Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Metal sector – France

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Employee representation,
  • Stosunki pracy,
  • Dialog społeczny,
  • Social partners,
  • Published on: 22 Grudzień 2010



About
Country:
France
Author:
Institution:

The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations in the metal sector in France. In order to determine their relative importance in the sector’s industrial relations, this study will, in particular, focus on their representational quality as well as on their role in collective bargaining.

1. Sectoral properties

In the aftermath of the Second World War, metal was one of the so-called high-tech sectors that played a key role in the reconstruction and development of the French economy. Over the course of 30 years, the sector has changed greatly, with occupations using high technology.

  1996 2007**
Number of employers

n.a.

5,710

Aggregate employment*

n.a.

n.a.

Male employment* as a % of total employment in the sectoral

12%

16%

Female employment* as a % of total employment in the sectoral

12%

16%

Aggregate employees

1,680,000

1,580,000

Male employees

1,478,232

1,327,042

Female employees

201,768

252,958

Aggregate sectoral employment as a % of total employment in the economy ( E ) #

6.14%

6.19%

Aggregate sectoral employees as a % of the total number of employees in the economy

6.32%

6.78%

* Employees plus self-employed persons and agency workers. **Or most recent data.

Source: http://www.industrie.gouv.fr/sessi/panorama/pano07/f51.htm

# Annual declaration of social data (DADS) by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE)

It is impossible to obtain data on employment, specifically data including self-employed workers and TAW, as information about non-employee based employment is based on non-specific figures. Employment estimations do not provide a detailed male/female breakdown for the steel sector. However, the DADS provide us with a percentage figure for the number of women in the sector.

2. The sector’s trade unions and employer associations

This section includes the following trade unions and employer associations:

1. trade unions which are party to sector-related collective bargaining;

  • French Democratic Confederation of Labour (CFDT)
  • French Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff – General Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff (CFE-CGC)
  • French Christian Workers’ Confederation (CFTC)
  • General Confederation of Labour (CGT)
  • Force Ouvrière (FO)

2. trade unions which are a member of the sector-related European federation, namely the European Metalworkers’ Federation (EMF)

  • CGT
  • Force Ouvrière – Metal (FO Métaux)
  • Fédération Nationale C.F.T.C. des Syndicats de la Métallurgie et Parties Similaires (CFTC Métallurgie FM-CFTC)
  • State Employees’ Federation – General Confederation of Labour (FNTE-CGT)
  • Fédération Syndicale FO de la Défense des Industries de l'Armement et des secteurs assimiles (FO Défense)
  • Metalworking and Mining Workers’ Federation – French Democratic Confederation of Labour (FGMM-CFDT)
  • French Democratic Confederation of Labour – Public Sector Defence Workers’ Federation (CFDT-FEAE)
  • French Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff – General Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff (CFE-CGC)

3. employer associations that are party to sector-related collective bargaining;

The Union of Metallurgy and Mining Industries (UIMM) affiliated to the Movement of French Enterprises (MEDEF) is the only employer representative for employment issues, representing employers in this sector.

4. employer associations (business associations) that are a member of the sector-related European business federation, namely the Council of European Employers of the Metal, Engineering and Technology-based Industries (CEEMET);

UIMM

2a Data on the trade unions

2a.1 Type of membership (voluntary vs. compulsory)

Voluntary

2a.2 Formal demarcation of membership domain (e.g. white-collar workers, private-sector workers, metalworking employees, etc.)

Trade union membership and the affiliation of national company unions to a given federation are both rooted in history. Consequently, private sector or public sector employees in public enterprises and in the Office of Naval Construction (DCN) generally join federations of public sector, naval shipyard and defence workers.

Except for the representative union of one category of staff (professional and managerial staff for the CFE-CGC), the other six unions are of a general nature and thus recruit members of all grades.

2a.3 Number of union members (i.e. the total number of members of the union as a whole)

The number of members is declared by each union. It is therefore difficult to access real figures. The majority of unions do not wish to divulge information on their membership numbers.

2a.4 Number of union members in the sector

Data is not available.

2a.5 Female union members as a percentage of total union membership

Data is not available.

