EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Latvia: Young people and temporary employment in Europe

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 08 December 2013



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Young people are under higher risk of being unemployed and they have been harder hit by financial crisis compared to national average. Temporary employment contracts appear more frequently among employees in age group 15-24. Number of young people employed on the basis of temporary contracts has decreased up to 2007- 2008, but then slightly increased. The share of young people involved in other kind of temporary contracts (service contracts, State Employment Agency assistance programs) is not known. There are no differences in entitlement and eligibility criteria in social insurance system and access to health care between temporary and permanent employment and regarding age.

Questionnaire

1. Importance of temporary employment for young people

1.1. Do the figures shown in the attached tables (on the number of temporary employed as a % of total employees based on Eurostat LFS data) give a reliable indication of the scale of temporary employment among the young in your country and the way that it has changed over recent years? Are there young people employed in temporary jobs who do not show up in the Eurostat figures? Are there national statistics which show a different picture from the Eurostat data? If so, please indicate what they show and give the source of the data.

Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia (Latvijas Republikas Centrālā statistikas pārvalde, CSP) has confirmed that Eurostat figures on temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 15-24 are correct. CSP does not have data for validation of Eurostat figures on temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 25-29.

Regarding age group 15-24, CSP indicates difference between CSP and Eurostat data:

  1. Eurostat figure for 2004 corresponds to CSP data for QII 2004, CSP figure for 2004 is annual data (not arithmetical average of quarterly data);
  2. Eurostat figures for 2007, 2009 and 2011 correspond to annual data calculated as arithmetical average of quarterly data, CSP figures for 2007 and 2009 are calculated as annual data (not arithmetical average of quarterly data) while the figure for 2011 is calculated as arithmetical average of quarterly data.

In CSP databases, general employment statistics is provided in age groups 15-19, 20-24 and 25-29 years old.

In 2011, CSP recalculated employment data in compliance with results of Population Census of 2011 that showed important differences compared with before existing population data (re-calculated data is indicated in figures as 2011r).

Available statistics reveals that employment trends in young age differ not only from the national average trend but also between age groups. The share of economically active people is lower than average in age group 15-19, close to average in age group 20-24 and higher than average in age group 25-29 years old. The crisis has more impacted the share of economically active population in younger age groups.

1.2. Is there any evidence that other forms of employment are used as a substitute for temporary contracts, such as bogus self-employment where young people are contracted to provide services to a single work provider in a continuous manner so acting de facto as employees? If so, please give the source of the evidence and indicate the scale of the phenomenon in terms of the number of people concerned.

There is no reliable source indicating other forms of employment used regarding young workers. It is known that people are also employed on the basis of service contracts and authors’ contracts which may be considered as a kind of bogus temporary employment. Authors’ contract may be entered in specific cases or for a commissioned work. It is regulated by the Copyright law and Civil law in general aspects. If an author’s contract has been entered into, the author must perform the commissioned work in accordance with the provisions of the contract and must provide the work for use by the commissioning party, within the specified term and in the manner indicated in the contract. It is the obligation of an author to personally perform the work commissioned from them.

Service contract may be used in special cases for particular work. Service contract may not be used for permanent job. These contracts are regulated by the Civil law.

If a service contract has been entered into, the contractor undertakes a duty to provide a service, to produce a thing or to implement a measure by using own instruments and appliances. The contractor agrees to perform agreed job by a relevant contribution.

It is not possible to identify the scale of application of other kind of contracts. It is known from practice that these forms are typical for project based activities and in micro and small undertakings, were young people are often involved.

Probationary periods (should not exceed three months) are indicated in the employment contract for unspecified time.

Young people may also be temporary employed in the State Employment Agency (Nodarbinātības Valsts aģentūra, NVA) assistance programs. NVA offers three active employment measures specifically for young people aged 18-24:

  • workplace for young worker,
  • support for voluntary work of young people,
  • training and practical work for NVA agents.

Young people are eligible for general employment measures, such as employment measures for specified groups of unemployed (disadvantaged workers and people with disability) and paid temporary works.

Young people may be temporary employed in temporary work agencies.

1.3. Please list (and give summary details, i.e. purpose and duration of the contract) the most common contract types or contractual arrangements under which young people are employed on a temporary basis (such as for traineeships, apprenticeships, probationary periods, replacement of workers on leave or projects of a fixed duration). What is the relative importance of each type of contract or arrangement in terms of the number of young people employed under them?

