Estonia: Representativeness of the European social partner organisations in the electricity sector

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 26 Styczeń 2014



About
Country:
Estonia
Author:
Institution:

The electricity sector in Estonia is very small, with the share of employment in 2011 at around 1.3% of total national employment. Despite the financial crisis, the number of employees has remained quite stable, although the number of enterprises in the sector has almost doubled, from 56 in 2005 to 92 in 2011. There are two trade unions (EEAÜL and KESA) and several employer associations. The sector is covered by enterprise-level collective agreements that cover most employees.

Sectoral properties

Economic background

The electricity sector is very small in Estonia, accounting for about 1.5% of the country’s employees in 2011. The employment in the sector increased significantly from 2003, reaching 11,300 in 2006, but decreasing after that, showing that it, like many other sectors, was affected by the crisis. However, employment increased from 8,200 in 2011 to 9,300 in 2012. Overall, employment in the sector has remained quite stable, at around 8,000–9,000 from 2001 to 2012. During 2005 to 2011, the number of enterprises in the sector almost doubled, from 56 in 2005, to 92 in 2011.

Sectoral coverage

This representativeness study covers companies and employees in the electricity sector, as defined by NACE Rev. 2 code 35.1:

35.1 Electric power generation, transmission and distribution

35.11 Production of electricity

35.12 Transmission of electricity

35.13 Distribution of electricity

35.14 Trade of electricity

Development of sectoral employment and companies

 

2001

2011

Number of companies in the sector (including one-person companies and self-employed)

56 (in 2005)

92

Comment

The data is only available since 2005 and does not include data of sole proprietors

The data does not include sole proprietors

Source of company data

Statistics Estonia; data about enterprises has been collected on the basis of the annual statistical questionnaire ‘EKOMAR’

Statistics Estonia; data about enterprises has been collected on the basis of the annual statistical questionnaire ‘EKOMAR’

Aggregate employment

8,600

8,200

Male employment

7,300

6,600

Female employment

1,300

1,600

Share of sectoral employment as a % of total employment in the economy

1.5

1.3

Source of employment figures

Statistics Estonia, Labour Force Survey

Statistics Estonia, Labour Force Survey

Comment

The data includes employment for the whole NACE code D electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

The data includes employment for the whole NACE code D electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

Aggregate employees

8,600

8,200

Male employees

7,300

6,600

Female employees

1,300

1,600

Share of sectoral employees as a % of total employees in the economy

1.6

1.5

Source of employee figures

Statistics Estonia, Labour Force Survey

Statistics Estonia, Labour Force Survey

Comment

The data includes employment for the whole NACE code D electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

The data includes employment for the whole NACE code D electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

2. Overview of the industrial relations landscape in the sector

Although there are many employer associations in the sector, collective bargaining takes place only at enterprise level, as the sector is dominated by one large company. There are two trade unions in the sector and most employees working in the sector are covered by a collective agreement. Overall, the sector has been going through many changes; from 1 January, 2013 the Estonian electricity market was opened and the issue of reducing the subsidies for renewable energy producers has also been on the agenda.

3. The sector’s trade unions and employer associations

This report includes detailed information on the following trade unions and employer associations:

(i) trade unions (or employees’ interest organisations) and employer organisations (or business associations) which are affiliated to the sector-related European Union Federation(s) or the sector-related European Employer/Business Federation(s) and represent members in the sector

The sector-related European employee organisations are:

  • IndustriAll Europa;
  • European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU).

The sector-related European employer organisations are:

  • The union of the electricity industry (EURELECTRIC).

(ii) trade unions and employer organisations which are party to sector-related collective bargaining and represent members in the sector.

This report does not include detailed information on the following organisations, because they fall outside the remit of the study:

iii) Affiliates to EU-level sectoral social partners, but without members in the sector. These are the affiliates of EPSU and IndustriAll Europa that have members in other sectors but not in the electricity sector. Use these weblinks for a full list of the IndustriAll affiliates and EPSU affiliates.

iv) Organisations which are involved in sector-related collective bargaining, but do not represent members in the sector.

v) Organisations which represent members in the sector, but are not involved in sector-related collective bargaining, and are not members of EU-level sectoral social-partner organisations.

