian Industry Trade Unions’ Federation

LT

LEPS ‘Solidarumas’

Lithuanian Trade Union ‘Solidarity’, Energy sector

LU

Syndicat Services et Energie, OGBL

Confederation of Independent Trade Unions, Services and Energy

LU

LCGB Industrie

Luxembourg Confederation of Christian Trade Unions, Industry

LV

LAB Enerģija

Trade Union ‘Enerģija’

MT

GWU

General Workers’ Union

MT

EPOU

Enemalta Professional Officers’ Union

MT

ESSU

Enemalta Senior Staff Union

MT

UHM

Union of United Workers

NL

Abvakabo FNV

Union of Civil Servants, Federation of Dutch Unions

NL

CNV Publieke Zaak

Christian Dutch Trade Union of Civil Servants

NL

VMHP-N

Union for Middle and Higher Personnel – Utility companies

PL

SKE ‘Solidarność’

National Energy Section, ‘Solidarity’

PL

SKEE ‘Solidarność’

National Section of Power Plants and Combined Heat and Power Plants, ‘Solidarity’

PL

ZZIT

Trade Union of Engineers and Technicians

PL

ZZZE

Association of Professional Energy Workers’ Trade Unions

PL

OZZZPRC

Nationwide Alliance of Trade Unions of Continuous Process Industry Employees

PT

SINDEL

National Union of Manufacturing and Energy

PT

Fiequimetal

Federation of Metalworking, Mining, Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Petroleum and Gasworkers’ Unions

PT

FETESE

Portuguese Federation of Service Workers’ and Technicians’ Unions

PT

ASOSI

Trade Union Association of Workers in the Energy and Telecommunications Sector

RO

UFS Atlas

Trade Union Federation Atlas

RO

FNME

National Mining and Energy Federation

RO

Hidrosind

Trade Union Federation Hidrosind

SE

Ledarna

Swedish Association for Managerial and Professional

Staff

SE

SEF

Swedish Electricians’ Union

SE

SACO

Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations

SE

SEKO

Swedish Association for Service and Communications

SE

Civilekonomerna

Swedish Association of Economics or Business School Graduates

SI

SDE

Trade Union of Energy Sector Workers

SI

KNSS-Neodvisnost

Confederation of New Trade Unions of Slovenia

SK

ECHOZ

Energy-Chemicals Trade Union Association

SK

ZOES

Slovakia Association of Energy Trade Unions

UK

GMB

General, Municipal, Boilermakers and Allied Trade Union

Table A8: Abbreviated employer organisation names and English versions
 

Abbreviation

Full association name

AT

OEE

Austria Energy (‘Austria’s Energy Economy’ is also used)

BE

Synergrid

Belgian Federation of Electricity and Gas Grid Administrators

BE

FEBEG

Belgian Federation of Belgian Electricity and Gas Enterprises

BG

NEK EAD 

National Electric Company

CY

AHK/EAC 

Electricity Authority of Cyprus

CZ

ČSZE

Czech Association of Energy Sector Employers

DE

BDEW

German Association of Energy and Water Industries

DE

VAEU

Federation of Employer Organisations for Energy and Utility providers

DE

VKA

Municipal Employers’ Association

DK

DI

Confederation of Danish Industries

DK

DE

Danish Energy Association

EE

ETL

Association of Estonian Electrical Industry

EL

PPC

Public Power Corporation

EL

HELAS

Hellenic Electricity Association

ES

UNESA

Spanish Electricity Industry Association

FI

ET

Finnish Energy Industries Association

FR

UFE

French Electricity Industry Employers’ Association

HU

VTMSZ

Association of Electricity Industry Companies

IE

IBEC

Irish Business and Employers’ Confederation

IE

EAI

Electricity Association of Ireland

IT

UNEI

Union of Italian Electricity Companies

IT

Assoelettrica

National Association of Electrical Enterprises

IT

Federutility

Federation of Energy and Water Enterprises

LT

NLEA

National Association of Lithuanian Electricity

LV

LEEA

Latvian Association of Power Engineers and Energy Constructors

MT

Enemalta

Malta Electricity Corporation

NL

WENb

Employers’ Association for Energy and Utility Companies

NL

Energie-Nederland

Association Energy-Netherlands

PL

ZPEC

Union of Heat and Power Plant Employers

PL

ZPE (Związek Pracodawców Elektrowni)

Power Station Employers’ Union

PL

ZPE (Związek Pracodawców Energetyki)

Power Plant Employers’ Union

PL

PKEE

Polish Electricity Association

PT

ELECPOR

Portuguese Association of Electric Power Companies

RO

FPEN

Energy Employers’ Federation

RO

APEN

Energy Employers’ Organisation

RO

PUER

Union of Romanian Energy Power Employers

RO

ACUE

Association of Energy Utility Providers

RO

IRE

Romanian Institute for Energy Development Studies

SE

EFA

Energy Employers’ Association

SE

KFS

Municipality Companies’ Cooperative Organisation

SE

Pacta

Employers’ Association of Local Federations of Local Authorities and Enterprises

SI

GZS-EZS

Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia – Energy Industry Chamber of Slovenia

SK

ZZES

Association of Power Industry Employers in Slovakia

UK

ENA

Energy Networks’ Association

EF/13/93

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