Employment contracts in undertakings, including contracts for the time of traineeships, apprenticeships, probationary periods and other are considered as highly private information than can not be disclosed.

Whatever are details of the employment relations, employment contracts should follow general requirements that are set forth by Section 40 of the Labour law on Form of an employment contract or by the Civil law.

In compliance with the Labour law, an employment contract should be entered into in writing prior to commencement of work.

An employment contract should include:

  1. the given name, surname, personal identification number, place of residence of the employee, and the name, surname (business name), registration number and address of the employer;
  2. the starting date of employment legal relationships;
  3. the expected duration of employment legal relationships (if the employment contract has been entered into for a specified period of time);
  4. the workplace;
  5. the trade, profession, speciality (occupation) of the employee in conformity with the Classification of Occupations and the general description of the contracted work;
  6. the amount of work remuneration and time of payment;
  7. the agreed daily or weekly working time;
  8. the length of the annual paid leave;
  9. the term for giving a notice of termination of the employment contract; and
  10. the provisions of the collective agreement and working procedure regulations to be applied to employment legal relationships.

This information may be substituted by a reference to relevant provisions in regulatory enactments, in the collective agreement or by a reference to working procedure regulations.

An employment contract, in addition to this information, may also include other information if the parties consider it necessary.

An employer has a duty to ensure that an employment contract is entered into in writing and to maintain a record of the contracts of employment entered into.

Regarding NVA programs, two contracts are in force – the participation contract concluded between NVA and unemployed person and the employment contract concluded between employer and unemployed person. The content of employment contract include attributes required by the Law and is adjusted to the specific employment measure regarding time and pay:

  • workplace for young worker (employed for 9 months, EUR 285 (LVL 200) per month, taxes and social insurance contributions paid),
  • support for voluntary work of young people (employed in foundations and establishments, for 1-6 months period, monthly stipend in amount EUR 57 (LVL 40) per month EUR 85 (LVL 60) for persons with disability),
  • training and practice of NVA agents (40 hours training program, 17 month long practical work in NVA subsidiaries, employment during practical work - five days per week, eight hours a day, stipend EUR 213 (LVL 150) per month),
  • general employment measures:
    • employment measures for specified groups of unemployed (employed for 12 months),
    • paid temporary works (employed not longer than 4 months within 12 months period, pay for work EUR 142 (LVL 100) per month, taxes and social insurance contributions paid).

There is no statistical data for estimation of the relative importance of each type of contract or arrangement in terms of the number of young people employed under them.

1.4. Please indicate the main reasons for the emergence and development of the different types of temporary contract which you have listed in response to question 1.3. To what extent are they linked to particular conditions in the labour market or employment protection legislation/regulation in your country? What is the main attraction of such contracts to employers? What effect has the crisis had on the use of such contracts?

In compliance with Latvian legislation employment normally should be organised on the basis of permanent employment contract. Temporary contracts or other kind of legislation that allows temporary work (including service contracts, authors’ contracts etc) may be applied only in special cases determined by the Labour law and can not substitute permanent employment contract. This way, application of temporary contracts is strongly connected with the nature of a performed work.

Service contracts and authors contracts (if applicable) are preferred to permanent contract in order to optimise labour costs. People working on the basis of Civil law are not included in collective agreements, are not subjugated to regular holidays etc, regulations of safety at work, employer or a person itself should pay personal income tax, while social contributions are responsibility of a person.

Requirements regarding working conditions may be conditionally applied because the work should be performed by using workers own resources and workers are responsible for organising their work.

1.5. To what extent are temporary contracts a ‘stepping stone’ to ‘permanent’ jobs (or those with standard contracts of employment of undefined duration)? Are apprentices and trainees typically taken on by the companies or other organisations concerned on standard permanent contracts once they complete their training? Has the situation changed over the crisis period? Please summarise any relevant studies which have been carried out in your country or other evidence at the national level which exists and give the reference to them.

According to the Labour law, if, upon expiry of the term for which an employment contract has been entered into, no party has requested termination of the employment contract and employment legal relationships are effectively continuing, the employment contract should be regarded as entered into for an unspecified period. This way, temporary contracts may be considered as a ‘stepping stone’ to ‘permanent’ jobs.

The Labour law envisages that an employer has a duty to inform employees, with whom an employment contract has been entered into for a specified period, regarding job vacancies in the undertaking in which the employee may be employed for an unspecified period. Employers should inform employee representatives regarding the opportunities in the undertaking to employ employees for a specified period if the employee representatives request such information.

Temporary contracts are expected as a ‘stepping stone’ to ‘permanent’ jobs in NVA measures.

According with latest NVA Annual report (2011) of all unemployed who where involved in group of measures “Active labour marker measures” (based on temporary employment contract) 15% were able to find permanent job within 6 month after completing of measure. The success rate differs in measures. For instance, in measures for specified groups of unemployed (young unemployed are among target groups), the success rate is very high – 83.5% in 2011. In this measure data is not specified by age.

In measure “Working practice for young workers” 364 people were involved in 2011, 191 finished, of which 168 have obtained permanent job.

In general, temporary contracts are not promoted by Latvian labour legislation. They are not used for legal relations in the probation period (probation period should be determined in a permanent contract).

2. Access to social benefits

General note

Unemployment insurance, sickness benefits and maternity benefits and old-age pensions are social insurance services that are provided for insured persons. Socially insured persons are ones who have paid social contributions in mandatory or voluntary social insurance system by themselves or somebody have paid social insurance contributions for them. Variety of social insurable persons in the mandatory and voluntary systems is defined by the law on State Social Insurance.

Entitlement or eligibility conditions are not specified for young people neither in social insurance system not regarding access to health care. Social insurance benefits differ depending on the amount of paid contributions. In long term social insurance systems, such as pension system, and in systems where insurance period is taken into account this may cause difference in size of benefit between young workers and other workers who have paid social contributions for longer period. However, the group of young workers is not homogenous. According to interview with representative of the State Social Insurance Agency (Valsts Sociālās apdrošināšanas aģentūra, VSAA), especially in age group 25-29 years old, young people use to be employed in high paid jobs in public and private organisations, as education level is high in this group. This provides for high short term social benefits, such as unemployment insurance benefit, sickness and maternity benefit.

Access to social benefits does not differ depending on type of employment.

Article 6 of Section 44 on Temporary employment contract sets forth that “the same provisions, which apply to an employee with whom an employment contract has been entered into for an unspecified period, shall apply to an employee with whom an employment contract has been entered into for a specified period”. Therefore, young workers who are working on the basis of temporary employment contract are eligible to social benefits equally with those employed on the basis of permanent employment contract.

Each social legislation law was amended at least six times since June 2009 when Latvian government started its austerity measures. Extensive amendments made since 2009 may be distinguished in several groups: particular regulations were amended in order to improve the quality of a law; social insurance regulation was extended in connection with implementation of specific micro-enterprise regime in 2010; and extensive amendments were made in order to manage crisis and to harmonize existing social legislation with the law On Payment of State Allowances during the Time Period from 2009 to 2012, adopted on 16 June 2009. The purpose of this Law was to provide social security to persons within the scope of available financing in accordance with the laws on the State budget for the current year during the time period from 1 July 2009 until 2012. The law itself was changed six times since adoption. Envisaged eliminations in social payments were prolonged until 31 December 2014.

2.1. Does entitlement of young people to (contributory) unemployment insurance benefits and (non-contributory) unemployment assistance (i.e. benefits, usually means-tested, which provide a minimum level of income) differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

There is no sufficient evidence to say that regarding unemployment insurance the de facto situation of young people employed in temporary jobs differ from those employed in permanent jobs. There are no differences in eligibility conditions.

Over the period of crisis several changes occurred regarding periods of payments of unemployment benefits (applicable for all unemployed, not only young unemployed). The law On employment insurance was amended six times since June 2009. Main changes concerned classification of unemployed according to the period of unemployment, periods of payment of unemployment benefits and the levels of the benefits.

The law set forth a norm that if during the time period from 1 January 2010 until 31 December 2012 (prolonged to 2014) the amount of unemployment benefit exceeds EUR 16.38 per one calendar day, the amount of unemployment benefit to be granted per one calendar day shall be the sum, which consists of EUR 16.38 and 50% of the calculated benefit sum that exceeds EUR 16.38 per one calendar day.

Discrimination of young workers appears, when the period of payments of unemployment benefits is connected with insurance period or period of interrupted work. Then young workers, who have less insurance period are eligible for unemployment benefit payments for shorter period and consequently in less amount.

2.2. Does entitlement of young people to sickness benefits and maternity benefits differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

There is no sufficient evidence to say that regarding sickness and maternity insurance the de facto situation of young people employed in temporary jobs differ from those employed in permanent jobs. There are no differences in eligibility conditions.

Over the period of crisis some changes occurred in provision of maternity and sickness benefits in general (applicable to all unemployed, not only young unemployed).

The law On Maternity and Sickness Insurance was amended six times since June 2009. Amendments changed in different ways and in several steps the conditions of eligibility for benefits and methodology of calculation of benefits in order to reduce expenditures of the sickness and maternity benefits.

For instance, first amendments, introduced in 2009 changed the length of the period of payment of sickness benefit. Starting with 1 July 2009, sickness benefits should be paid from the sickness insurance budget starting with eleventh day to recovery of work ability but not longer than 26 weeks (down from 52 weeks) in case of non-interrupted sickness periods or not longer than 52 weeks within three years (down from 78 weeks) if sickness period was interrupted. Sickness benefit is not paid if person having several jobs with several employers and person have worked at least in one of these jobs.

Parents’ benefits (paid during the first year after child’s birth)) were abolished for working parents (including self-employed) and unemployed parents who receive unemployment benefits. The following amendments set the norm that parent’s benefit which has been granted for taking care of a child born during the time period until 2 May 2010, shall be paid in the amount of 50% of the amount of the benefit granted.

Calculation of average insurance wage applicable to all types of social insurance was changed - starting with 1 January 2010 average insurance wage is calculated as average of 12 months where last month of the period is two months before insurance case was fixed.

Next amendments in December 2009 specified calculation of insurance wage for people who have not worked before insurance case occurred.

In 2010 wide amendments were made in order to further harmonize existing social legislation with law On payment of the state benefits for the period from 2009 to 2012 in order to avoid insolvency of the social insurance budget.

During the time period from 1 July 2009 until 31 December 2014 the amount of the State family allowance specified in the Law On State Social Allowances for each child was EUR 11.38 per month.

The following limitation on the size of the maternity, paternity and parent’s benefits, and sickness benefits was introduced - if the amount of the granted benefit per one calendar day exceeded EUR 16.38, the benefit was paid according with calculation - EUR 16.38 per one calendar day and 50% of the amount of the granted benefit, which in one calendar day exceeds EUR 16.38. This norm was amended in November 2012 and the limit was increased to EUR 32.76 per day regardin parent’s benefit and maternity and paternity benefit. The minimum level of parents’ benefit was increased from EUR 90 to EUR 142 per month.

During the time period from 3 November 2010 to 31 December 2012 the amount of the maternity benefit or paternity benefit specified was reduced to the amount of 80% of the average wage of the benefit recipient that is subject to insurance contributions and this norm is still valid.

2.3. Are there any differences in the entitlement of young people to old-age pensions between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to pensions changed over the period of the crisis (including through pension reforms introduced as part of a long-term strategy to improve the financial sustainability of the system)?

Entitlement and eligibility to old age pensions do not differ depending on age and employment contract. The amount of pension depends on the size of social contributions.

Over the period of crisis some changes occurred in pension system in general (applicable to all unemployed, not only young unemployed). Pension system is regulated by several laws. The main law was amended six times since June 2009. These changes were directed by the law On Payment of State Allowances during the Time Period from 2009 to 2012. Main changes concerned indexation of pensions (was abolished) and contribution to the state mandatory funded pension system (was reduced). The level of early retirement pensions was reduced from 80% of the calculated amount to 50% of the calculated amount.

The law Par On Payment of State Allowances during the Time Period from 2009 to 2012 introduced norms that normal old age pensions and service pensions may be paid in amount of 90% of the calculated amount, and service persons for those who have started to work in amount of 30 % of the calculated amount. These norm was litigated in Constitutional Court, and eliminations were abolished.

2.4. Are there any differences in entitlement of young people to health care between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to health care changed over the period of the crisis?

Access to health care is not differentiated depending on age and mode of employment.

Over the period of crisis, changes have not occurred regarding access to health care neither in general not specifically for young workers.

3. Regulation of temporary contracts and policies to support transitions into permanent contracts

3.1. Please describe briefly the regulations applying to the main types of temporary contract in your country. Do restrictions exist on the maximum duration of the different types of temporary contract for young workers or the number of times they can be renewed? Do these regulations differ by age (i.e. between young people and older workers) and/or by type of temporary contract (as mentioned in question 1.3), by occupation, or by sector of activity? Do special regulations exist for those completing apprenticeships or traineeships? Have the regulations changed over the period of the crisis – i.e. has there been a tendency for them to have been tightened or relaxed?

Temporary employment contracts are regulated by the Section 44 of the Labour law on Employment contract for a specified period. Special norms regarding young workers do not exist.

An employment contract may be entered into for a specified period in order to perform specified short-term work, such as:

  1. seasonal work (determined by the Cabinet of Ministers, not longer than 10 months during one year);
  2. work in activity areas where an employment contract is normally not entered into for an unspecified period, taking into account the nature of the relevant occupation or the temporary nature of the relevant work (determined by the Cabinet of Ministers, usually in culture, sports financial sector, trade etc);
  3. replacement of an employee who is absent or suspended from work, as well as replacement of an employee whose permanent position has become vacant until the moment a new employee is hired;
  4. casual work which is normally not performed in the undertaking;
  5. specified temporary work related to short-term expansion of the scope of work of the undertaking or to an increase in the amount of production;
  6. emergency work in order to prevent the consequences caused by force majeure, an unexpected event or other exceptional circumstances which adversely affect or may affect the normal course of activities in an undertaking;
  7. temporary paid work intended for an unemployed person or other work related to his or her participation in active employment measures, or work related to the implementation of active employment measures; and
  8. work of an educatee of a vocational or academic educational institution, if it is related to preparation for activity in a certain occupation or study course (for instance, student ir legal sciences may be temporary employed as an assistant of lawyer in legal office, but not in work that is not connected with her/his study direction)

The general norm (applicable also for young people) sets forth that members of executive bodies of capital companies should be employed on the basis of an employment contract or another contract governed by Civil law. If the executive body of a capital company is employed on the basis of an employment contract, it should be entered into for a specified period.

An employment contract entered into for a specified period should include the expiry date or conditions that determine that the relevant work is completed.

3.2. Do incentives exists in your country to encourage employers to opt for standard rather than temporary contracts of employment, to convert temporary contracts into permanent ones or to make it easier for employees to move from temporary to permanent contracts? If so, please briefly describe the form that these incentives take. Do they apply equally to young people as well as to older workers? Are any incentives in place to encourage employers to take on young people who have completed an apprenticeship or traineeship on permanent contracts? Have there been any changes to incentives over the period of the crisis? Are any such changes being proposed or being actively discussed at present in your country?

Temporary employment is not specifically promoted. As described before, employment contacts normally should be set for unspecified time, and conditions of Section 44 of the labour law are exceptions. If actual conditions of the performed work do not comply to provisions set forth in the Section 44 of the Labour law, temporary employment contract is recognised as a contract for unspecified period.

Section 45 of the law on Term of an employment contract entered into for a specified period sets forth the following norms regarding time limits of temporary work.

The term of an employment contract entered into for a specified period may not exceed three years (including extensions of the term) if another term has not been specified in another law for the employment contract. The entering into a new employment contract with the same employer is also regarded as extension of the term of the employment contract if during the period from the date of entering into the former employment contract until the entering into a new employment contract the legal relationship has not been interrupted for more than 30 consecutive days.

The term for which an employment contract has been entered into for performing seasonal work (including extensions of the term) may not exceed 10 months within one year.

The term of an employment contract entered into in order to replace an employee who is absent may if necessary be extended by exceeding three years. If an employee who is absent or suspended from work due to some circumstances does not continue or may not continue employment legal relationships, the employment contract of the employee replacing him or her shall be regarded as entered into for an unspecified period.

In 2011, special norms were introduced into the Labour law that regulate work of temporary work agency.

Amendments introduce into the Labour law new norms regarding legal protection of people employed under services of providing workforce by the temporary employment service provider. The law sets rights and obligations of service provider, its employees and receiver of the delivered service. Amendments are harmonised with the Directive 2008/104/EK, ILO convention on Nr.181 " Private Employment Agencies Convention" and other international norms.

Among other norms, the amendments define that in the context of services of providing workforce, service provider is an employer in relation to a workers, and service provider should conclude employment contract with workers whom it sends for temporary work in service beneficiary enterprise under supervision of service beneficiary.

Service provider has a duty to ensure for a worker that is sent for temporary work in other enterprise working conditions and employment conditions that would be available for a worker if she or he is employed in service providers’ enterprise.

3.3. Is the employment of young people on temporary contracts an important issue of concern for the social partners? Are there strong differences in attitudes and policies between employers and trade unions towards the use of temporary contracts? Have any initiatives been taken by the social partners, either jointly or separately, to encourage the use of permanent rather than temporary contracts? Have any specific initiatives been taken in respect of young people completing apprenticeships or traineeships over the types of job they are offered when their temporary position comes to an end?

Employment of young people is among issues of concern in the Government and social partners.

Youth policy in Latvia is based on the Youth law (valid since 01.01.2009). In compliance with this law, the Ministry of Education has elaborated Guidelines of the youth policy for 2009 – 2018. The Government has elaborated and implements the National Program of youth policy 2009 – 2013 (Jaunatnes politikas valsts programma 2009.-2013.gadam) aimed at implementation of the Guidelines. Youth employment is distinguished in general employment policy documents and national level strategic documents, including the National Development Plan 2013 – 2020.

NVA and the Ministry of Welfare have conducted several studies on youth employment in 2006 – 2007. Social partners also analyse situation in labour market regarding youth employment. In September 2010, the Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia (Latvijas Brīvo Arodbiedrību savienība, LBAS) conducted an expert’s analysis on youth employment. In 2010, an expert analysis was conducted on correspondence of education to labour market demand.

Youth employment problems are discussed between social partners in frameworks of National Tripartite Cooperation Council (Nacionālās trīspusējās sadarbības padome, NTSP) sub-commission of employment and social affairs. Employment of young people on temporary contracts is not so important. Responsible institutions do not see discrimination of young. Temporary contracts are suitable for young people in order to balance work and studies, as well as to provide better work-life balance. Trade unions seek for compromise between higher employability for young people and observance of social guarantees of young workers.

Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 15-24, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

37.6

41.3

40.4

42.5

3.7

-0.9

2.1

1.2

BE

28.6

31.6

33.2

34.3

3.0

1.6

1.1

2.7

BG

15.3

10.3

9.3

8.3

-5.0

-1.0

-1.0

-2.0

CZ

18.0

17.4

18.7

22.3

-0.6

1.3

3.6

4.9

DK

26.9

22.5

22.8

22.1

-4.4

0.3

-0.7

-0.4

DE

55.5

57.4

57.3

56.0

1.9

-0.1

-1.3

-1.4

EE

:

:

:

13.8

 

   

 

IE

11.2

20.5

25.0

34.2

9.3

4.5

9.2

13.7

EL

26.3

27.0

28.4

30.1

0.7

1.4

1.7

3.1

ES

64.8

62.8

55.9

61.4

-2.0

-6.9

5.5

-1.4

FR

46.7

53.5

52.4

55.1

6.8

-1.1

2.7

1.6

IT

34.4

42.3

44.4

49.9

7.9

2.1

5.5

7.6

CY

16.1

23.3

18.4

17.2

7.2

-4.9

-1.2

-6.1

LV

17.3

9.3

9.3

10.7

-8.0

0.0

1.4

1.4

LT

13.8

9.8

5.0

9.1

-4.0

-4.8

4.1

-0.7

LU

24.1

34.1

39.3

34.5

10.0

5.2

-4.8

0.4

HU

15.1

19.1

21.4

22.9

4.0

2.3

1.5

3.8

MT

9.2

11.0

11.3

17.7

1.8

0.3

6.4

6.7

NL

37.9

45.1

46.5

47.7

7.2

1.4

1.2

2.6

AT

32.4

34.9

35.6

37.2

2.5

0.7

1.6

2.3

PL

60.6

65.7

62.0

65.6

5.1

-3.7

3.6

-0.1

PT

47.4

52.6

53.5

57.2

5.2

0.9

3.7

4.6

RO

6.6

4.6

3.7

5.8

-2.0

-0.9

2.1

1.2

SI

63.1

68.3

66.6

74.5

5.2

-1.7

7.9

6.2

SK

9.9

13.7

12.5

18.6

3.8

-1.2

6.1

4.9

FI

49.8

42.4

39.0

43.4

-7.4

-3.4

4.4

1.0

SE

53.1

57.1

53.4

57.3

4.0

-3.7

3.9

0.2

UK

11.0

13.3

11.9

13.5

2.3

-1.4

1.6

0.2

NO

31.2

28.0

25.7

24.3

-3.2

-2.3

-1.4

-3.7

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey

         
Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 25-29, 2004-2011
  % total employees % point change
  2004 2007 2009 2011 2004-2007 2007-2009 2009-2011 2007-2011
EU27

19.5

21.1

20.2

21.4

1.6

-1.0

1.2

0.2

BE

12.4

13.1

12.5

14.6

0.7

-0.5

2.0

1.5

BG

9.0

5.3

4.4

4.2

-3.8

-0.8

-0.2

-1.0

CZ

9.8

8.1

8.4

10.8

-1.7

0.2

2.5

2.7

DK

16.5

13.9

13.8

16.4

-2.6

-0.1

2.7

2.5

DE

17.2

21.2

21.2

22.0

4.0

0.0

0.8

0.8

EE

3.0

1.8

4.2

4.2

-1.2

2.4

0.0

2.3

IE

3.4

10.1

9.5

12.7

6.7

-0.6

3.2

2.6

EL

18.4

16.1

19.9

19.0

-2.3

3.8

-1.0

2.9

ES

44.0

41.2

37.5

39.8

-2.7

-3.7

2.3

-1.5

FR

18.3

20.8

20.2

22.0

2.5

-0.6

1.8

1.2

IT

17.2

22.7

23.5

26.7

5.5

0.8

3.2

4.0

CY

19.2

17.7

16.2

18.1

-1.5

-1.5

1.9

0.4

LV

11.8

3.2

4.2

5.5

-8.6

1.0

1.4

2.3

LT

5.3

4.2

2.5

3.6

-1.1

-1.7

1.1

-0.6

LU

7.6

12.5

11.2

12.7

4.9

-1.2

1.5

0.3

HU

8.1

8.9

11.3

11.0

0.8

2.5

-0.3

2.2

MT

1.1

5.6

5.0

6.3

4.6

-0.6

1.3

0.6

NL

16.8

22.9

24.2

25.8

6.1

1.2

1.7

2.9

AT

10.0

8.8

9.6

9.8

-1.1

0.8

0.2

1.0

PL

33.8

38.7

35.6

38.9

4.9

-3.1

3.3

0.2

PT

30.3

36.6

38.6

39.2

6.3

2.0

0.6

2.6

RO

3.4

2.1

1.2

2.1

-1.3

-0.9

0.9

0.0

SI

30.7

33.7

34.1

33.9

2.9

0.4

-0.2

0.3

SK

6.8

5.7

4.1

7.7

-1.2

-1.6

3.7

2.1

FI

28.7

24.5

25.5

26.0

-4.2

1.1

0.5

1.5

SE

24.0

27.4

24.0

25.0

3.4

-3.3

1.0

-2.4

UK

6.2

7.1

6.3

5.0

0.9

-0.8

-1.3

-2.1

Source: Eurostat, European Labour Force Survey

       

References

  • Bezdarba situācija valstī (Unemployment situation in the country). NVA report, October 2012. http://www.nva.lv/docs/17_50b474eb3fccf4.07385162.doc, p.5. (In Latvian).
  • Jauniešu - bezdarbnieku kvalitatīvā sastāva atbilstības darba tirgus pieprasījumam izvērtēšana. Kvantitatīvais pētījums jauniešu – bezdarbnieku aptauja (Assessment on correspondence of qualitative composition of young unemployed to labour market demand. Quantitative research – survey of young unemployed). ESF project „Studies of the NVA”), 2006. (In Latvian).
  • Jaunieši darba tirgū: situācijas un nodarbinātību ietekmējošo faktoru analīze (Youth in the labour market: analysis of situation and impact factors). ESF project „Support to labour market research”. Ministry of Welfare, 2007. (In Latvian).
  • Pētījums atklāj jauniešu priekšrocības darba tirgū (The study reveals preferences of young workers in the labour market). Media release on the study conducted by the HRM company „CV-online”, 2012. http://visspardarbu.lv/2012/05/16/petijums-atklaj-jauniesu-prieksrocibas-darba-tirgu/ (In Latvian).

Raita Karnite, EPC, Ltd.

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