Malta: Representativeness of the European social partner organisations in the electricity sector

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 26 January 2014



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Malta
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Although the Maltese government has, in recent years, incentivised the use of renewable energy sources for the production of electricity, uptake remains well below the established projections. Malta thus depends heavily on heavy fuel oil for the production of electricity. The small size of the country makes the local electricity sector an unattractive one for private investors, resulting in the sector being monopolised by Enemalta, a government-run corporation. Collective bargaining is conducted at company level between Enemalta and three of the four trade unions representing the employees in the sector. Increases in electricity tariffs have provided a background for industrial relations in the sector.

Sectoral properties

Economic background

Government-owned Enemalta (established by the Enemalta Act 1977 Chapter 272 of the Laws of Malta) has, since 1977, been the sole producer, transmitter and distributor of electricity in Malta. Enemalta also has comprises a petroleum division. Its gas division was privatised in 2008. Although the electricity sector provides for less than 1% of the total economy, Enemalta remains one of Malta’s largest employers.

At the time of writing Malta is on the verge of a general election, and the electricity sector has been a main feature of a heavily-contested electoral campaign. While all political parties have pledged their commitment to strive towards more affordable energy tariffs, parties have proposed various ways of achieving this. However, as Malta considers various energy options (gas, renewable sources, a submarine pipeline which connects Malta to Sicily and the European grid), the sustainability and security of workers’ jobs have been put into question, with workers’ representatives acknowledging that both their role and the way they work within the sector may change within the near future.

Sectoral coverage

This representativeness study covers companies and employees in the electricity sector, as defined by NACE Rev. 2 code 35.1:

35.1 Electric power generation, transmission and distribution

35.11 Production of electricity

35.12 Transmission of electricity

35.13 Distribution of electricity

35.14 Trade of electricity

1.2 Development of sectoral employment and companies

 

2001

2010

Number of companies in the sector (including one-person companies and self-employed)

1

1

Comment

The Government-owned company, Enemalta, has since 1977 been the sole generator and provider of electricity in Malta.

The Government-owned company, Enemalta, has since 1977 been the sole generator and provider of electricity in Malta.

Source of

company data

NSO

NSO

Aggregate

employment

Enemalta had 1,956 workers, 1,376 directly working within the electricity sector. Other workers, namely the 312 workers working within Enemalta’s head office, work in both the electricity and petroleum sectors.

Enemalta had 1613 workers, 1,102 directly working within the electricity sector (these work within Enemalta’s two power stations, its development division and distribution division). Other workers, namely the 334 workers working within Enemalta’s head office, work in both the electricity and petroleum sectors.

Male

employment

Data unavailable

Data for 2010 is unavailable. In 2007 male employment stood at 92.14% of workers in all Enemalta

Female

employment

Data unavailable

Data for 2010 is unavailable. In 2007 female employment stood at 7.86% (n=121) of workers in all Enemalta

Share of sectoral employment as a % of total

employment in the economy

1% (this figure includes Enemalta workers working directly within the electricity sector, excluding those workers within Enemalta’s head office)

0.75% (this figure includes Enemalta workers working directly within the electricity sector, excluding those workers within Enemalta’s head office)

Source of

employment figures

Enemalta Corporation Annual Report 2002 and Financial Statements 2001 http://www.enemalta.com.mt/enemaltastorage/images/files/annual%20reports/annual%20report%202002%20and%20financial%20statements%202001.pdf

Enemalta Corporation Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010 http://www.enemalta.com.mt/enemaltastorage/images/files/annual%20reports/enemalta%20financial%20statements%202010.pdf

Enemalta Dossier 2008 http://www.doi-archived.gov.mt/EN/press_releases/2009/09/pr1579b.pdf

National Statistics Office: Gainfully Occupied Population 20022011: Quarterly Figures in NACE Rev. 2 http://www.nso.gov.mt/statdoc/document_file.aspx?id=3365

Comment

Total gainfully occupied population is taken to mean total population in full-time employment, i.e. 137,496

Total gainfully occupied population is taken to mean total population in full-time employment, i.e. 146,296

Aggregate

employees

Enemalta had 1,956 workers, 1,376 directly working within the electricity sector. Other workers, namely the 312 workers working within Enemalta’s head office, work in both the electricity and petroleum sectors.

Enemalta had 1,613 workers, 1,102 directly working within the electricity sector (these work within Enemalta’s two power stations, its development division and distribution division). Other workers, namely the 334 workers working within Enemalta’s head office, work in both the electricity and petroleum sectors.

Male employees

Data unavailable

Data for 2010 is unavailable. In 2007 male employment stood at 92.14% of workers in all Enemalta

Female employees

Data unavailable

Data for 2010 is unavailable. In 2007 female employment stood at 7.86% (n=121) of workers in all Enemalta

Share of sectoral employees as a % of total employees in the economy

1% (this figure includes Enemalta workers working directly within the electricity sector, excluding those workers within Enemalta’s head office)

0.75% (this figure includes Enemalta workers working directly within the electricity sector, excluding those workers within Enemalta’s head office)

Source of employee figures

Enemalta Corporation Annual Report 2002 and Financial Statements 2001 http://www.enemalta.com.mt/enemaltastorage/images/files/annual%20reports/annual%20report%202002%20and%20financial%20statements%202001.pdf

NSO’s Labour Supply Distribution 2001 http://www.nso.gov.mt/statdoc/document_file.aspx?id=741

Enemalta Corporation Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010 http://www.enemalta.com.mt/enemaltastorage/images/files/annual%20reports/enemalta%20financial%20statements%202010.pdf

Enemalta Corporation Dossier 2008 http://www.doi-archived.gov.mt/EN/press_releases/2009/09/pr1579b.pdf

National Statistics Office’s Gainfully Occupied Population 2002–2011: Quarterly Figures in NACE Rev. 2 http://www.nso.gov.mt/statdoc/document_file.aspx?id=3365

Comment

Total gainfully occupied population is taken to mean total population in full-time employment, i.e. 137,496

Total gainfully occupied population is taken to mean total population in full-time employment, i.e. 146,296

2. Overview of the industrial relations landscape in the sector

Workers within the electricity sector are represented by one of four workers’ unions. While two of these unions, the General Workers’ Union (GWU) and Union of United Workers (UHM), are general unions, the Enemalta Professional Officers’ Union (EPOU) and Enemalta Senior Staff Union (ESSU) are in-house unions which represent specific grades within Enemalta. The EPOU represents professional employees, mainly engineers, who formed the union when they felt that their interests were not being adequately represented by the GWU. The ESSU represents managers and assistant managers, all of whom have an individual contract with Enemalta. It was established to redress the grievances of this group and to adjust any anomalies which may arise in salaries as a result of the collective agreements of the other employees. This definition of remits has resulted in GWU and UHM representing Enemalta’s clerical and technical staff.

Collective bargaining in Malta is conducted at company level. However, collective bargaining involving state-owned companies such as Enemalta is conducted under the scrutiny of the state through the Public Administration Collective Bargaining Unit (PACBU) within the Ministry of Finance. The prime function of PACBU is to ensure that the financial side of collective agreements are in line with the government wage policy. The GWU and EPOU have signed separate collective agreements with Enemalta Corporation, covering about 1,200 and 120 workers respectively (both these figures include workers within the Petroleum industry).

While senior staff continue to be employed on an individual contract basis, the ESSU has negotiated minimum conditions for managerial personnel, who then negotiate their contracts with Enemalta on an individual basis. This level of individual bargaining is considered a means through which people can ensure that they receive a salary commensurate with their responsibilities, dictated by the size and responsibility of the department that they manage. Since the UHM represents a small number of workers at Enemalta, it can discuss matters on an individual basis but cannot discuss terms or conditions, which can affect employees as a whole.

3. The sector’s trade unions and employer associations

This report includes detailed information on the following trade unions and employer associations:

(i) trade unions (or employees’ interest organisations) and employer organisations (or business associations) which are affiliated to the sector-related European Union Federation(s) or the sector-related European Employer/Business Federation(s) and represent members in the sector.

The sector-related European employee organisations are:

  • IndustriAll Europa;
  • European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU).

The sector-related European employer organisations are:

  • The union of the electricity industry (EURELECTRIC).

(ii) trade unions and employer organisations which are party to sector-related collective bargaining and represent members in the sector.

This report does not include detailed information on the following organisations, because they fall outside the remit of the study:

iii) Affiliates to EU-level sectoral social partners, but without members in the sector. These are the affiliates of EPSU and IndustriAll Europa that have members in other sectors but not in the electricity sector. Use these weblinks for a full list of the IndustriAll affiliates and EPSU affiliates.

iv) Organisations which are involved in sector-related collective bargaining, but do not represent members in the sector.

v) Organisations which represent members in the sector, but are not involved in sector-related collective bargaining, and are not members of EU-level sectoral social-partner organisations.

