EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Belgium: Young people and temporary employment in Europe

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 08 December 2013



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In Belgium, temporary employment is a strong feature of the employment of young people. The number employed in temporary employment has increased quite strongly over the last years. However, it was observed that the temporary employment has declined sharply during the crisis, especially for young people and then increased sharply. Temporary employment for young people covers many different situations and seems to be a requirement to get a foothold on the labour market. Moreover, temporary jobs are often chosen by many employers to select candidates for a job which could become permanent, and also as a shock absorber during the crisis.

Introduction

Youth unemployment has been a persistent problem in many parts of Europe for many years. Over the past 3-4 years, however, since the onset of the financial crisis and the economic recession which followed, it has become an even greater and more widespread problem and one which, given the on-going depressed state of the European economies, is likely to remain for some time to come. The latest monthly figures (for September 2012) show the unemployment rate of those aged 15-24 averaging 22.8% in the EU – just over 1 percentage point higher than at the time a year earlier. In Spain, the figure was over 54% and in Greece, 57%, in both cases, much higher than a year earlier. In the worst affected countries, therefore, as in most Member States, there is very little sign of any easing of the youth unemployment problem. There are, however, a few exceptions. In Germany, in particular, youth unemployment has declined since the global recession hit in 2009 and now stands at only 8%, well below the level it was before the recession. In Norway too, the rate is only 8%, though this is slightly above the level in 2007 before the crisis. Germany, apart, there are two other countries in the EU with youth unemployment below 10% according to the latest monthly figures - the Netherlands (9.4%) and Austria (9.9%). As in Norway, in both cases, the rate is above the pre-crisis level.

Moreover, young people who do manage to find jobs often have to settle for a temporary one, defined as one with a fixed-term contract of employment. According to the European Labour Force Survey (LFS), in 2011, just under 43% of employees under 25 were in temporary jobs in the EU and well over half in Germany (56%), France (55%), Portugal, (57%), Sweden (57%), Spain (63%), Poland (66%) and Slovenia (75%). (In Norway, the figure was much lower than in most EU countries, at around 24%.) While around 40% of the young people concerned on average were in temporary jobs because they had a fixed-term training contract and another 9% were on probationary contracts, a substantial proportion (37% on average) were in temporary jobs because they were unable to find permanent ones. In the Czech Republic, Cyprus and Portugal, this figure was over 75% and in Spain and Slovakia, well over 80%.

Among young people making the transition from education or initial vocational training into employment, the proportion who take up temporary rather than permanent jobs is much higher than for the age group as a whole. In 2011, 57% of those aged 15-24 in employment who were in education the previous year were in temporary jobs in the EU and 86-87% in Spain, Portugal and Poland. For those moving from unemployment into employment, the proportion who take up temporary jobs is even higher on average in the EU (61%) as well as in Spain (90%).

The fact that a relatively large proportion of young people in employment are in temporary jobs may be a reason why they have been hit disproportionately hard by the crisis. In the economic downturn in 2009, many of the people who lost their jobs first were on fixed-term contracts since not renewing these contracts represented the easiest way for employers to reduce their work forces. In 2009, therefore, there was some decline across Europe in the proportion of young people in work employed in temporary jobs (see the Tables attached to the questionnaire). Since then, there has been some tendency for the proportion to increase again, in part perhaps because employers are reluctant to take on people on permanent - or standard – contracts given the uncertainty about future economic prospects.

Given the above, it is understandable that there is growing public interest, and some concern, over the nature of the jobs that young people are taking up. This concern is mirrored at EU-level where a ‘flexicurity’ approach to labour market policy has increasingly been advocated, which, in practice, means that while flexibility is an important objective, it needs to be accompanied by protection of workers’ interests if it is not to lead to a growth of precarious employment in low quality jobs. Accordingly, there is a need to obtain a better understanding of the terms and conditions applying to temporary jobs, the extent to which they are a stepping stone to permanent jobs and a working career in line with a person’s qualifications and capabilities, the access to social protection which comes with them and the measures in place to encourage employers to convert them into more stable jobs. These issues form the focus of the present study.