3a. Please list all the organisations which can be related to the study in the following overview table

Organisation abbreviation

Sector related (members in the sector)

Member of a sector-related European organisation

Involved in sector related CB

Fact

sheet included

Source of information

EEAÜL

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Sander Vaikma, Chair of EEAÜL; webpage: http://www.energeetik.ee/uus/index.php

KESA

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Vladislav Ponjatovski, Chair of Independent Trade Union of Miners and Energy Workers (KESA)

ETL

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Tõnis Vare, Chair of ETL

EETEL

Yes

No

No

No

Representative of the Estonian Association of Electrical Enterprises

ETEA

Yes

No

No

No

Tuuliki Kasonen, Estonian Wind Power Association

EPEA

Yes

No

No

No

Estonian Solar Energy Association webpage www.epea.ee

EJKÜ

Yes

No

No

No

Õnnely Reidla, Estonian Power and Heat Association

Eesti Taastuv-energia Koda

Yes

No

No

No

Rene Tammist, Estonian Renewable Energy Association

EBÜ

Yes

No

No

No

Ülo Kask, Estonian Biofuel Association (Eesti Biokütuste Ühing)

EBA

Yes

No

No

No

Estonian Biogas Association webpage http://eestibiogaas.ee/eba/

Annex 1 at the end of this questionnaire provides the list of all the organisations which are members of the sector-related European organisations, broken down by country.

4. Collective bargaining in the electricity sector

4.1. Are employees in the sector as defined in Section 1 above and in Table 1 covered by collective bargaining?

Yes

4.2. If yes, please consider the five main relevant* collective agreements (single-employer and multi-employer agreements) valid in 2012 in the electricity sector and indicate their levels, the name of the agreements, respective coverage in terms of sectors/activities, the bargaining parties to the agreement and the numbers of employees covered within the electricity sector (also estimate).

Table 3: The five main relevant* collective agreements (single-employer and multi-employer agreements) valid in 2012

Level

Common name

Sectoral coverage

No. of employees covered within the electricity sector

Bargaining parties

Employer(s)

(in case of single-employer agreements) or

Employer organisation(s)

(in case of multi-employer agreements)

Trade union(s)

Single-employer agreements -

company

Collective agreement

Electricity production, mining and quarrying

3,200 (200 in NACE 35.1 and 3,000 employees working in NACE 08).

Eesti Energia Kaevandused, Narva Elektrijaamad

KESA (Independent Trade Union of Miners’ and Energy Workers)

Single-employer agreements: company

Collective agreement

Electricity production, transmission, distribution and trade

2,152

Eesti Energia AS, Eesti Energia Võrguehitus AS, Elektrilevi OÜ

EEAÜL

(Association of Estonian Energy Workers’ Trade Unions)

Single-employer-company

Collective agreement

Electricity production, oil shale manufacturing

620

Narva Elektrijaamad, Õlitööstus

Narva Energia

Single-employer-company

Collective agreement

Electricity production, transmission, distribution

692

Eesti Energia Tehnoloogiatööstus

Energiateenindus

Single-employer-company

Collective agreement

Electricity production, transmission, distribution

445

Alstom

Energiateenindus, Narva Energia (BEJ)

* Relevance is measured in terms of employees covered.

Note: the table is based on information provided by EEAÜL, KESA and Eesti Energia

5. The system of collective bargaining

5.1. Estimate the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage (i.e. the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector).

It is very difficult to estimate the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage since the information on all enterprise-level collective agreements is not available, and also because some of the collective agreements overlap. According to what information is available, roughly 9,456 employees are covered by collective agreements concluded by trade unions active in the electricity sector. According to Statistics Estonia, in 2012, there were 9,200 employees working in electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (NACE sector D). Thus, it can be assumed that most of the employees working in the electricity sector are covered by a collective agreement, although it is not possible to give exact numbers.

5.2. Estimate the relative importance of multi-employer agreements and of single-employer agreements as a percentage of the total number of employees covered.

There are no multi-employer collective agreements concluded in the sector. All collective agreements concluded in the sector can be regarded as single-employer collective agreements (see also 5.1).

5.2.1. Is there a practice of extending multi-employer agreements to employers who are not affiliated to the signatory employer association/s?

