EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Slovakia: Young people and temporary employment in Europe

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 08 December 2013



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Integration of young people into the labour market is characterised by the prevalence of atypical forms of employment like temporary employment and work in non-standard modes. Mainly fixed-term contracts and agreements on external work performance are used by young people. People working on contracts do not pay contributions to compulsory insurance funds and had very limited access to social benefits. Since 1 January 2013, the legislation requires to pay those contributions from rewards and the person working on agreements with a regular monthly income has almost the same position as a normal employee.

Introduction

Youth unemployment has been a persistent problem in many parts of Europe for many years. Over the past 3-4 years, however, since the onset of the financial crisis and the economic recession which followed, it has become an even greater and more widespread problem and one which, given the on-going depressed state of the European economies, is likely to remain for some time to come. The latest monthly figures (for September 2012) show the unemployment rate of those aged 15-24 averaging 22.8% in the EU – just over 1 percentage point higher than at the time a year earlier. In Spain, the figure was over 54% and in Greece, 57%, in both cases, much higher than a year earlier. In the worst affected countries, therefore, as in most Member States, there is very little sign of any easing of the youth unemployment problem. There are, however, a few exceptions. In Germany, in particular, youth unemployment has declined since the global recession hit in 2009 and now stands at only 8%, well below the level it was before the recession. In Norway too, the rate is only 8%, though this is slightly above the level in 2007 before the crisis. Germany, apart, there are two other countries in the EU with youth unemployment below 10% according to the latest monthly figures - the Netherlands (9.4%) and Austria (9.9%). As in Norway, in both cases, the rate is above the pre-crisis level.

Moreover, young people who do manage to find jobs often have to settle for a temporary one, defined as one with a fixed-term contract of employment. According to the European Labour Force Survey (LFS), in 2011, just under 43% of employees under 25 were in temporary jobs in the EU and well over half in Germany (56%), France (55%), Portugal, (57%), Sweden (57%), Spain (63%), Poland (66%) and Slovenia (75%). (In Norway, the figure was much lower than in most EU countries, at around 24%.) While around 40% of the young people concerned on average were in temporary jobs because they had a fixed-term training contract and another 9% were on probationary contracts, a substantial proportion (37% on average) were in temporary jobs because they were unable to find permanent ones. In the Czech Republic, Cyprus and Portugal, this figure was over 75% and in Spain and Slovakia, well over 80%.

Among young people making the transition from education or initial vocational training into employment, the proportion who take up temporary rather than permanent jobs is much higher than for the age group as a whole. In 2011, 57% of those aged 15-24 in employment who were in education the previous year were in temporary jobs in the EU and 86-87% in Spain, Portugal and Poland. For those moving from unemployment into employment, the proportion who take up temporary jobs is even higher on average in the EU (61%) as well as in Spain (90%).

The fact that a relatively large proportion of young people in employment are in temporary jobs may be a reason why they have been hit disproportionately hard by the crisis. In the economic downturn in 2009, many of the people who lost their jobs first were on fixed-term contracts since not renewing these contracts represented the easiest way for employers to reduce their work forces. In 2009, therefore, there was some decline across Europe in the proportion of young people in work employed in temporary jobs (see the Tables attached to the questionnaire). Since then, there has been some tendency for the proportion to increase again, in part perhaps because employers are reluctant to take on people on permanent - or standard – contracts given the uncertainty about future economic prospects.

Given the above, it is understandable that there is growing public interest, and some concern, over the nature of the jobs that young people are taking up. This concern is mirrored at EU-level where a ‘flexicurity’ approach to labour market policy has increasingly been advocated, which, in practice, means that while flexibility is an important objective, it needs to be accompanied by protection of workers’ interests if it is not to lead to a growth of precarious employment in low quality jobs. Accordingly, there is a need to obtain a better understanding of the terms and conditions applying to temporary jobs, the extent to which they are a stepping stone to permanent jobs and a working career in line with a person’s qualifications and capabilities, the access to social protection which comes with them and the measures in place to encourage employers to convert them into more stable jobs. These issues form the focus of the present study.

Definition of temporary jobs

The interest in the study is in all young people employed in temporary jobs of whatever kind, in the sense of all jobs that they are not subject to a standard contract of employment which is normally one of indeterminate length, or at least one for which no specific length is specified. Such temporary jobs can be for a period of training (i.e. traineeships or apprenticeships) or probation, intended to enable employers to check the suitability or aptitude of people for the jobs concerned. They might also be to replace someone on maternity leave or on a training programme or they might relate to a specific project of fixed duration.

