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  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    On 13 January 1997, an agreement was signed on the introduction of new shop
    opening hours. Since 1990 shops have been allowed to open on a 24-hours a day
    basis in the wake of legislation to deregulate shop opening hours (article
    42, Law 1892/1990) in line with the then Conservative Government's policies
    on liberalisation. In late 1996, a number of businesses - members of the
    employers' organisation, SELPE- proceeded to introduce later working hours on
    Saturdays in Athens and its outer suburbs. In parallel, they took joint
    action with other bodies (including the Athens municipal authority and the
    Chamber of Commerce and Industry) to try to introduce Sunday shop opening. In
    response, the unions announced that they would fight this initiative and that
    they would demand amendments to Law 1892/1990.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    Strikes in the Port of Rotterdam in the early months of 1997 demonstrate once
    again its distinctive position in the Dutch system of industrial relations.
    The ongoing process of reorganisation in the mixed-cargo sector, which has a
    long tradition of trade unionism, is responsible for regular labour disputes
    in the form of court action and both organised and wildcat strikes .

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    The Spanish chemicals sector agreement signed in April 1997 takes into
    account the national agreement on labour market reform recently concluded by
    unions and employers, with respect to types of employment contract and
    temporary employment agencies

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    A two-year collective agreement was approved by the 225,000 employees in the
    government sector (DK9702103N [1]) and the 662,000 employees in the county
    and municipal bargaining area, offering a 4.25% pay increase, wage adjustment
    schemes, and improved pension and maternity leave provisions. However the
    1997 collective bargaining rounds represented more than adjustments of pay,
    pensions and maternity leave; it was, as the Minister of Finance, Mogens
    Lykketoft said, "a peaceful wage revolution", introducing a more flexible and
    decentralised salary-scale system.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/two-year-collective-agreement-for-government-employees

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    In November 1996, the brewing group Interbrew, the still-expanding leader in
    the market, announced the ending of bottling activities at its Belle Vue
    Brewery in Molenbeek, an industrial district of Brussels. It meant the loss
    of 103 jobs out of 167 in the company's bottling section. Since then,
    management had been negotiating a company plan with the unions to avoid
    redundancies, and an original solution was eventually found and approved in a
    company referendum on 18 April 1997. This solution is based on the terms of a
    legislative measure that had been ratified on 13 March 1997, called the
    Vandelanotte order after the Flemish Socialist minister: it allows companies
    facing difficulties or restructuring to preserve jobs through a reduction of
    working time linked to the reduction of social security contributions over
    two years.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    Total Quality Management (TQM) has been a leading development of the 1990s in
    Britain. Surveys find that almost three-quarters of organisations claim to
    have formal quality programmes, which are believed to work by increasing
    employees' interest in their jobs and their understanding of how their work
    contributes to organisational goals. Many of these programmes have been
    introduced in the past five years. Definitions of TQM vary but its core
    comprises: a focus on the customer; the improvement and inter-linking of
    business processes; and continuous improvement ("Making quality critical", A
    Wilkinson and H Willmott, eds, London, Routledge, 1995.).

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    On 28 April 1997, the German Public Services, Transport and Traffic Union
    (Gewerkschaft Öffentliche Dienste, Transport und Verkehr, ÖTV) and the
    German White-Collar Workers' Union (Deutsche Angestellten-Gewerkschaft, DAG)
    announced the foundation of a new joint subsidiary union for the employees of
    international and European organisations which are located in Germany.
    Through the newly established "International Public Servants Organisation"
    (IPSO), both unions want to create an effective interest representation for
    the employees working in organisations like the European Monetary Institute
    in Frankfurt or the European Patent Office in Munich. The foundation of IPSO
    should also avoid competition between ÖTV and DAG in the recruitment of
    members in international and European organisations, and should lead to a
    closer cooperation between the unions. The latter is particularly important
    because of the fact that the DAG is the only significant German trade union
    which is not a member of the German Federation of Trade Unions (Deutscher
    Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB).

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    In Greece, temporary work, especially in the form of fixed-term contracts,
    constitutes a policy widespread amongst enterprises in both private and
    public sectors. Although the phenomenon of temporary work has decreased
    considerably in comparison with the early 1990s, when its incidence was twice
    that of the EU average (18% and 9% respectively), it is still quite high
    (10.5% and 11% respectively). A factor contributing to this decrease was the
    decision of the Government in the course of 1990 to dismiss 50,000 temporary
    public employees as part of its attempt to rationalise the functioning of the
    public sector.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications