European Jobs Monitor

02 May 2023

The European Jobs Monitor (EJM) tracks structural change in European labour markets. It analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill levels, etc. The EJM covers all 27 EU Member States and is based primarily on analysis of European Labour Force survey data.

In the interactive chart section below, readers can select time period, country, job-quality criterion and demographic or employment status, and view quintile charts showing how net employment growth by quintile was distributed across categories based on the selection made.


The European Jobs Monitor methodology is adapted from the pioneering work of Joseph Stiglitz and Erik Olin Wright/Rachel Dwyer in the USA in the 1990s. We define a 'job' as a given occupation in a given sector, for example a sales assistant in the retail sector. There are over 1,000 different job combinations in the EU. These are ranked according to mean hourly wage (alternative ranking measures include mean educational level or mean score on a broad job quality indicator). Jobs are then assigned to five even quintiles of employment in a starting year. The charts presented show the shifts in employment by quintile over the periods indicated. The method is used to chart the changes in the structure of employment in the different Member States, as well as at aggregate EU level. 

In light of the UK’s withdrawal from the European Union on 31 January 2020, it should be noted that data published on the Eurofound website may include the 28 EU Member States, as the UK was covered in earlier research. This will be progressively amended to reflect the current composition of the 27 EU Member States.