2a.6 Domain density: total number of members of the union in relation to the number of potential members as demarcated by the union domain (see 2a.2)

The figures for union membership for the whole sector (based on the NACE code) are not available at this level of aggregation at the Ministry of Employment. The few available figures should therefore be assessed with the greatest possible caution. Estimation: between 5 and 7 % (E)

2a.7 Sectoral density: total number of members of the union in the sector in relation to the number of employees in the sector, as demarcated by the NACE definition

Union density is thought to be about 7 % (E).

2a.8 Sectoral domain density: total number of members of the union in the sector in relation to the number of employees which work in that part of the sector as covered by the union domain

Data is not available.

2a.9 Does the union conclude collective agreements?

The five representative trade unions listed above negotiate in this sector ;

  • CFDT
  • CFE-CGC
  • CFTC
  • CGT
  • FO

2a.10 For each association, list their affiliation to higher-level national, European and international interest associations (including cross-sectoral associations)

All of the following trade unions are affiliated to the EMF:

  • CGT
  • FO Metaux
  • CFTC Métallurgie FM-CFTC
  • FNTE-CGT
  • FO Défense
  • FGMM-CFDT
  • CFDT-FEAE
  • CFE-CGC

All of the following trade unions are affiliated to the International Metalworkers’ Federation (IMF);

  • CGT
  • FO Métaux
  • CFTC Métallurgie FM-CFTC
  • FGMM-CFDT
  • CFE-CGC

2b Data on the employer associations

2b.1 Type of membership (voluntary vs. compulsory)

As is the case for employees, membership of employer associations is voluntary in France.

2b.2 Formal demarcation of membership domain (e.g. SMEs, small-scale crafts/industry, metalworking enterprises, etc.)

Not in this sector.

2b.3 Number of member companies (i.e. the total number of members of the association as a whole)

Data is not available.

2b.4 Number of member companies in the sector

Data is not available. www.uimm.fr/fr/pdf/industrie_metallurgique_en_chiffres2009.pdf

(cf. point 1)

2b.5 Number of employees working in member companies (i.e. the total number of the association as a whole)

Data is not available. www.uimm.fr/fr/pdf/industrie_metallurgique_en_chiffres2009.pdf

2b.6 Number of employees working in member companies in the sector

Data is not available.

2b.7 Domain density in terms of companies: total number of member companies of the association in relation to the number of potential member companies as demarcated by the association’s domain (see 2b.2)

Almost all. Detailed information is not available.

2b.8 Sectoral density in terms of companies: total number of member companies of the association in the sector in relation to the number of companies in the sector, as demarcated by the NACE definition

Almost all. Detailed information is not available.

2b.9 Sectoral domain density in terms of companies: total number of member companies of the association in the sector in relation to the number of companies which operate in that part of the sector as covered by the association’s domain

Almost all. Detailed information is not available.

2b.10 Domain density in terms of employees represented: total number of employees working in the association’s member companies in relation to the number of employees working in potential member companies, as demarcated by the association’s domain (see 2b.2)

Almost all. Detailed information is not available.

2b.11 Sectoral density in terms of employees represented: total number of employees working in the association’s member companies in the sector in relation to the number of employees in the sector, as demarcated by the NACE definition

Almost all. Detailed information is not available.

2b.12 Sectoral domain density in terms of employees represented: total number of employees working in the association’s member companies in the sector in relation to the number of employees working in companies which operate in that part of the sector as covered by the association’s domain

Almost all. Detailed information is not available.

2b.13 Does the employer association conclude collective agreements?

Yes

2b.14 For each association, list their affiliation to higher-level national, European and international interest associations (including the cross-sectoral associations).

UIMM is affiliated to MEDEF, the only employer representative for employment issues in this sector.

UIMM is also a member of CEEMET

3. Inter-associational relationships

3.1. Please list all trade unions covered by this study whose domains overlap.

  • FGMM-CFDT
  • CFDT-FEAE
  • CGT
  • FNTE-CGT
  • FO
  • FO Métaux
  • FO Défense

Except for the representative union of one category of staff (professional and managerial staff for the CFE-CGC), the other unions are of a general nature and thus recruit members of all grades.

3.2. Do rivalries and competition exist among the trade unions, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

In 2013, the rules of representativeness will change at the sectoral level.

In 2008-2009, rules of representativeness changed at the firm’s level.

The description, which has already been made of the way industrial relations are organised in France, means that the questions in this section (3.2; 3.3; 3.4; 3.5; 3.6; 3.7) are not relevant. In France, all unions that are recognised as being representative have access to collective bargaining. The unions (CGT, CFDT, CGT-FO, CFTC, CFE-CGC) are affiliated to the five confederations holding representative organisation status at national level and therefore have the right to take part in collective bargaining.

Given that their domains of unionisation overlap, all the unions are open to competition and to making alliances regarding collective bargaining and consultations in the area of drawing up public policy.

Following the multi-industry agreement on modernising the labour market in January 2008 (FR0802049I), four of the eight representative social partner organisations adopted a so-called ‘common position’ on representativeness and collective bargaining on 9 April 2008. Four months after discussions began on the issue of social dialogue, the common position was approved, on the employer side, by MEDEF and the General Confederation of Small and Medium-sized Firms (CGPME). On the trade union side, the common position was approved by the CFDT and CGT.

New representativeness rules proposed

Up until now, trade union representativeness is based on the assumption of the irrefutable representativeness of the five major trade unions in the French labour market, as listed above. In the future, however, trade union representativeness will be based on workplace election results (FR0502110F, FR0309102T), with different thresholds depending on the level.

  • At company level, representative trade unions would be those that obtain jointly at least 10% of recorded votes in the first round of workplace elections.
  • At sectoral level, representative trade unions would be those that obtain at least 8% of recorded votes in the first round of workplace elections – this is a transitional threshold defined for an indeterminate period.
  • At national level, representative trade unions would be those that obtain at least 8% of recorded votes in the first round of workplace elections and are also representative throughout the country, as well as in several sectors of industry, construction, commerce and services.

Any other trade union which has been legally created and existed for at least two years would be able to present candidates in the first round of workplace elections.

New rules regarding validity of collective agreements

The validity of collective agreements, which to date require the signature of just one trade union (provided there is no opposition from other majority unions ( FR0507104F)), would be effective in the following instances:

  • In companies, from 2009 onwards; if one or several trade unions that obtain at least 30% of recorded votes in the workplace elections sign the agreement;
  • In sectors, from 2013 onwards, if one or several trade unions that obtain at least 30% of recorded votes in the workplace elections sign the agreement;
  • At national level, also from 2013 onwards, if one or several trade unions that obtain at least 30% of recorded votes in the workplace elections sign the agreement.

In all of these instances, an agreement becomes valid only if none of the trade unions representing a majority in terms of votes cast contests the agreement.

After a transitional period – that is, from 2013 onwards – the social partners’ common position proposes a four-yearly revision of the list of representative trade unions at sectoral and multi-industry levels.

Moreover, trade unions will be able to designate union representatives with the power to negotiate, but only when their unions are recognised as being representative in the company. Any other trade union section which has been legally created and existed for at least two years could designate a representative at company level without bargaining powers.

In addition, sectoral agreements could provide for bargaining in companies employing between 10 and 200 workers where trade unions exist, through:

  • an employee representative
  • an employee who is given a mandate by a trade union.

Finally, ‘company-level agreements concluded with representative unions’ would be able to, ‘on an experimental basis, exceed the maximum amount of overtime (218 hours a year) specified in the sector-level agreement’. Under the law of 20 August 2008, a company’s representative trade union organisations will be likely to change within the company after the workplace elections. This means that trade unions affiliated to the 5 major trade union confederations will only be representative if they have achieved 10% in a workplace election.

Moreover, the first round of elections, on which representativeness will be based, will be open to any trade union organisation that satisfies the basic criteria (respect of the Republican values, autonomy, 2 years’ seniority), coverage of the professional domain and geographical range of the company or business. Non-representative organisations satisfying these criteria, and having failed to achieve 10% at the elections, may appoint a representative from the trade union sector, thereby ensuring a trade union presence within the company.

3.3. If yes, are certain trade unions excluded from these rights?

Not relevant. There are a small number of other trade unions, but none of them have obtained the status of representative organisations enabling them to participate in collective bargaining.

3.4. Same question for employer associations as 3.1.

Not relevant.

3.5. Same question for employer associations as 3.2.

Not relevant.

3.6. Same question for employer associations as 3.3.

Not relevant.

3.7. Are there large companies or employer associations which refuse to recognise the trade unions and refuse to enter collective bargaining?

Not relevant.

4. The system of collective bargaining

4.1. Estimate the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage (i.e. the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector).