3a. Please list all the organisations which can be related to the study in the following overview table

Table 2: Overview of industrial relations landscape

Organisation abbreviation

Sector related (members in the sector)

Member of a sector-related

European organisation

Involved in

sector-related CB

Fact sheet included

Source of Information

GWU

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Jason Deguara, National Secretary for the Chemical And Energy Section, email exchange between 24 February and 4 March 2013; GWU website www.gwu.org.mt; Enemalta Corporation Dossier 2008 http://www.doi-archived.gov.mt/EN/press_releases/2009/09/pr1579b.pdf

EPOU

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Patrick Gauci, secretary, email exchange between 24 February and 6 March 2013; telephone conversation on the 6 March; EPOU website http://epoumalta.wordpress.com/; Enemalta Corporation Dossier 2008 http://www.doi-archived.gov.mt/EN/press_releases/2009/09/pr1579b.pdf

ESSU

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Raymond Azzopardi, secretary, email exchange between 24 and 25 February 2013 and telephone conversation on the 6 March 2013

UHM

Yes

No

No

No

UHM website www.uhm.org.mt; Enemalta Corporation Dossier 2008 http://www.doi-archived.gov.mt/EN/press_releases/2009/09/pr1579b.pdf

ENEMALTA

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Ms Sammut, director EU Affairs

Annex 1 at the end of this questionnaire provides the list of all the organisations which are members of the sector-related European organisations, broken down by country.

4. Collective bargaining in the electricity sector

4.1. Are employees in the sector as defined in Section 1 above and in Table 1 covered by collective bargaining?

Yes

4.2. If yes, please consider the five main relevant* collective agreements (single-employer and multi-employer agreements) valid in 2012 in the electricity sector and indicate their levels, the name of the agreements, respective coverage in terms of sectors/activities, the bargaining parties to the agreement and the numbers of employees covered within the electricity sector (also estimate):

Table 3: The five main relevant* collective agreements (single-employer and multi-employer agreements) valid in 2012

Level

Common name

Sectoral coverage

No. of

employees

covered within the

electricity sector

Bargaining parties

Employer(s)

(in case of single-employer

agreements) or

Employer

organisation(s)

(in case of multi-employer agreements)

Trade

union(s)

Single-employer agreement: Company

Enemalta

The collective agreement covers workers within Enemalta, and thus covers workers who work in the electricity and petroleum industries (overlapping)

1,200 (including Enemalta’s petroleum division)

Enemalta

General Workers’ Union, GWU

Single-employer agreement:

Company

Enemalta

The collective agreement covers workers within Enemalta, and thus covers workers who work in the electricity and petroleum industries (overlapping)

120 (including Enemalta’s petroleum division)

Enemalta

Enemalta Professional Officers’ Union, EPOU

* Relevance is measured in terms of employees covered.

5. The system of collective bargaining

Collective agreements are defined in line with national labour law regardless of whether they are negotiated under a peace obligation.

5.1. Estimate the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage (i.e. the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector).

99%

5.2. Estimate the relative importance of multi-employer agreements and of single-employer agreements as a percentage of the total number of employees covered.

There are no multi-employer agreements in the sector.

5.2.1. Is there a practice of extending multi-employer agreements to employers who are not affiliated to the signatory employer association/s?

Not applicable

5.2.2. If there is a practice of extending collective agreements targeting employers, is this practice pervasive or rather limited and exceptional?

Not applicable

6. Formulation and implementation of sector-specific public policies

6.1. Do tripartite bodies dealing with sector-specific issues exist? If yes, please indicate their domain of activity (for instance, health and safety, equal opportunities, labour market, social security and pensions etc.), their origin (agreement/statutory) and the interest organisations having representatives in them:

Table 4: Sector-specific public policies*

Name of the body and scope of activity

Bipartite/tripartite

Origin:

agreement/statutory

Trade unions having

representatives (reps)

Employer associations having reps

Public Administration Collective Bargaining Unit (PACBU) within the Ministry of Finance.

Each of the parastatal corporations or enterprises receives ad hoc instructions from the PACBU, which serve as guidelines to be followed during the collective bargaining process.

The PACBU’s primary aim is to ensure that the financial side of collective agreements carried out by parastatal entities reflects the government wage policy.

tripartite

statutory

   

* Sector-specific policies specifically target and affect the sector under consideration.

7. Data on the trade unions

GWU

General Workers’ Union

General Workers’ Union

The union’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover the entire electricity sector, including all of the sub-activities as a whole, as listed above?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the electricity sector among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the electricity sector, all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc. – of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the electricity sector?

Yes. The GWU is a general union, whose membership is open to all categories of workers, from within all employment sectors. The GWU has eight sections, each of which caters for specific employment sectors. Employees working in the electricity sector as outlined by NACE are represented in the Chemical and Energy Section within the union.

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Single-employer bargaining at company level

How many employees are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the union within the electricity sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

About 1,200

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes. The GWU is consulted by the Enemalta management

How often do sector-related consultations involve the union?

On a regular basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the union have in total (i.e. within the electricity sector and beyond)?

44,971 (7,483 of these are retirees)

How many active members in employment does the union have within the electricity sector only?

900 (all of these are in employment) (2013)

Does the union have members in the largest electricity companies?

Yes (there is only one company in Malta)

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

Public Services International (PSI), International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), International Labour Organisation (ILO), International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF), International Union of Food, Agriculture, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers’ Association (IUF), International Federation of Building and Wood Workers (IFBWW), International Metalworkers’ Federation (IMF), International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mining and General Workers’ Union (ICEM), International Textiles, Garment and Leather Workers’ Federation (ITGLWF), Union Network International (UNI), International Federation of Musicians (IFM) and the International Federation of Workers’ Education (IFWEA).

To which European-level organisations is the union affiliated?

European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), European Union Network (UNI Europa), European Workers’ Education Association (EURO WEA), Federation of Europe Retired Personal Association (FERPA), Council of European Professional and Managerial Staff (Eurocadres), European Transport Federation (ETF), European Federation of Building and Wood Workers (EFBWW), Metalworkers Federation (EMF), European Federation of Trade Unions in the Food, Agriculture and Tourism sectors and Allied Branches (EFFAT).

To which national-level organisations is the union affiliated?

n/a

Source of information

Trade union: Jason Deguara, National Secretary for the Chemical And Energy Section, email exchange between the 24 February and 4 March 2013

Website/other secondary sources: www.gwu.org.mt

Report by the Registrar of Trade Unions

2011-2012

EIRO national correspondent: Jeannine Vassallo

EPOU

Enemalta Professional Officers’ Union

Enemalta Professional Officers’ Union

The union’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover the entire electricity sector, including all of the sub-activities as a whole, as listed above?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the electricity sector among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No. The union covers professional ranks within Enemalta (mainly engineers) i.e. the equivalent of Government salary scales 9-4a

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the electricity sector, all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc. – of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

The EPOU is an in-house union, limited to Enemalta. However, Enemalta is the only company within this sector.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the electricity sector?

No

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Single-employer bargaining at company level

How many employees are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the union within the electricity sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

About 120

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes. The Climate Change Sub-Committee within Malta-EU Steering Action Committee (MEUSAC) regularly consults with the EPOU.

How often do sector-related consultations involve the union?

On a regular basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the union have in total (i.e. within the electricity sector and beyond)?

110

How many active members in employment does the union have within the electricity sector only?

107 (2013)

Does the union have members in the largest electricity companies?

Yes (there is only one company in Malta)

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

None

To which European-level organisations is the union affiliated?

None

To which national-level organisations is the union affiliated?

Forum Unions Maltin (ForUM)

Source of information

Trade union: Eng. Patrick Gauci, secretary, email exchange between the 24 February and 6 March 2013; telephone conversation on the 6 March; EPOU website http://epoumalta.wordpress.com/;

Website/other secondary sources: Report by the Registrar of Trade Unions

2011-2012

EIRO national correspondent: Jeannine Vassallo

ESSU

Enemalta Senior Staff Union

Enemalta Senior Staff Union

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover the entire electricity sector, including all of the sub-activities as a whole, as listed above?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the electricity sector among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No: the ESSU covers senior managerial staff, i.e. those falling within government salary scales 4 and 3

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the electricity sector, all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc. – of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

The ESSU is an in-house union, limited to Enemalta. However, Enemalta is the only company within this sector.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the electricity sector?

No

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Single-employer bargaining at company level

How many employees are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the union within the electricity sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

The ESSU did not sign any collective agreement, but negotiated on behalf of about 40 persons.