All such jobs and others which are of fixed duration should be covered, whether they are part-time or full-time and irrespective of whether they are specifically for young people (such as perhaps in the case of traineeships or apprenticeships) or for people of all ages which young people happen to be doing. In some cases, it should be noted, it is relevant to include, in addition, to temporary employees, the ‘bogus’ self-employed – i.e. those people who have self-employment status but who are contracted to work for a single employer and who are effectively similar to employees who have a fixed-term contract of employment. (The cases in question relate to instances where employers use self-employment contracts as a means of employing young people without bearing the costs, and obligations, of a standard contract of employment.)

Outline of study

The study is divided in three sections. The first is concerned with the main types of job in which young people who are employed under temporary contracts work and the reasons why employers choose to use temporary contracts of employment instead of standard ones when they take on young people, as well as with the link, if any, with labour market conditions (i.e. with the extent to which the crisis has led to an increase in temporary employment). The starting point is the data summarised above, derived from the LFS, which indicate the relative number of young people employed on temporary contracts in the different European countries and the way that this has changed over the recent past (these data, as noted, are set out in the tables attached to the questionnaire). Correspondents are asked to check these data against any national data on temporary employment and to indicate where these show a different picture from the LFS data, perhaps because a different definition is adopted of temporary jobs.

Any description or commentary on national statistics should, however, remain brief, since the main task of the first section, is to review and summarise relevant sources of information on the different kinds of temporary contract under which young people are employed in each of the countries, the circumstances and areas (the types of job and the sectors of activity) in which they tend to be used and the main reasons why employers adopt them.

The second section is concerned with the access to social benefits which temporary jobs provide, distinguishing between the various kinds of benefit, and with the extent to which entitlement to benefit differs for young people employed in temporary jobs from that for those employed under standard contracts of employment. It should be emphasised that the concern is not only with the formal regulations which apply, which in many if not most countries do not make a formal distinction between temporary jobs and others, but also with de facto entitlement which stems from the nature of temporary employment. In particular, young people in temporary jobs may have difficulty in complying with the need to have a continuous period in employment, or a continuous record of paying social contributions, in order to be eligible for unemployment benefit.

The third section is concerned with the measures in place to regulate the use of temporary contracts of employment (such as specifying the number of times they can be renewed), with the attitudes of government and the social partners towards their use and with the incentives which exist to encourage the wider use of standard contracts of employment and the conversion of temporary jobs into permanent ones. A particular point of interest is the extent to which regulations and attitudes as regards temporary jobs have changed over the crisis period as the number of jobs available for young people to take up has diminished and as expanding these has become a policy priority.

A final point to note is that while it is customary to define youth employment (and unemployment) in terms of those aged 15-24, it is also the case that many of those aged 25-29 are also employed in temporary jobs, as indicated in the attached tables. Correspondents are therefore asked to extend the coverage of the study to this age group where relevant. It is recognised that in some countries the statistics available may not relate precisely to the age groups specified here, in which case correspondents should report on the age groups nearest to these.

Questionnaire

1. Importance of temporary employment for young people

1.1. Do the figures shown in the attached tables (on the number of temporary employed as a % of total employees based on Eurostat LFS data) give a reliable indication of the scale of temporary employment among the young in your country and the way that it has changed over recent years? Are there young people employed in temporary jobs who do not show up in the Eurostat figures? Are there national statistics which show a different picture from the Eurostat data? If so, please indicate what they show and give the source of the data.

Integration of young people into the labour market is characterised by prevalence of atypical forms of employment, temporary employment, and work in non-standard modes. The Eurostat data properly describe the situation and the proportion of employees aged 15-24 working temporarily (Temporary employees as a percentage of the total number of employees) had an increasing trend in Slovakia in 2007-2011. It reached the level of 18.6% in 2011. This figure is more than three-times higher than in population of adult employees. A characteristic feature of young generation entering the labour market for the first time is part-time work. The extent of part-time work of young employees is in line with the overall trend in the EU and in 2007-2011 it increased more than twofold from 3% in 2007 to 6.7% in 2011. However, despite the above mentioned trend, the extent of part-time work of young people in Slovakia belongs to the lowest ones in the EU 27. Another data base of employment of young people on temporary employment is not available; similarly no estimates on employment of young people in informal, grey economy are available either.