Definition of temporary jobs

The interest in the study is in all young people employed in temporary jobs of whatever kind, in the sense of all jobs that they are not subject to a standard contract of employment which is normally one of indeterminate length, or at least one for which no specific length is specified. Such temporary jobs can be for a period of training (i.e. traineeships or apprenticeships) or probation, intended to enable employers to check the suitability or aptitude of people for the jobs concerned. They might also be to replace someone on maternity leave or on a training programme or they might relate to a specific project of fixed duration.

All such jobs and others which are of fixed duration should be covered, whether they are part-time or full-time and irrespective of whether they are specifically for young people (such as perhaps in the case of traineeships or apprenticeships) or for people of all ages which young people happen to be doing. In some cases, it should be noted, it is relevant to include, in addition, to temporary employees, the ‘bogus’ self-employed – i.e. those people who have self-employment status but who are contracted to work for a single employer and who are effectively similar to employees who have a fixed-term contract of employment. (The cases in question relate to instances where employers use self-employment contracts as a means of employing young people without bearing the costs, and obligations, of a standard contract of employment.)

Outline of study

The study is divided in three sections. The first is concerned with the main types of job in which young people who are employed under temporary contracts work and the reasons why employers choose to use temporary contracts of employment instead of standard ones when they take on young people, as well as with the link, if any, with labour market conditions (i.e. with the extent to which the crisis has led to an increase in temporary employment). The starting point is the data summarised above, derived from the LFS, which indicate the relative number of young people employed on temporary contracts in the different European countries and the way that this has changed over the recent past (these data, as noted, are set out in the tables attached to the questionnaire). Correspondents are asked to check these data against any national data on temporary employment and to indicate where these show a different picture from the LFS data, perhaps because a different definition is adopted of temporary jobs.

Any description or commentary on national statistics should, however, remain brief, since the main task of the first section, is to review and summarise relevant sources of information on the different kinds of temporary contract under which young people are employed in each of the countries, the circumstances and areas (the types of job and the sectors of activity) in which they tend to be used and the main reasons why employers adopt them.

The second section is concerned with the access to social benefits which temporary jobs provide, distinguishing between the various kinds of benefit, and with the extent to which entitlement to benefit differs for young people employed in temporary jobs from that for those employed under standard contracts of employment. It should be emphasised that the concern is not only with the formal regulations which apply, which in many if not most countries do not make a formal distinction between temporary jobs and others, but also with de facto entitlement which stems from the nature of temporary employment. In particular, young people in temporary jobs may have difficulty in complying with the need to have a continuous period in employment, or a continuous record of paying social contributions, in order to be eligible for unemployment benefit.

The third section is concerned with the measures in place to regulate the use of temporary contracts of employment (such as specifying the number of times they can be renewed), with the attitudes of government and the social partners towards their use and with the incentives which exist to encourage the wider use of standard contracts of employment and the conversion of temporary jobs into permanent ones. A particular point of interest is the extent to which regulations and attitudes as regards temporary jobs have changed over the crisis period as the number of jobs available for young people to take up has diminished and as expanding these has become a policy priority.

A final point to note is that while it is customary to define youth employment (and unemployment) in terms of those aged 15-24, it is also the case that many of those aged 25-29 are also employed in temporary jobs, as indicated in the attached tables. Correspondents are therefore asked to extend the coverage of the study to this age group where relevant. It is recognised that in some countries the statistics available may not relate precisely to the age groups specified here, in which case correspondents should report on the age groups nearest to these.

Questionnaire

1. Importance of temporary employment for young people

1.1. Do the figures shown in the attached tables (on the number of temporary employed as a % of total employees based on Eurostat LFS data) give a reliable indication of the scale of temporary employment among the young in your country and the way that it has changed over recent years? Are there young people employed in temporary jobs who do not show up in the Eurostat figures? Are there national statistics which show a different picture from the Eurostat data? If so, please indicate what they show and give the source of the data.

According to Eurostat, the temporary work in Belgium represents less than 10% of the workforce (e.g. 8, 2% in 2009 or 8, 1 % in 2010). However, among this percentage, we can find a bigger range of young people ( under25). Indeed, for the year 2011, 34.3% of young workers under 25 years work on a temporary basis against nearly 7.5% for workers aged 25-49 years. The number of temporary employment for young people 15 - 24 is almost four times higher than those of older workers.

The data collected by the Higher Council on employment (Conseil Supérieur de l’Emploi - Hoge Raad voor de Werkgelegenheid) in 2007, provides more precise indications to understand the issue of youth access to employment. By comparison with EU15, Belgium is one of the countries where school is the less combined with a job (e.g. paid job, apprenticeship contract or traineeship) Indeed, 3% of young people aged 15-29 are employed during their school years whereas the EU15 average is 12% (and 18% for the 17-20 age group). This combination seems offering more experiences on the labour market and therefore, more perspectives for the young people when their studies are finished.

The report also shows that the age group 22-25 represents the highest proportion of temporary basis workers, with 11%. Moreover, it can be observed that the part of young people with temporary contracts decrease with age, suggesting that it is a pathway to stabilise the employment rate. As a result, among the 30+ workers population, the number of temporary contracts is less important. The part of temporary contracts is also quite different between regions: 26% in Wallonia, 21% in Brussels and 18% in Flanders [Eurostat (LFS)] against a European average of 30%. Also, among the 15-24 age group, figures can be obtained on a gender basis: 23% of women are employed with a temporary contracts against 18% for men.

The importance of temporary work is clearly linked to the qualification. The report shows that the low-skilled (young) workers are often more occupied on a temporary basis. Also, the probability for young people to be employed in a part time job is twice more important than with a full-time contract.

1.2. Is there any evidence that other forms of employment are used as a substitute for temporary contracts, such as bogus self-employment where young people are contracted to provide services to a single work provider in a continuous manner so acting de facto as employees? If so, please give the source of the evidence and indicate the scale of the phenomenon in terms of the number of people concerned.

There is no evidence that other forms of employment are used as a substitute for temporary contracts.

1.3. Please list (and give summary details, i.e. purpose and duration of the contract) the most common contract types or contractual arrangements under which young people are employed on a temporary basis (such as for traineeships, apprenticeships, probationary periods, replacement of workers on leave or projects of a fixed duration). What is the relative importance of each type of contract or arrangement in terms of the number of young people employed under them?

The table below shows the most common contract types or contractual arrangements under which people are employed on a temporary basis for the period 2006-2010:

Table 1

Forms of temporary employment (2006-2010)

Belgium

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Fixed-term contracts

45.6

45.2

47.4

49.7

49.4

Interim

20.7

21.0

21.9

19.1

20.6

Service-Vouchers & Local Employment agencies

11.4

10.6

10.1

9.6

8.8

Apprenticeship contracts

6.1

7.2

7.1

6.7

5.2

Student jobs

4.1

4.8

4.6

5.3

4.9

Occasional jobs

1.2

1.8

1.4

1.6

0.9

Others

11.0

9.4

7.6

7.9

10.3

Source: DGSEI, Survey workforce on the labour market - in % of the total temporary employment of workers aged 15-64

The results for the year 2010 in Belgium show that the temporary employment is represented by 49,4% of fixed-term contracts, 20,6% of interim workers, 8,8% of services-vouchers (which aims to allow a user to pay a registered company for household tasks) and Local Employment agencies (long-term unemployed people can carry out neighbourhood services for private persons, local authorities, non-profit associations or schools. They keep their entire unemployment benefit and receive an income supplement), 5.2% on apprenticeship contracts, 4.9% on student jobs. The table also shows that the part of fixed-term contracts increased between 2007 and 2009 whereas the services-vouchers and Local employement agencies slightly decreased.

According to the Higher Council on employment (Conseil Supérieur de l’Emploi - Hoge Raad voor de Werkgelegenheid), the young people are mainly occupied in very short-term contracts (less than three months) or medium-term contracts (from four to 12 months). Also, the decrease in the number of temporary works is clearly corralated to the number of years passed after the end of studies

1.4. Please indicate the main reasons for the emergence and development of the different types of temporary contract which you have listed in response to question 1.3. To what extent are they linked to particular conditions in the labour market or employment protection legislation/regulation in your country? What is the main attraction of such contracts to employers? What effect has the crisis had on the use of such contracts?

According to the OECD (2012), the evolution of the temporary work over a long period shows that the frequency of temporary work in the total employment tends to increase from 5.3% in 1995 to 9.0% in 2011. Similarly, the age group 14-24 increased from 27.4% in 2002 to 34.3% in 2011 as a percentage of employment [Eurostat]. However, a distinction between young people age group is necessary, because this covers various situations. In many cases, the young workers aged of 15-19 years are in a job-training.

Moreover, the temporary contract seems to be used as a necessary passage on the labour market. However, an important part of young workers do not want to work on temporary basis (approximately 70%), this means that no permanent job is available or that employers do not prefer hiring permanent workers. Indeed, this form of employment appears as a prerequisite for the access to the employment. Many employers use this type of contract for new entrants and thus it can be also considered as an “advantage” for them during a crisis period, as a kind of adjustement variable.Indeed, when the economic activity is quite uncertain, they have the possibility to hire temporary workers which could be extended into a permanent job or not.Also, this temporary form of work provides an opportunity for young people without any experience of accessing the labour market or for some other young people (e.g. which not have completed their secondary education) to avoid the way to instability.

The table below aims at comparing the percentage of temporary work contracts between two age groups (15-29 and 30-60) and by sectors, as well. This shows that age group 15-29 is more represented in some specific sectors such as: construction, manufacturing industry, or horeca. These sectors can be considered as more sensitive to the crisis or to cyclical variations. By comparison, the temporary contracts rate is less important in other sectors such as: fishing, electricity, gas and water or international services.

Table 2

Temporary employment rate in Belgium, in 2007 - by branch of activity and by age group

15-29

30-60

Agriculture

1.3

2.0

Fishing

0.0

0.0

Extractive industry

0.2

0.2

Manufacturing industry

18.5

16.6

Construction

8.7

6.9

Electricity, gas and water

0.9

0.7

Financial intermediaries

3.1

3.7

Business services

10.4

8.9

Transport and communication

6.5

7.6

Trade

15.7

13.2

Horeca

4.5

3.3

Health and social services

11.3

11.9

Public administration

6.7

10.6

Teaching

7.2

8.7

Other services

4.2

4.1

Services to households

0.7

0.9

International organizations

0.2

0.8

Source: SSC, 2009 and Eurostat (LFS)

As for the whole labour market, the young population was concerned. Indeed, the employment rate for young people (15-24) decreased whereas the age group 55-64 rate increased.

1.5. To what extent are temporary contracts a ‘stepping stone’ to ‘permanent’ jobs (or those with standard contracts of employment of undefined duration)? Are apprentices and trainees typically taken on by the companies or other organisations concerned on standard permanent contracts once they complete their training? Has the situation changed over the crisis period? Please summarise any relevant studies which have been carried out in your country or other evidence at the national level which exists and give the reference to them.

There is no specific information about the number of temporary contracts which become permanent jobs. Indeed, there is no comprehensive programme but an important number of measures which aim different goals and have different impacts on the employment. Nevertheless, many reports consider that the temporary job as a precondition before getting a permanent job, particularly for young people who did not finish the secondary school and/or in a crisis period. Traineeship and apprenticeship is a good way to find a job. However, this is not often a paid job and thus, trade unions are very aware about the content of the work. No relevant figure or study was found on this topic.

2. Access to social benefits

2.1. Does entitlement of young people to (contributory) unemployment insurance benefits and (non-contributory) unemployment assistance (i.e. benefits, usually means-tested, which provide a minimum level of income) differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

In Belgium, the permanent contract is the law standard because this is considered as offering a useful stability to people and companies. In principle, temporary workers receive an equal treatment, in terms of pay and benefits than permanent workers. There are many laws and collective agreements on the temporary contract which were created to ensure that these rights are automatically implemented. The legislation on the minimum wage covers temporary workers excepted for certain categories such as the apprentices.

Table 3
   

Rights conferred temporary workers?

Conditionned by the duration of employement?

Paid leave

Yes

n.a.

Sick leave

Yes

n.a.

Unemployment insurance

Yes

depends on the number of months/years worked - waiting period possible

Retirement benefits

Yes

n.a.

Maternity/parental leave

Yes

n.a.

According to the governmental agreement in December 2011, the system of unemployment benefits was reviewed. These measures aims at promoting the hiring of new workers by reducing social contributions paid by employers or by offering wage allowances such as Win-Win plan or Activa 2012 plan.

A large discussion and bargaining have taken place in the past few months to implement the governmental decisions in the “National Office for Employment” (Office National de l’Emploi / Rijksdienst voor Arbeidsvoorziening - Onem/RSZ) which aims to reinforce the access to the unemployment benefits. Even if this measure is not specific to the temporary workers, this could have some impacts on the young people who are looking for a (first) job.

2.2. Does entitlement of young people to sickness benefits and maternity benefits differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

There is no difference on sickness and/or maternity benefits between temporary and permanent workers. Law and collective agreements covered all workers employed in a company/sector, no matter the conditions of their contracts – unless otherwhise stated. Also, the period of crisis did not change anything.

2.3. Are there any differences in the entitlement of young people to old-age pensions between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to pensions changed over the period of the crisis (including through pension reforms introduced as part of a long-term strategy to improve the financial sustainability of the system)?

The retirement benefits are calculated, among a large number of variables, on the number of years worked in full-time equivalent. In principle, more longer is the number of year worked, more important are the benefits. What concerns the temporary jobs, there is no specific difference as long as the worker is employed (and not unemployed).

2.4. Are there any differences in entitlement of young people to health care between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to health care changed over the period of the crisis?

There is no difference on the health care between temporary and permanent workers. Law and collective agreements covered all workers employed in a company/sector, no matter the conditions of their contracts – unless otherwise stated.

3. Regulation of temporary contracts and policies to support transitions into permanent contracts

3.1. Please describe briefly the regulations applying to the main types of temporary contract in your country. Do restrictions exist on the maximum duration of the different types of temporary contract for young workers or the number of times they can be renewed? Do these regulations differ by age (i.e. between young people and older workers) and/or by type of temporary contract (as mentioned in question 1.3), by occupation, or by sector of activity? Do special regulations exist for those completing apprenticeships or traineeships? Have the regulations changed over the period of the crisis – i.e. has there been a tendency for them to have been tightened or relaxed?

Among the temporary contracts, there is the fixed-term contract which has particular legal form. In principle, no successive fixed-term contracts can be concluded without interruption between two contracts. There is no minimum period of interruption between two fixed-term contracts but the interruption could be legal if this is the worker’s decision. However, in some specific cases, this can be allowed - no matter the age:

  • the content of the contract has to be justify as legitimate by the employer as for scientific research contracts or in some specific jobs within the live performance sector ;
  • no more than four successive fixed-term contracts cannot be concluded. Each contract should exceed three months and the total duration of the successive contracts do not exceed two years (unless otherwise agreed under sectoral agreements).

These conditions do not take into consideration apprenticeships or traineeships contracts. There is no change within the crisis period.

What concerns the interim work, this is regulated and strongly framed by the collective agreements (number 36, 47& 58) and laws such as the European directive: directive 2008/104/EC or the law of 1987 (amended by Act 2012) on «temporary work, temporary agency work” and the access to it can be only allowed for three reasons : the replacement of a permanent worker, the temporary work overload or the execution of an exceptional job (as defined by the Belgian law). These three terms are subject to strict conditions and under the control of trade unions representatives in companies/sectors, as well.

More recently, the European directive on temporary work has been transposed into the Belgian law through a collective agreement with social partners. This new law aims at offering a more specific frame to use temporary work as such as a better protection for workers concerned by this kind of work. Specifically, this law aims at putting an end to the daily contracts (which may be, in some cases, hidden a daily trial-run).

The table below shows the differences between three kinds of contracts: student, apprenticeship and traineeship:

Table 4
 

Student contract

Apprenticeship contract

Training- Integration contract

Kind of contract

This is a standard contract.

This kind of contract aims at offering a mixed eduction to a student. This involves an alternate schedule between the firm and school.

Plan formation-insertion: (training-inclusion plan)

Contrat Premier Emploi (CPE) : First-job contract

Three parts are involved in this contract, the employee (trainee), the employer, and the Forem in Wallonia, the VDAB in Flanders and Actiris in Brussels.

Three parts are involved in this contract, the employee (trainee), the employer, and the National Employment Office (ONem)

Specificities

This employee has to be student (university, high school, etc.)

This is a fixed-term contract with three months of trial run

The employee keeps his unemployment benefits or has an inclusion benefits cumulated with an employer bonus (no taxed).

Under specific conditions, reduction of the employer payroll taxes. Also, a part of the wage can be paid by the National Employement Office,

Duration

In theory, there is no duration limit. However, if a student works more than 50 days a year of more than 240 hours a quarter, the paiement of family allowance could be stop and he could pay taxes.

Minimum one year and maximum three years

From 4 to 26 weeks

The conditions of this contract are finished as soon as the worker is 26 years.

Renewal limits

No limit

No limit within the three years period

Renewal is allowed as long as all conditions are presents (under 25 years, etc)

Renewal not possible

Population

Young people from 16 years old (15 years under certain conditions)

Young people (often at the secondary school) from 15 years old

Young people under 25 years old with a secondary school degree at least.

Young people under 26 years old with a very low or middle skilled (as defined by conditions)

3.2. Do incentives exists in your country to encourage employers to opt for standard rather than temporary contracts of employment, to convert temporary contracts into permanent ones or to make it easier for employees to move from temporary to permanent contracts? If so, please briefly describe the form that these incentives take. Do they apply equally to young people as well as to older workers? Are any incentives in place to encourage employers to take on young people who have completed an apprenticeship or traineeship on permanent contracts? Have there been any changes to incentives over the period of the crisis? Are any such changes being proposed or being actively discussed at present in your country?

There is no specific incentives which encourage employers to opt for a permanent contracts. The Government has taken several anti-crisis measures in consultation with the social partners. Among the measures, we can find some specific to the young people population. These aimed at promoting a more sustainable employment for young people by activating the unemployment allowance and reducing the cost of labor (Plan Win Win, 2010), Activa Start 2006 (low-skilled). Also, some measures as the training-inclusion contract or the first-job contract aims at stimulating the labour market by many reductions of payroll taxes for companies. However, it did not have an impact on the number of permanent jobs but rather on the number of jobs created or the decrease of the unemployment rate.

There is no specific information about apprenticeship or traineeship on permanent contract.

3.3. Is the employment of young people on temporary contracts an important issue of concern for the social partners? Are there strong differences in attitudes and policies between employers and trade unions towards the use of temporary contracts? Have any initiatives been taken by the social partners, either jointly or separately, to encourage the use of permanent rather than temporary contracts? Have any specific initiatives been taken in respect of young people completing apprenticeships or traineeships over the types of job they are offered when their temporary position comes to an end?

As for many topics in Belgium, social partners are involved in the discussion and/or the implementation and/or the monitoring of measures. Indeed, they are present in many institutional places such as the National Employment Office or National Labour Council. Thus, they often have the possibility to discuss close topics to the temporary work and the inclusion of young people in the labour market, in Belgium. Typically, trade unions consider that the temporary jobs means insecurity whereas many employers perceive an opportunity of flexibility in their companies.

Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 15-24, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

37.6

41.3

40.4

42.5

3.7

-0.9

2.1

1.2

BE

28.6

31.6

33.2

34.3

3.0

1.6

1.1

2.7

BG

15.3

10.3

9.3

8.3

-5.0

-1.0

-1.0

-2.0

CZ

18.0

17.4

18.7

22.3

-0.6

1.3

3.6

4.9

DK

26.9

22.5

22.8

22.1

-4.4

0.3

-0.7

-0.4

DE

55.5

57.4

57.3

56.0

1.9

-0.1

-1.3

-1.4

EE

:

:

:

13.8

 

   

 

IE

11.2

20.5

25.0

34.2

9.3

4.5

9.2

13.7

EL

26.3

27.0

28.4

30.1

0.7

1.4

1.7

3.1

ES

64.8

62.8

55.9

61.4

-2.0

-6.9

5.5

-1.4

FR

46.7

53.5

52.4

55.1

6.8

-1.1

2.7

1.6

IT

34.4

42.3

44.4

49.9

7.9

2.1

5.5

7.6

CY

16.1

23.3

18.4

17.2

7.2

-4.9

-1.2

-6.1

LV

17.3

9.3

9.3

10.7

-8.0

0.0

1.4

1.4

LT

13.8

9.8

5.0

9.1

-4.0

-4.8

4.1

-0.7

LU

24.1

34.1

39.3

34.5

10.0

5.2

-4.8

0.4

HU

15.1

19.1

21.4

22.9

4.0

2.3

1.5

3.8

MT

9.2

11.0

11.3

17.7

1.8

0.3

6.4

6.7

NL

37.9

45.1

46.5

47.7

7.2

1.4

1.2

2.6

AT

32.4

34.9

35.6

37.2

2.5

0.7

1.6

2.3

PL

60.6

65.7

62.0

65.6

5.1

-3.7

3.6

-0.1

PT

47.4

52.6

53.5

57.2

5.2

0.9

3.7

4.6

RO

6.6

4.6

3.7

5.8

-2.0

-0.9

2.1

1.2

SI

63.1

68.3

66.6

74.5

5.2

-1.7

7.9

6.2

SK

9.9

13.7

12.5

18.6

3.8

-1.2

6.1

4.9

FI

49.8

42.4

39.0

43.4

-7.4

-3.4

4.4

1.0

SE

53.1

57.1

53.4

57.3

4.0

-3.7

3.9

0.2

UK

11.0

13.3

11.9

13.5

2.3

-1.4

1.6

0.2

NO

31.2

28.0

25.7

24.3

-3.2

-2.3

-1.4

-3.7

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey

         
Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 25-29, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

19.5

21.1

20.2

21.4

1.6

-1.0

1.2

0.2

BE

12.4

13.1

12.5

14.6

0.7

-0.5

2.0

1.5

BG

9.0

5.3

4.4

4.2

-3.8

-0.8

-0.2

-1.0

CZ

9.8

8.1

8.4

10.8

-1.7

0.2

2.5

2.7

DK

16.5

13.9

13.8

16.4

-2.6

-0.1

2.7

2.5

DE

17.2

21.2

21.2

22.0

4.0

0.0

0.8

0.8

EE

3.0

1.8

4.2

4.2

-1.2

2.4

0.0

2.3

IE

3.4

10.1

9.5

12.7

6.7

-0.6

3.2

2.6

EL

18.4

16.1

19.9

19.0

-2.3

3.8

-1.0

2.9

ES

44.0

41.2

37.5

39.8

-2.7

-3.7

2.3

-1.5

FR

18.3

20.8

20.2

22.0

2.5

-0.6

1.8

1.2

IT

17.2

22.7

23.5

26.7

5.5

0.8

3.2

4.0

CY

19.2

17.7

16.2

18.1

-1.5

-1.5

1.9

0.4

LV

11.8

3.2

4.2

5.5

-8.6

1.0

1.4

2.3

LT

5.3

4.2

2.5

3.6

-1.1

-1.7

1.1

-0.6

LU

7.6

12.5

11.2

12.7

4.9

-1.2

1.5

0.3

HU

8.1

8.9

11.3

11.0

0.8

2.5

-0.3

2.2

MT

1.1

5.6

5.0

6.3

4.6

-0.6

1.3

0.6

NL

16.8

22.9

24.2

25.8

6.1

1.2

1.7

2.9

AT

10.0

8.8

9.6

9.8

-1.1

0.8

0.2

1.0

PL

33.8

38.7

35.6

38.9

4.9

-3.1

3.3

0.2

PT

30.3

36.6

38.6

39.2

6.3

2.0

0.6

2.6

RO

3.4

2.1

1.2

2.1

-1.3

-0.9

0.9

0.0

SI

30.7

33.7

34.1

33.9

2.9

0.4

-0.2

0.3

SK

6.8

5.7

4.1

7.7

-1.2

-1.6

3.7

2.1

FI

28.7

24.5

25.5

26.0

-4.2

1.1

0.5

1.5

SE

24.0

27.4

24.0

25.0

3.4

-3.3

1.0

-2.4

UK

6.2

7.1

6.3

5.0

0.9

-0.8

-1.3

-2.1

Source: Eurostat, European Labour Force Survey

       

Daniel Cornerotte, FOPES-UCL

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