No

5.2.2. If there is a practice of extending collective agreements targeting employers, is this practice pervasive or rather limited and exceptional?

Not applicable.

6. Formulation and implementation of sector-specific public policies

6.1. Do tripartite bodies dealing with sector-specific issues exist? If yes, please indicate their domain of activity (for instance, health and safety, equal opportunities, labour market, social security and pensions etc.), their origin (agreement/statutory) and the interest organisations having representatives in them:

There are no active tripartite bodies that deal with sector-specific issues in the electricity sector.

7. Data on the trade unions

EEAÜL

Association of Estonian Energy Workers’ Trade Unions

Eesti Energeetikatöötajate Ametiühingute Liit

The union’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover the entire electricity sector, including all of the sub-activities as a whole, as listed above?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the electricity sector among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the electricity sector, all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc. – of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the electricity sector?

The union is active only in the electricity sector, but besides electricity workers represents metal workers, repair workers, construction workers, cleaning workers working in electricity sector.

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Single-employer bargaining

EEAÜL has collective agreements with companies

How many employees are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the union within the electricity sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

4,671

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

No

How often do sector-related consultations involve the union?

On an ad-hoc basis

On a regular basis

Info not available

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the union have in total (i.e. within the electricity sector and beyond)?

2,013 (as of 01.01.2013)

How many active members in employment does the union have within the electricity sector only?

2,013 (as of 01.01.2013)

Does the union have members in the largest electricity companies?

Yes

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

IndustriAll

To which European-level organisations is the union affiliated?

EPSU

To which national-level organisations is the union affiliated?

EAKL (Estonian Trade Union Confederation)

Source of information

Sander Vaikma, Chair of EEAÜL,

Via email: 14 March,

Webpage www.energeetik.ee

EIRO national correspondent: Liina Osila

KESA

Independent Trade Union of Miners and Energy Workers

Kaevurite ja Energeetikatöötajate Sõltumatu Ametiühing

The union’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover the entire electricity sector, including all of the sub-activities as a whole, as listed above?

Only production of electricity

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the electricity sector among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the electricity sector, all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc. – of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the electricity sector?

The union is active only in the electricity sector, but besides electricity workers represents metal workers, repair workers, miners, cleaning workers working in electricity sector.

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Single-employer bargaining

KESA has collective agreements with companies

How many employees are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the union within the electricity sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

4,707

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

No

How often do sector-related consultations involve the union?

On an ad-hoc basis

On a regular basis

Info not available

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the union have in total (i.e. within the electricity sector and beyond)?

2,400

How many active members in employment does the union have within the electricity sector only?

2,400

Does the union have members in the largest electricity companies?

Yes

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

 

To which European-level organisations is the union affiliated?

 

To which national-level organisations is the union affiliated?

EAKL (Estonian Trade Union Confederation)

Source of information

Vladislav Ponjatovski, Chair of KESA

Interview via phone: 15.03.2013

EIRO national correspondent: Liina Osila

8. Data on the employer associations

ETL

Association of Estonian Electrical Industry

Eesti Elektritööstuse Liit

The employer organisation’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover the entire electricity sector, including all of the sub-activities as a whole, as listed above?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the electricity sector, all (legal) forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies, within the electricity sector, in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies and/or business activities outside the electricity sector?

No

General information on the organisation

 

Is the employer organisation engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

No

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Info not available

How many companies are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the electricity sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Info not available

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the electricity sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Info not available

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

How often do sector-related consultations involve the employer organisation?

Depends on the subject, but overall quite often

Members

 

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (i.e. within the electricity sector and beyond)?

6 (2012)

How many employees work in these member companies in total (i.e. within the electricity sector and beyond)?

About 8,000 (2012)

How many member companies does the employer organisation have within the electricity sector only?

6 (2012)

How many employees work in these member companies within the electricity sector only?

About 8,000 (2012)

Are the largest electricity companies affiliated to this employer organisation?

Yes

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

WEC (World Energy Council)

To which European-level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

EURELECTRIC

To which national-level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

Estonian Employers’ Confederation (ETTK)

Source of information

Tõnis Vare, Chair of ETL

Via email: 14 and 21 March,2013

EIRO national correspondent: Liina Osila

9. Inter-associational relationships

9.1 Inter-union relationships

9.1.1 Please list all trade unions covered by this study whose domains overlap within the sector.

There are two trade unions active in the sector, Association of Estonian Energy Workers’ Trade Unions (EEAÜL) and Independent Trade Union of Miners’ and Energy Workers (KESA). EEAÜL represents energy workers working in all electricity sub-sectors, however, most members are working in enterprises that produce energy and electricity from oil shale. EEAÜL currently has 2,013 members and has concluded eight collective agreements that, altogether, cover 4,671 employees. KESA represents members working in companies that produce electricity and as with EEAÜL, most members of KESA work in enterprises that produce energy and electricity from oil shale. KESA has around 2,400 members and six collective agreements that altogether cover 4,707 employees.

9.1.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the trade unions within the sector, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

Competition exists as both trade unions have members from same enterprises and both have concluded collective agreements in the same enterprises.

9.1.3 If yes, are certain trade unions excluded from these rights?

No.

9.2 Inter-employer association relationships

9.2.1 Please list all employer associations covered by this study whose domains overlap within the sector.

There are eight employer associations in the sector and, although most of them represent enterprises that produce electricity and their domains somewhat overlap, they all have their own niche. Their main aim is to protect their common interests, although the newer employer associations, who mostly operate in the renewable energy sector also want to promote the use of environmental friendly energy resources.

The Association of Estonian Electrical Industry (ETL) represents enterprises that are active in the electricity sector.

The Estonian Association of Electrical Enterprises (EETEL) represents enterprises in the field of electrical works and its objective is to protect the common interests of its member enterprises in vocational, technical and commercial issues in the field of electrical works.

The Estonian Power and Heat Association (EJKÜ) represents enterprises producing and trading in power and heat.

The Estonian Biogas Association (EBA) represents enterprises involved in the production of biogas, in the development of biogas projects and in scientific research regarding biogas production. The aim of the association is to promote the use of biogas energy and energy production.

The Estonian Biomass Association (EBÜ) represents companies and research institutions involved in producing biomass and biofuels and aims, through its activities, to promote the use of fuels that are environmentally friendly and try to contribute to the development of renewable types of energy.

The Estonian Solar Energy Association (EPEA) represents organisations interested in developing solar energy in Estonia.

The Estonian Wind Power Association (ETEA) represents companies, organisations and individuals interested in the potential of wind energy.

The Estonian Renewable Energy Association (Eesti Taastuvenergia Koda) was created by EJKÜ, EBA, ETEA and Estonian Veskivaramu. Its aim is to promote the use of renewable energies with the eventual aim of replacing non-renewable energy. For more information on the associations, see EE1202029Q.

9.2.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the employer associations within the sector, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

There is no rivalry or competition between employer associations regarding the right to conclude collective agreements since none of the employer associations is involved in sector-related collective bargaining. Also, there is no differentiation between employer associations regarding the right to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation, thus they all have this right. However, employer associations have mentioned that they have to take the initiative if they want to take part in the consultation process. They are more focused on cooperating with each other and with other institutions rather than competing with each other (EE1202029Q).

9.2.3 If yes, are certain employer associations excluded from these rights?

No

9.2.4 Are there large companies or employer associations within the sector which refuse to recognise the trade unions and refuse to enter collective bargaining?

According to one trade union representative, after the implementation of the amendments to the Collective Agreement Act (EE1207019I) in May 2012, it has become more difficult to enter collective bargaining and it is causing concern for the trade unions.

9. Commentary

The electricity sector is quite different to other sectors in Estonia. As with most collective bargaining in Estonia all collective agreements concluded in the electricity sector are also concluded at enterprise level, however since the sector is dominated by one large company, most collective agreements are concluded between the company and different trade unions in its affiliate companies. Thus, most employees working in the sector are covered by a collective agreement. In contrast, there are many employer associations in the sector, but none of them is involved in collective bargaining in the sector.