1.2. Is there any evidence that other forms of employment are used as a substitute for temporary contracts, such as bogus self-employment where young people are contracted to provide services to a single work provider in a continuous manner so acting de facto as employees? If so, please give the source of the evidence and indicate the scale of the phenomenon in terms of the number of people concerned.

The international comparison (Eurostat, 2011) shows that the proportion of self-employed persons in the total number of workers in Slovakia is slightly higher than the average in the EU countries. Among them, the category of self-employed without employees is fairly significantly represented – they made 12.3% of all employed in 2011. Since 2010, the LFS data allow to follow the category of self-employed without employees where there can be also cases of hiding the employment relationship, which has de facto the character of a dependent work and is usually referred to as “forced self-employment”. According to the study Flexible forms of employment in the framework of EU opportunities and risks of their implementation in the Slovak Republic (Bellan, Olšovská, 2012), the number of self-employed without employees, whose work, according to the subjective assessment of respondents, fulfils the character of a dependant work, continually increased since the beginning of 2010 until the end of 2011 - 38% increase (from 58, 816 to 81,030 persons). According to the LFS 3Q/2011, the share of young people aged up to 24 years among self-employed without employees was about 3%. The data base of young people working in the form of dependant work in the so called “forced self-employed” is not available.

1.3. Please list (and give summary details, i.e. purpose and duration of the contract) the most common contract types or contractual arrangements under which young people are employed on a temporary basis (such as for traineeships, apprenticeships, probationary periods, replacement of workers on leave or projects of a fixed duration). What is the relative importance of each type of contract or arrangement in terms of the number of young people employed under them?

Typical type of employment on temporary basis is working according fixed-term employment contracts. Presently, they can be applied only for two years with the possibility to prolong the contract two times as a maximum. In general, fixed-term contracts are used in limited range and young people use it very rarely. According to estimations, about 3-5% from all fixed-term contracts is used by young people up to 24 years. Fixed-term contracts can be used for full-time or part-time work but working part-time is particularly limited by reduced income.

Other form, which can be mentioned, is the temporary agency work when employees are employed by Agencies for Temporary Work. The use of this form of employment is also limited and is below the EU average. According to international Confederation of Private Employment agencies (CIETT), the share of its use in Slovakia in 2008 and 2009 was about 0.6% while EU average was 1.7% in 2008 and 1.5% in 2009 (Hanzelová, E. and Olšovská, A. Application practice of agency work in Slovakia. IVPR research study 2011).

Specific forms of employment contracts used by employers employing young people in Slovakia are agreements on work performed outside standard employment relationship. The Labour Code specifies three types of such agreements:


  • work performance agreement; is usually used for performance of single-shot jobs. Its extent can not take more than 350 hours in the calendar year.
  • agreement on work activity; it is usually used for occasional specific work preformed during a longer time period. Performance of work can not exceed 10 hours in a week.
  • agreement on temporary job of a student; can be used only by students up to 26 years, usually for regular performance of repeated work up to 20 hours per week as a maximum. Its duration can not exceed 12 months.

Above mentioned agreements are considered to be complementary forms of work performance, which allow the employers to cover a specific, occasional or short-term activity and at the same time to make space for partial job opportunities for certain categories of employees. For instance, students, school graduates, pensioners, unemployed, people with low income. However, those forms of work performance have become a negative phenomenon in the labour market when they are used for larger scales of work instead of standard forms of employment contracts. According to the Social Insurance Agency (SP), in January 2011, 520,002 such agreements were concluded and when compared to 2010, their number increased by 47,023. However, those data do not provide information on the number of people who have been concluded such agreements. The LFS data on temporary employment are available on the number of workers working according temporary employment contracts and on workers employed on agreements in the main job and next job. According to LFS 1Q/2010, 22.6 % of workers employed on temporary basis were working on agreements in their main employment. In 4Q/2011, their proportion increased up to 37.2%. .

According to the study Culture of the world of work, the highest number of young people aged 15-24 years work on agreements during summer. The largest group of workers working on agreements is the group of workers aged 25-49 years. The study Agreements on work performed outside the employment (Kostolná 2011) stated, that despite the uniqueness of the status of students and possibility to conclude with them an agreement on temporary job of a student, the employers do not limit themselves only to this type of agreement, but use also other forms of above mentioned agreements (agreements on work activity and work performance agreements).

1.4. Please indicate the main reasons for the emergence and development of the different types of temporary contract which you have listed in response to question 1.3. To what extent are they linked to particular conditions in the labour market or employment protection legislation/regulation in your country? What is the main attraction of such contracts to employers? What effect has the crisis had on the use of such contracts?

Work on agreements is a flexible form of employment that allows employees to perform other gainful occupation while being employed at the same time, while studying or in retirement age as an additional form of obtaining income. Thanks to its high flexibility in ensuring operations of the enterprise, lower administrative demands and less expensive way of ensuring work tasks as the employer should pay less contributions to compulsory insurance funds for the employee, work on agreements is attractive for employers as well. Till the end of 2012, the employer had to pay from the fee of the employee only 1.05 % for accident and guarantee insurance and the employer did not pay any contributions. The fall in labour demand, poor access of young people to jobs caused by the economic crisis indicates a high presence of young people in the so called secondary labour market characterised by prevalence of atypical forms of employment including work on agreements. Work on agreements provides the employees with less social protection and rights than the employees in standard employment have (they do not have right for holiday, for severance pay, they do not have the minimum wage guaranteed). Due to the fact they the employees did not pay any contributions to the social insurance, they were not entitled to any benefits from the social insurance. Since 1 January 2013, amendments of the Labour Code (Act No. 361/2012) entered into force, which require to pay contributions to the compulsory insurance funds also from those agreements. In case of fixed-term contracts, contributions to compulsory insurance funds are the same as at open-ended contracts. But the main advantage for employers is lower costs related to dismissal of employees (no entitlement to severance payment after elapsing the term of contract). This advantage can be particularly important during the economic crisis.

V období finančnej a hospodárskej krízy vzrástol podiel nedobrovoľne zamestnaných touto formou (podľa LFS v roku 2006 nedobrovoľne zamestnaní predstavovali 65% zo všetkých zamestnaných od roku 2009 sa ich podiel zvýšil n a 80%).

1.5. To what extent are temporary contracts a ‘stepping stone’ to ‘permanent’ jobs (or those with standard contracts of employment of undefined duration)? Are apprentices and trainees typically taken on by the companies or other organisations concerned on standard permanent contracts once they complete their training? Has the situation changed over the crisis period? Please summarise any relevant studies which have been carried out in your country or other evidence at the national level which exists and give the reference to them.

The high incidence of atypical forms of employment in the cohort of young people entering the labour market for the first time does not clearly imply a negative phenomenon. Although no data are available about the transfer of temporary jobs into permanent jobs, the available statistical indicators show that the scope of the temporary employment and part-time employment in young people proportionally decreases with the process of gaining work experience and professional skills in the labour market. It can be assumed that these atypical forms of employment could in a certain extent contribute to building bridges to the standard employment in the future. In general, however, the temporary employment and part-time employment belong in Slovakia to the employment forms, which are most vulnerable to economic cycles and are one of the risk factors of unemployment of young people.

References

Kostolná, Z., Hanzelová, E.: Unemployment of school graduates and approaches to its solution in EU member states in the period of the global economic crisis. IVPR 2010.

Tesits, R., Hanzelová, E.: Atypical forms of employment: tendencies and perspectives. IVPR Bulletin 6/2007.

Kostolná, Z.: Agreements on work performed outside the employment. IVPR 2011.

Culture of the world of work. Institute of employment and FESS Slovakia .2012

http://www.iz.sk/sk/projekty/kultúra-sveta-prace

Bellan, P., Olšovská, A.: Flexible forms of employment in the framework of EU- opportunities and risks of their implementation in SR. IVPR, 2012.

2. Access to social benefits

The fixed-term and part-time employment and temporary employment through an agency are regulated by the EU Directives and they are characterised by the principle of equal treatment. Slovak labour legislation does not regulate employment in relation to the marginal age groups (young/old) in particular. The lower protection and less claims of employees results only from the employment on agreements (part 1.3), because compulsory contributions paid from the reward were not paid in full as from wages.

Since 1 January 2013, the current legislation has changed in relation to the payment of contributions from rewards and the person working on agreement with a regular monthly income has the same position as a normal employee for the purposes of the health and sickness insurance, pension insurance and unemployment insurance. A person working on agreements with irregular income has to pay only the pension and health insurance. A student working on agreement on temporary job of a student has to pay only the pension insurance regardless of whether the income is regular or irregular.

2.1. Does entitlement of young people to (contributory) unemployment insurance benefits and (non-contributory) unemployment assistance (i.e. benefits, usually means-tested, which provide a minimum level of income) differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

The condition for entitlement to unemployment benefit is the length of unemployment insurance (at least two years in the last three years before enrolment in the unemployment register). In case of the temporary employment the person is, regardless of his or her age, entitled to receive unemployment benefits if in the last four years prior to enrolment in the register of unemployed was insured for unemployment in the temporary contract or was voluntarily insured for unemployment for at least two years. (Act No. 461/2003 on social insurance). Persons working on agreements (part 1.3) did not have entitlement to unemployment benefit as neither the employer nor the employee did pay, according to the legislation valid till the end of 2012, contributions to the unemployment insurance. Since 1 January 2013, the agreements are subject to payment of the unemployment contributions. The young people are entitled to receive unemployment benefits only after meeting the legislative condition, which is bound to participation in unemployment insurance. In case of working on agreement, legal conditions are less sever – minimum 2 years unemployment insurance during the last 4 years (the same is applied to fixed-term contracts). Self-employed without employees are not entitled to receive unemployment benefit from the insurance they pay as the self-employed person.

Entitlement to social assistance benefit in material need arises only on the basis of testing of the household income. During testing the husband, wife, parents and their dependent children under 25 years who have no income or their income is not higher than the subsistence minimum (€194.58 for adults) and live together in one household are jointly assessed. The necessary precondition to entitlement of young people to social benefit is that he or she is considered a single person. There were no significant changes over the period of crisis

2.2. Does entitlement of young people to sickness benefits and maternity benefits differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

The condition of entitlement to sickness benefits (sickness, maternity, nursing benefits and compensatory allowances) is participation in the sickness insurance as an employee or as a mandatory sickness insured self-employed person, or as a person voluntarily insured regardless of the age. The sickness insurance is not subject to temporary, atypical employment contract. Due to non-payment of sickness insurance from agreements, the person working on agreement before the end of 2012 was not entitled for benefits in the event of sickness and temporary work inability. Since 1 January 2013, the agreements are part of the sickness insurance. Participation in the sickness insurance is the only condition for entitlement to sickness benefits regardless of age cohort and type of employment contract.

2.3. Are there any differences in the entitlement of young people to old-age pensions between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to pensions changed over the period of the crisis (including through pension reforms introduced as part of a long-term strategy to improve the financial sustainability of the system)?

Entitlement to pension is conditional on meeting two conditions: the retirement age (62) and participation in the pension scheme for at least 15 years. Elimination of the obligation to pay pension insurance from agreements (till the end of 2012) resulted that their activities were not included into the period of participation in the pension scheme, which is required for entitlement to a pension. From 1 January 2013, full contributions to compulsory insurance funds are paid from agreements (practically the same as from standard employment contracts). In case of Agreement on temporary job of a students, some students (younger than 18 years and earning up to 66 € and older ones earning up to 155 € ) do not pay any contribution. Other forms of temporary, atypical employment contracts, from which contributions for pension scheme are paid, pose a threat to young people only due to the increased risk of termination of employment, particularly in the period of crisis, what could cause interruption of participation in the pension scheme.

2.4. Are there any differences in entitlement of young people to health care between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to health care changed over the period of the crisis?

Health care is provided on the basis of the mandatory payments to the health insurance by the employees or self-employed persons or state or by the private payers in case of voluntary unemployment. Before the end of 2012, contributions for health insurance were not paid from employment based on agreements, which is considerably more liberal than normal employment. Since 1 January 2013, only students who work on agreements on temporary job of students and for whom the state pays contributions do not pay health care contributions from agreements.

3. Regulation of temporary contracts and policies to support transitions into permanent contracts

Temporary contracts are quite often used in Slovakia as a form of employment. Most often, they are concluded for a period needed for substitution of a certain employee, for seasonal work or work that does not exceed a certain number of months in a calendar year. Although the law prohibits discrimination of an employee with a temporary contract with a comparable employee with permanent contracts, certain job instability and uncertainty of the employee (since the work is agreed only for a certain limited period) belong to its shortcomings. Limitations are also connected with inability to gain certain rights, which are related only to permanent/standard employment contracts, for instance access to education.

3.1. Please describe briefly the regulations applying to the main types of temporary contract in your country. Do restrictions exist on the maximum duration of the different types of temporary contract for young workers or the number of times they can be renewed? Do these regulations differ by age (i.e. between young people and older workers) and/or by type of temporary contract (as mentioned in question 1.3), by occupation, or by sector of activity? Do special regulations exist for those completing apprenticeships or traineeships? Have the regulations changed over the period of the crisis – i.e. has there been a tendency for them to have been tightened or relaxed?

Amendments to the Labour Code introduced since 1 January 2013 restricted the re-use – “chaining” of the temporary contracts. This employment can be arranged for a maximum of two years and within these two years it can be again concluded or extended only twice (before, it was possible to conclude the temporary contracts for three years and re-negotiate them maximum three time). After a two years period, the further application of temporary contracts is specified by defined reasons and only with certain categories of workers (academics, creative R&D employees). Limitations and adjustments in the law are not specified particularly in relation to young people, neither to the elderly ones.

3.2. Do incentives exists in your country to encourage employers to opt for standard rather than temporary contracts of employment, to convert temporary contracts into permanent ones or to make it easier for employees to move from temporary to permanent contracts? If so, please briefly describe the form that these incentives take. Do they apply equally to young people as well as to older workers? Are any incentives in place to encourage employers to take on young people who have completed an apprenticeship or traineeship on permanent contracts? Have there been any changes to incentives over the period of the crisis? Are any such changes being proposed or being actively discussed at present in your country?

Regarding temporary contracts, the Slovak labour legislation does not address the different conditions by sectors, does not provide increased protection for young or old workers who work on temporary contracts compared to other workers. There is no legal tool/measure which could in a special way motivate/influence employers when concluding the temporary contracts. According to the law, the employers are obliged to inform their employees (regardless the age) who work on temporary contracts and employees representatives about available jobs on permanent contracts.

3.3. Is the employment of young people on temporary contracts an important issue of concern for the social partners? Are there strong differences in attitudes and policies between employers and trade unions towards the use of temporary contracts? Have any initiatives been taken by the social partners, either jointly or separately, to encourage the use of permanent rather than temporary contracts? Have any specific initiatives been taken in respect of young people completing apprenticeships or traineeships over the types of job they are offered when their temporary position comes to an end?

The participation of young people in temporary employment contracts and their transition to permanent contracts (open-ended contracts) do not belong among the priority topics of the social partners. They did not take any specific initiatives towards their use.

Nevertheless, social partners have different opinions on the use of the temporary contracts. This diversity of opinions of the social partners was evident also during adoption of the recent amendments to the Labour Code. The proposals for changes in the previous “neo-liberal” Labour Code were initiated by the trade unions that are close to the current social democratic government (SMER-SD). In respect to the temporary contracts, the trade unions demanded their limitation. The trade unions pointed out that certain employers misuse these forms of employment in order to avoid employment of employees for a permanent contract when it is for them more difficult and more expensive to dismiss an employee. The employers promoted their opinion that the upcoming changes in the Labour Code relating to the fixed-term contracts will bring less flexibility in employment and could mean less work for the Slovaks. Comments and suggestions of the social partners did not interfere in any way into the agenda of position of young people completing apprenticeships or traineeships at the time when their temporary position comes to an end. There are no specific opinions or materials of the social partners concerning this question.


Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 15-24, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

37.6

41.3

40.4

42.5

3.7

-0.9

2.1

1.2

BE

28.6

31.6

33.2

34.3

3.0

1.6

1.1

2.7

BG

15.3

10.3

9.3

8.3

-5.0

-1.0

-1.0

-2.0

CZ

18.0

17.4

18.7

22.3

-0.6

1.3

3.6

4.9

DK

26.9

22.5

22.8

22.1

-4.4

0.3

-0.7

-0.4

DE

55.5

57.4

57.3

56.0

1.9

-0.1

-1.3

-1.4

EE

:

:

:

13.8

 

   

 

IE

11.2

20.5

25.0

34.2

9.3

4.5

9.2

13.7

EL

26.3

27.0

28.4

30.1

0.7

1.4

1.7

3.1

ES

64.8

62.8

55.9

61.4

-2.0

-6.9

5.5

-1.4

FR

46.7

53.5

52.4

55.1

6.8

-1.1

2.7

1.6

IT

34.4

42.3

44.4

49.9

7.9

2.1

5.5

7.6

CY

16.1

23.3

18.4

17.2

7.2

-4.9

-1.2

-6.1

LV

17.3

9.3

9.3

10.7

-8.0

0.0

1.4

1.4

LT

13.8

9.8

5.0

9.1

-4.0

-4.8

4.1

-0.7

LU

24.1

34.1

39.3

34.5

10.0

5.2

-4.8

0.4

HU

15.1

19.1

21.4

22.9

4.0

2.3

1.5

3.8

MT

9.2

11.0

11.3

17.7

1.8

0.3

6.4

6.7

NL

37.9

45.1

46.5

47.7

7.2

1.4

1.2

2.6

AT

32.4

34.9

35.6

37.2

2.5

0.7

1.6

2.3

PL

60.6

65.7

62.0

65.6

5.1

-3.7

3.6

-0.1

PT

47.4

52.6

53.5

57.2

5.2

0.9

3.7

4.6

RO

6.6

4.6

3.7

5.8

-2.0

-0.9

2.1

1.2

SI

63.1

68.3

66.6

74.5

5.2

-1.7

7.9

6.2

SK

9.9

13.7

12.5

18.6

3.8

-1.2

6.1

4.9

FI

49.8

42.4

39.0

43.4

-7.4

-3.4

4.4

1.0

SE

53.1

57.1

53.4

57.3

4.0

-3.7

3.9

0.2

UK

11.0

13.3

11.9

13.5

2.3

-1.4

1.6

0.2

NO

31.2

28.0

25.7

24.3

-3.2

-2.3

-1.4

-3.7

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey

         


Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 25-29, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

19.5

21.1

20.2

21.4

1.6

-1.0

1.2

0.2

BE

12.4

13.1

12.5

14.6

0.7

-0.5

2.0

1.5

BG

9.0

5.3

4.4

4.2

-3.8

-0.8

-0.2

-1.0

CZ

9.8

8.1

8.4

10.8

-1.7

0.2

2.5

2.7

DK

16.5

13.9

13.8

16.4

-2.6

-0.1

2.7

2.5

DE

17.2

21.2

21.2

22.0

4.0

0.0

0.8

0.8

EE

3.0

1.8

4.2

4.2

-1.2

2.4

0.0

2.3

IE

3.4

10.1

9.5

12.7

6.7

-0.6

3.2

2.6

EL

18.4

16.1

19.9

19.0

-2.3

3.8

-1.0

2.9

ES

44.0

41.2

37.5

39.8

-2.7

-3.7

2.3

-1.5

FR

18.3

20.8

20.2

22.0

2.5

-0.6

1.8

1.2

IT

17.2

22.7

23.5

26.7

5.5

0.8

3.2

4.0

CY

19.2

17.7

16.2

18.1

-1.5

-1.5

1.9

0.4

LV

11.8

3.2

4.2

5.5

-8.6

1.0

1.4

2.3

LT

5.3

4.2

2.5

3.6

-1.1

-1.7

1.1

-0.6

LU

7.6

12.5

11.2

12.7

4.9

-1.2

1.5

0.3

HU

8.1

8.9

11.3

11.0

0.8

2.5

-0.3

2.2

MT

1.1

5.6

5.0

6.3

4.6

-0.6

1.3

0.6

NL

16.8

22.9

24.2

25.8

6.1

1.2

1.7

2.9

AT

10.0

8.8

9.6

9.8

-1.1

0.8

0.2

1.0

PL

33.8

38.7

35.6

38.9

4.9

-3.1

3.3

0.2

PT

30.3

36.6

38.6

39.2

6.3

2.0

0.6

2.6

RO

3.4

2.1

1.2

2.1

-1.3

-0.9

0.9

0.0

SI

30.7

33.7

34.1

33.9

2.9

0.4

-0.2

0.3

SK

6.8

5.7

4.1

7.7

-1.2

-1.6

3.7

2.1

FI

28.7

24.5

25.5

26.0

-4.2

1.1

0.5

1.5

SE

24.0

27.4

24.0

25.0

3.4

-3.3

1.0

-2.4

UK

6.2

7.1

6.3

5.0

0.9

-0.8

-1.3

-2.1

Source: Eurostat, European Labour Force Survey

       

Zuzana Kostolná, Institute for Labour and Family Research.



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