The unified nature of the enterprise in the sector and French industrial relations rules limit the scope of questions 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3.

According to Ministry of Employment figures (the ACEMO (Labour Activity and Employment Status) survey), 95% of employees in the sector – apart from those in French overseas departments who have an ad hoc agreement – are covered by a collective agreement. The rate of coverage of agreements is 95%; there is no extension, nor are there multi-employer agreements.

4.2. Estimate the relative importance of multi-employer agreements and of single-employer agreements as a percentage of the total number of employees covered. (Multi-employer bargaining is defined as being conducted by an employer association on behalf of the employer side. In the case of single-employer bargaining, it is the company or its subunit(s) which is the party to the agreement. This includes the cases where two or more companies jointly negotiate an agreement.)

All employees are covered by a collective industry-wide agreement. In addition, large companies negotiate a number of additional company-wide agreements on a variety of issues on an annual basis.

4.2.1. Is there a practice of extending multi-employer agreements to employers who are not affiliated to the signatory employer associations?

No.

Following the multi-industry agreement on modernising the labour market in January 2008 (FR0802049I), four of the eight representative social partner organisations adopted a so-called ‘common position’ on representativeness and collective bargaining on 9 April 2008. Four months after discussions began on the issue of social dialogue, the common position was approved, on the employer side, by MEDEF and the CGPME. On the trade union side, the common position was approved by the CFDT and CGT.

4.2.2. If there is a practice of extending collective agreements, is this practice pervasive or rather limited and exceptional?

In France, this practice is pervasive in general, but not in this sector.

4.3. List all sector-related multi-employer wage agreements* valid in 2007 (or most recent data), including for each agreement information on the signatory parties and the purview of the agreement in terms of branches, types of employees and territory covered.

* Only wage agreements which are (re)negotiated on a reiterated basis.

Not relevant.

4.4. List the sector’s four most important collective agreements (single-employer or multi-employer agreements) valid in 2007 (or most recent data), including for each agreement information on the signatory parties and the purview of the agreement in terms of branches, types of employees and territory covered. Importance is measured in terms of employees covered.

Four most important agreements in terms of employees covered
Bargaining parties Purview of the agreements
www.uimm.fr/fr/pdf/accords_metaux/convention_13031972_modifiee_av_03032006.pdf

Sectoral

Type of employees

Territorial

National agreement of 14 December 2006 on the scale of minimum guaranteed salary of engineers and executives from the year 2007

Accord national du 14 décembre 2006

Metal

All

 

National Agreement of 19 June 2007 on professional equality and measures to reduce the pay gap between women and men

Accord national du 19 juin 2007

Metal

All

 

National agreement of 13 December 2007 on the scale of minimum guaranteed salary of engineers and executives from the year 20078

Accord national du 13 décembre 2007

Metal

All

 

National agreement of 5 February 2009 on the scale of minimum guaranteed salary of engineers and executives from the year 2009

Accord national du 5 février 2009

Metal

All

 

National Agreement of 7 May 2009 on urgent measures for use in metal sector

Accord national du 7 mai 2009

Metal

All

 

5. Formulation and implementation of sector-specific public policies

5.1. Are the sector’s employer associations and trade unions usually consulted by the authorities in sector-specific matters? If yes, which associations?

No. However a new law, adopted on 17 January 2007, obliges the government to consult with social partners prior to labour reforms. The law is aimed at modernising social dialogue and could lead to the negotiation of a national cross-sector collective agreement, which would in turn be taken into account in a draft law proposed by the government.

New procedures for consultations and collective bargaining

The 2007 Law on modernising social dialogue (in French) provides for compulsory consultations, before the government can propose any reforms on:

  • individual and collective labour relations;
  • employment;
  • vocational training.

All such reforms would come within the remit of national cross-sector collective bargaining. However, other reforms, which have an indirect impact on labour regulations – such as social protection and tax policies – appear to be excluded from this procedure, as do reforms at sector level.

The new law stipulates that any proposed reforms in the field of industrial relations, employment and vocational training should first be the subject of consultations with the national-level representative trade unions and employer organisations. The government will provide these bodies with a policy document, which presents ‘diagnoses, objectives and principal options’. The social partners will then be able to indicate whether or not they intend to embark on negotiations and how much time they need in order to reach an agreement.

This procedure will not apply in ‘emergency situations’; in such cases, the government would have to justify its decision, which can be legally challenged.

