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research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articleson working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
Before the December 2011 agreement to increase the minimum wage in Estonia,
the last increase had been agreed in November 2007, when the social partners
decided to raise the monthly minimum wage from €230 to €278 in 2008
(*EE0712019I* ). This 21% minimum wage rise was one of the highest ever.
By the end of 2008, however, it was clear that the economic situation would
continue to deteriorate for some time and the employers’ representative,
the Estonian Employers’ Confederation (ETTK ), refused to increase the
minimum wage for 2009 despite several negotiation rounds with the Estonian
Trade Union Confederation (EAKL ) (*EE0902039I* ). In September 2009
EAKL proposed an increase for 2010, but ETTK again refused, saying that the
economy was still fragile despite signs of improvement. In November 2010 ETTK
announced it would be good to wait at least a year before considering any
increase in the minimum wage.
In March 2011, the Employment Service of Slovenia (ZRSZ ), which is
responsible for the unemployed and employment policy, temporarily stopped
grants to the newly self-employed. It said that funds earmarked for this had
dried up because there were too many applicants. However, at the end of
August 2011, the ZRSZ was given a cash injection of €9.5 million, which
meant that it could fund 2,110 new applicants. However, the Association of
Free Trade Unions of Slovenia (ZSSS ) attacked this policy of encouraging
Housing-related problems faced by the Roma include high overcrowding rates, lack of access to improved forms of sanitation and high levels of urban segregation thus limiting access to healthcare services. These issues reinforce existing health inequalities among the Roma – increased risk of disability, chronic illness, being overweight. Moreover, these conditions worsen in the case of forced evictions. This report analyses the extent of the problem of substandard housing for the Roma in Europe and draws attention to the situation of Traveller groups, who often have difficulties finding a place in halting sites. Regarding the health status of the Roma, interestingly they report better subjective health than the majority population, perhaps because they have a different perception of health (seen as the absence of illness), use health services less frequently or are less aware of health issues.
A nationwide study carried out as part of the research project, ETES – Os
estudantes e os seus trajectos no ensino superior (14.2Mb PDF)  [students
and their higher education pathways] has examined the factors behind the
success, failure and early drop-out rates of students in higher education in
Portugal. The project was developed in a partnership between the Centre for
Research and Studies in Sociology, University Institute of Lisbon (CIES-IUL
) and the Institute of Sociology of the Faculty of Arts, University of
Porto (ISFLUP ).
Employment in Austria’s paper sector rose slightly in absolute numbers between 1998 and 2008, but its share of overall employment fell by 0.03 percentage points from 0.48% to 0.45%. The number of companies declined from 172 to 154 over th...
The Italian paper industry has seen a sharp drop in demand over the last few years due to an increase in the use of on-line products, international competition and the use of alternative materials for packaging. This situation has worsened ...
The paper industry is a traditional part of the Slovakian economy. Employers are associated in the employer association ZCPP SR, which covers about 60% of companies in the sector. Employees are organised in OZ DVL, which associates about 70...
There is no paper industry as such in Luxembourg. Only two companies are active in the domain covered by NACE code 17, with a total workforce of about 500 employees (accounting for less than 1% of national employment). This probably explain...
The paper sector makes up a very small part of Slovenia’s economy, accounting for just 1% of employment. The sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is 85% and the social partners – the representative trade union confederation...
This study aims to provide the necessary information for assisting the
existing sectoral social dialogue in the paper sector. The study first
sketches the economic and employment situation of the sector, then analyses
the social partner organisations in all of the EU Member States (with the
exception of Latvia), with special emphasis on membership, role in collective
bargaining and public policy, and national and European affiliations. The
study finally looks at the European organisations relevant to the sector, in
particular their membership composition and their capacity to negotiate. The
aim of the EIRO series of studies on representativeness is to identify the
relevant national and supranational social partner organisations in the field
of industrial relations in selected sectors. The impetus for these studies
arises from the goal of the European Commission to recognise the
representative social partner organisations to be consulted under the
provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
Hence, this study is designed to provide the basic information required to
establish sectoral social dialogue.