Annex: Organisations which are members of the sector-related European organisations

 

EPSU

IndustriALL

EURELECTRIC

AT

GDG, VERDI

PRO-GE

Österreichs E-Wirtschaft 

BE

CSC, CSC - Services Publics, SLFP,

CGSP ACOD,

CGSP-P, CGSP-G

GAZELCO Distrigas,

CG-FGTB,

CGSP-ACOD Gazelco,

CGSP Admi

ACV/CSC BIE,

LBC-NVK,

SETCA-BBTK

FEBEG,

SYNERGRID asbl

BG

NSFEB,

FEW-Podkrepa,

PK Services,

FCIW-PODK,

NDWU, VODOSNABDITEL,

FITUGO,

FCIW-PODKREPA

NF Energy - CL Podkrepa,

NFE,

NEWF Podkrepa

 Bulgarian Electric Power Association

CY

FSGEC, PASYDY

FPUEAE

Electricity Authority of Cyprus

CZ

OS UNIOS,

Public Services International,

OS ECHO,

OS DLV, RWE

OS ECHO

CSZE

DE

VERDI

IG BCE

BDEW

DK

3F workers union,

DM, PEU, FOA,

DK Funktionærforbund,

DEF,

CO Industri

 Dansk Energi

EE

AEEWTU

AEEWTU - EEAÜL

The Union of Electricity Industry of Estonia

ES

FITAG-UGT,

AGBAR,

FSAP-CCOO,

FSP UGT

FITAG-UGT,

FITEQA-CC.OO,

ELA-HAINBAT,

FI CC.OO,

UNESA

FI

JYTY, JHL, UNION of SALARIED EMPLOYEES,

PARDIA,

SÄHKÖLIITTO,

UIL (INSINÖÖRILIITTO),

Energiateollisuus ry

FR

CGT – FNME, FPSPSS-FO, CGT-SP, Public Services International, PSI,

INTERCO CFDT,

FNEM-FO, CFTC,

UNSA, FNME-CGT,

FCE-CFDT,

FNEM FO

UFE

GR

-

PFEPPRCI,

GENOP-DEI

HELAS

HU

VKDSZ, EVDSZ, HVDSZ 2000

V.D.Sz.Sz. (EVDSZ),

BDSZ

EMT

IE

ESBOA, IMPACT,

SIPTU, Electricity Supply Board Officers Association

SIPTU

EAI

IT

FEMCA, UILCEM,

FP-CGIL, FLAEI-CISL, FILCTEM-CGIL,

UILCEM

UNEI

LT

LITUF, LVPF,

LTUSE

 

Nacionaline Lietuvos Elektros Asociacija 

LU

CGT-L,

Confédération Luxembourgeoise des Syndicats Chrétiens - Secteur Public, LCGB,

LCGB

Organisation des Entreprises d’Electricité du Luxembourg

LV

LTUE, LAKRS

ENERGIJA, LINA

LEEA

MT

GWU

 

ENEMALTA Corporation

NL

ABVAKABO FNV, CNV

FNV Bondgenoten,

ABVAKABO FNV, EON

FNV,

CNV Vakmensen

Energie-Nederland,

Netbeheer Nederland

PL

SKEE Solidarnosc,

PSS Solidarnosc

SGiE Solidarnosc,

PKEE

PT

Sindicato dos Trabalhadores da AdministraçãoPública,

STAL, SINTAP,

SINDEL, STE

SINDEL

ELECPROR

RO

GAZ ROM,

UNIVERS,

Public Services International,

ENERGETICA,

APA NOVA,

GAZ MEDIAS,

FS Gaz Romania

UFS ATLAS, FSLCP,

FNME, Hidrosind,

FS Hidrosind,

IRE,

SE

SEKO, NOFS,

VISION,

HK Kommunal,

KOMMUNAL, TRANSPORT, FACKFORBUNDET

UNIONEN, SEF,

SVERIGES INGENJORER,

SEKO

 Svensk Energi Swedenergy AB

SI

SDE SLOVENIJE

SDE

Slovenian Chamber of Commerce, Energy Association, EURELECTRIC Section

SK

SOZE, TUWIFWS,

POZ,

Slovak Gas Industry Trade Union,

Slovak Trade Union of Health and Social Services,

ECHOZ, SOZPS,

SPP

ZOJES

ZZES

UK

Prospect, UNISON,

NIPSA, FDA,

Unite the Union,

GMB

GMB,

UNITE (ex-TGWU),

UNITE the UNION

ENA, Energy UK, ERA

Liina Osila, Praxis Center for Policy Studies

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