When drawing up its draft law following the consultation procedure, the government is not obliged to adopt the content of a collective agreement as its own. However, depending on the issue at hand, it must submit the draft law to:

  • the National Collective Bargaining Commission (CNNC) for reforms concerning industrial relations;
  • the Higher Employment Committee for reforms relating to employment;
  • the National Council for Lifelong Vocational Training (CNFPTLV) for reforms relating to training.

The social partners represented in these bodies therefore have the possibility of assessing whether or not the government’s proposals are in line with any relevant collective agreement and, if necessary, to give their opinion. An initial proposal to combine these consultative bodies in a single ‘social dialogue council’ was abandoned by the government.

Consultations with social partners

According to the new law, each year the government has to present to the CNNC the main policy orientations in the areas concerned, as well as its programme of reforms for the next year. At the same time, the social partners must outline the state of progress of cross-sector collective bargaining and their planned programme for the year ahead.

The government must present to the parliament an annual report on the state of consultations during the past year.

Panorama of national consultation of social partners in France:

The social partners at national level are consulted according to the matter in question and they are:

  • National commission for collective bargaining (CNNC);
  • Higher committee for employment (CSE);
  • National council for lifelong professional training (CNFPT).

According to article L2 of the Code du Travail (labour code), the government presents draft legislative and regulatory texts in the domain defined in article L1 in light of the results of the consultation and bargaining procedure.

It presents these to either the CNNC, CSE or CNFDT, according to conditions stipulated in articles L. 2271-1, L. 5112-1 et L. 6123-1 respectively.

Article R. 2272-3

Nine seats of the 18 reserved for employers are reserved for MEDEF and 18 for the trade union organisations, as follows:

  • Six representatives proposed by the CGT;
  • Four representatives proposed by the CFDT;
  • Four representatives proposed by the CGT–FO;
  • Two representatives proposed by the CFTC;
  • Two representatives proposed by the CFE-CGC.

Professional equality

Under articles D. 1145-1 and 2, the Higher Council for Professional Equality between Women and Men is consulted on:

  • draft laws and decrees whose objective is to ensure professional equality between women and men;
  • texts concerning special working conditions particular to one sex or the other.

Policy for the prevention of professional risks

Under article R4641-1, the Higher Council for the Prevention of professional Risks assists in drafting national policy. It suggests to the minister responsible for labour any measures likely to improve health and safety in the workplace and in working conditions.

It generates and promotes any initiatives likely to improve professional risk prevention.

According to Article R4641-2, the Higher Council is consulted on:

  • draft laws, decrees and orders concerning the health and safety of workers, with the exception of drafts exclusively concerning the agricultural professions;
  • recommendations to be made to the professional, safety and working conditions authorities defined in article L. 4643-1.

Other consultations with social partners in France at regional or local levels

Regional committees for the prevention of professional risks (CRPRP)

These are consultant authorities appointed to regional prefects. They assist in defining regional policies for health and safety at work and improved working conditions.

According to Art. R. 231-24-3, the regional committee:

  • assists in preparing and reviewing regional diagnostics focused on working conditions and the prevention of professional risks;
  • is consulted about the regional health at work plan, which defines objectives, actions and resources in respect of improving health and safety at work. The plan consists of a risk prevention programme in conjunction with the work of the regional public health programme mentioned in article L. 1411-11 of the public health code.
  • gives its opinion on the regional orientation of state policies concerning health and safety at work presented to it by the state authorities.

Local joint commissions

Article L. 2234-1

Professional or multi-professional joint commissions may be created at local, departmental or regional level by agreement reached under conditions stipulated in article L. 2231-1.

Article L. 2234-2

The joint commissions:

  • contribute to the preparation and implementation of collective work conventions and agreements, negotiate and conclude agreements of local interest, especially in the domain of jobs and continuous training;
  • examine individual and collective claims;
  • examine any other issues in relation to the employment and working conditions of the employees concerned.

Several commissions have been created at multi-professional departmental level, for example in the Gers and Hautes-Alpes départements, however to date none are known in the metallurgy sector.

