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  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    On 31 January 1997, the Second National Agreement on Temporary Employment
    Agencies was signed. This is the second agreement reached in this sector
    since the activity of temporary employment agencies (TEAs) in Spain was
    approved in 1994. It will remain in force until 31 December 1999.

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    In a context of increasingly difficult youth employment in France, and of
    social tension about what course of action to take, a recent national
    conference has defined a number of concrete objectives. These seek to secure
    employment for the most disadvantaged, and to expose students to the world of
    work for the first time. These aims are based on a series of commitments on
    the part of industry, Government and the social partners - who remain at odds
    in their analysis - the effects of which must be monitored.

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    Declining union membership and a legal and ideological attack on the role of
    trade unions over the past 17 years may have left many with the opinion that
    employees no longer value the right to act collectively. It has been argued
    that the attack on the unions throughout the 1980s and 1990s has left the
    unions weak and unable to protect members' rights. Alternatively, it has been
    argued that people now prefer to negotiate their own employment contracts
    individually and do not need trade unions.

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    In a recent press interview, Padraig Flynn, the European commissioner
    responsible for industrial relations and social affairs, expressed his unease
    at press reports that the social partners' negotiations on part-time work
    were heading for collapse, and stated that he remained hopeful of a positive
    outcome. Senior trade union negotiator and deputy general secretary of the
    European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), Jean Lapeyre, also stated that he
    remained convinced that the negotiations could succeed. He stressed, however,
    that if part-time work was to be made more attractive and acceptable for
    workers, assurance of "decent social protection" had to be offered.

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    Testing 1,2,3 Minimum wages in Austria are known as "collective agreement
    wages" because they are set by collective bargaining rather than by law,
    though it is unlawful to pay less than the collective agreement wage. Because
    of the large number of collective agreements concluded independently of each
    other, substantial variations in increases in the minimum wage can arise
    between industries or groups of employees. It is only possible to estimate
    the overall change of the minimum wage rate retrospectively. The annual
    estimate and the detailed monthly reporting are both carried out by the
    Central Statistical Office (Österreichisches Statistisches Zentralamt,
    ÖSTAT) based on reports received from the trade unions.

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    Industrial action has accompanied trade unions' pay demands in Spain's public
    administration since late 1996, and the threat of further action has been
    made if negotiations are not started immediately.

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    At the beginning of February the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) set
    out its long term priorities for beyond the forthcoming general election. Its
    director general, Adair Turner said that "whatever happens between now and
    May, there are fundamental issues for business which need attention. The
    changing nature of the world in which we do business brings both
    opportunities and challenges, and the CBI should be at the heart of change."

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    The Employment and Labour Market Committee (ELC), established by a Council
    Decision on 20 December 1996, held its inaugural meeting in Brussels on 29
    January 1997. The ELC was created in response to a request by the European
    Council for the setting up of a stable structure to support the work of the
    Labour and Social Affairs Council in employment-related matters. This area
    has taken on a new dimension in the context of the" European employment
    strategy" outlined at the European Council in Essen in December 1994. The ELC
    is expected to improve the balance between employment, on the one hand, and
    economic and monetary issues, on the other hand, in the European debate. The
    new Committee will fulfil a similar role to that of the Economic Policy
    Committee which provides advice to the Economics and Financial Affairs
    Council (ECOFIN).

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    The Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund,
    ÖGB) and the Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich,
    WKÖ) agreed the outlines of a reform of the apprenticeship system on 1 March
    1997. The precise details are to be agreed in a working group comprising
    officials of the social partners, the Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of the
    Economy, and experts from other, as yet unspecified, organisations.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications