This report examines the upward and downward trends in job quality across the EU from 1995 to 2010. The improvement and harmonisation of working conditions are core objectives of the European Union, but many factors affect job quality.
Working time policies, although designed within the national and sectoral framework and the boundaries of institutional regulations, are fine-tuned and implemented at the level of each company, taking account of the environment in which the...
On 14 December 1995, the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), the Union
of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE) and the
European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises
of General Economic Interest (CEEP) signed a European framework agreement
allowing employees to take parental leave. Since this agreement was not
itself binding on Member States, an EU Directive - which had to be
incorporated into the national legislation of every Member State - was
adopted in June 1996 formalising the scheme. In Belgium's case, this took
place in April 1997 through a collective agreement negotiated in the National
Labour Council  for all private-sector employees, which comes into effect