5.2. Do tripartite bodies dealing with sector-specific issues exist? If yes, please indicate their domain of activity (for instance, health and safety, equal opportunities, labour market, social security and pensions etc.), their origin (agreement/statutory) and the interest organisations having representatives in them:

Sector-specific public policies*
Name of the body and scope of activity Bipartite/tripartite Origin: agreement/statutory Trade unions having representatives Employer associations having representatives
The Technical Centre for engineering

Bipartite

agreement

CFDT, CFE-CGC, CFTC, CGT, CGT-FO

UIMM

The joint technical committees or DCNS (°) Comité technique paritaire, CTP

Bipartite

statutory

CFDT, CFE-CGC, CFTC, CGT, CGT-FO, the National Federation of Independent Unions (UNSA)

Direction DCN

*Sector-specific policies specifically target and affect the sector under consideration.

**Taking into account the history of DCNS (see point 2a2) (FR0108075N) which belongs to the UIMM, in this group there are private sector and public employees, with civil servants and state-employed workers working in the company. The collective agreement which applies to all employees is the group agreement, which is why there is a joint technical committee.

6. Statutory regulations of representativeness

6.1. In the case of the trade unions, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union must meet, so as to be entitled to conclude collective agreements? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

In accordance with the government decree of 31 March 1966, five unions are considered to be representative at national level: CFDT, CFE-CGC, CFTC, CGT, CGT-FO. These unions are authorised to negotiate and sign nationwide, sector-wide and company-wide agreements.

The courts may recognise the representativeness of other organisations, based on representativeness criteria established by the law and case law.

For sector-wide negotiations in the telecoms sector (applicable to employees governed by private law), only the five unions are considered to be representative and take part in the aforementioned negotiations.

Prior to the Fillon law of 2004 (FR0404105F), an agreement was valid if signed by one trade union. Since then, a sector-wide agreement is only valid if the majority of the representative unions at sector level do not oppose it (in other words three unions out of the total of five). At company level, unions representing the majority of employees at the last workplace elections had a right of opposition. Unions recently made use of this right of opposition in two companies in the sugar production sector.

A sector-wide agreement can rule that sector-wide or company-wide agreements are only valid if signed by unions which together represent the majority of employees.

In 2008 parliament adoped a new law on social democracy and working time reform (FR0808039I), under which this rule was to be abolished within five years. As set out in the 'common position' (FR0807039I), in order for a union to be representative and participate in company-level bargaining, it must obtain at least 10% of the votes in workplace elections. This threshold is set at 8% for bargaining at sector and national levels.

6.2. In the case of the trade unions, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union must meet, so as to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy and to participate in tripartite bodies? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

The government generally consults the trade union organisations which are considered to be representative at national level.

6.3. Are elections for a certain representational body (e.g. works councils) established as criteria for trade union representativeness? If yes, please report the most recent electoral outcome for the sector.

No. In companies, the results of works councils elections serve as criteria for the validity or otherwise of company-wide agreements and for the right of opposition (see 6.1).

Since the Law of August 2008, workplace elections (works councils and employee representatives) will acquire a value for company, branch and multi-professional representations in 2013 (results will be known in 2013).

6.4. Same question for employer associations as 6.1.

There are no official representativeness criteria for employer associations.

6.5. Same question for employer associations as 6.2.

No.

6.6. Are elections for a certain representational body established as criteria for the representativeness of employer associations? If yes, please report the most recent outcome for the sector.

No.

7. Commentary

For a decade the sector has been undergoing major changes and restructuring and it is therefore not easy to pinpoint and identify what the sector is like, especially since at trade union level the steel sector generally has two federations for each of the confederations.

In France, data consistent with the NACE code are not yet available and statisticians advise caution with the data used in this study.

Since the Law of August 2008, data on the number of members will be available in a few years (2013).

Environmental issues are becoming topics that governments, employer organisations and trade unions pay increasing attention to.

Before the end of 2009, the government announced that it would bring together all social partners on the future of the industry. This meeting comes at an important time when all sides are conducive to discussions on this topic. The social partners are negotiating on the employment of older and young workers in the metallurgy sector. This negotiation could reach a collective agreement before the end of 2010.

8. List of consulted organisations and individuals

CGT – M. Martelle

FO Métaux – F. Clariana

CFTC Metallurgie FM-CFTC – M Canivez and M Guinevesse

FNTE/CGT

FO Défense – G Goulm and A. Barillier

FGMM-CFDT

CFDT-FEAE – L Scappini

UIMM – P Chartron

Benoît Robin, Institute for Economic and Social Research (IRES)

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