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

No, though the ESSU is consulted by NGOs and National Commissions

How often do sector-related consultations involve the union?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the union have in total (i.e. within the electricity sector and beyond)?

37

How many active members in employment does the union have within the electricity sector only?

37 (2013)

Does the union have members in the largest electricity companies?

Yes (there is only one company in Malta)

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

None

To which European-level organisations is the union affiliated?

None

To which national-level organisations is the union affiliated?

None

Source of information

Trade union: Eng. Raymond Azzopardi, secretary, email exchange between the 24 and 25 February 2013 & telephone conversation on the 6 March 2013

Website/other secondary sources: Register of trade unions 2011/2012

EIRO national correspondent: Jeannine Vassallo

UHM

Union of United Workers

Union Haddiema Maghqudin

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover the entire electricity sector, including all of the sub-activities as a whole, as listed above?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the electricity sector among both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the electricity sector, all forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc. – of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the electricity sector?

Yes. The UHM is a general union, whose membership is open to all categories of workers, from within all employment sectors.

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

No

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Not applicable

How many employees are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the union within the electricity sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Not applicable

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Info not available

How often do sector-related consultations involve the union?

Info not available

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the union have in total (i.e. within the electricity sector and beyond)?

26,273 (3708 of whom are retirees)

How many active members in employment does the union have within the electricity sector only?

306 (2007)

Does the union have members in the largest electricity companies?

Yes (there is only one company in Malta)

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

International Organisation of Public Service Employees (INFEDOP). Being a member of the CMTU, the UHM is indirectly affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), Commonwealth Trade Union Council (CTUC), the European Federation of Retired and Elderly Parents (FERPA), and the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC).

To which European-level organisations is the union affiliated?

European Organisation of Public Service Employees (EUROFEDOP)

To which national-level organisations is the union affiliated?

Confederation of Malta Trade Unions (CMTU)

Source of information

Trade union: Emails sent and calls made to Mr Sacco, Section Secretary Government Employees Section, and to generic email i.e. msacco@uhm.org.mt and info@uhm.org.mt between the 24 February and 6 March 2013

Website/other secondary sources: UHM website www.uhm.org.mt; Register of Trade Unions 2011/2012

EIRO national correspondent: Jeannine Vassallo

8. Data on the employer associations

There are no employer organisations in the sector. During negotiations Enemalta Corporation is represented by the Assistant Human Resource Manager and the Deputy Chairman. Enemalta, however, is a member of EURELECTRIC, and will thus be included in this section.

Enemalta

Enemalta

Enemalta

The employer organisation’s domain

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover the entire electricity sector, including all of the sub-activities as a whole, as listed above?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the electricity sector, all (legal) forms and size classes of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, SMEs, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

No. The Enemalta is the sole company in the electricity sector in Malta.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies, within the electricity sector, in all regions of your country?

Yes. Enemalta is the sole company in Malta. It works throughout all the regions in Malta.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies and/or business activities outside the electricity sector?

No

General information on the organisation

 

Is the employer organisation engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Single-employer bargaining (i.e. on behalf of just one enterprise or group of enterprises - please indicate if it involves plant/company/group agreements)

How many companies are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the electricity sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

1

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the electricity sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

1,200

Please indicate the type of membership

Compulsory

Is the employer organisation being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

How often do sector-related consultations involve the employer organisation?

On a regular basis

Members

 

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (i.e. within the electricity sector and beyond)?

1

How many employees work in these member companies in total (i.e. within the electricity sector and beyond)?

1

How many member companies does the employer organisation have within the electricity sector only?

1

How many employees work in these member companies within the electricity sector only?

1,613 (2010)

Are the largest electricity companies affiliated to this employer organisation?

Yes

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

 

To which European-level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

EURELECTRIC

To which national-level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

 

Source of information

Employer organisation:

Contact with Ms Sammut, director EU Affairs, Ministry of Finance via email and telephone between 24 February and 4 March 2013

Attempted contact with Enemalta personnel via email and telephone between 24 February and 6 March 2013

Website/other secondary sources: http://www.enemalta.com.mt/

EIRO national correspondent: Jeannine Vassallo

9. Inter-associational relationships

9.1 Inter-union relationships

9.1.1 Please list all trade unions covered by this study whose domains overlap within the sector.

The domains of the GWU and UHM overlap with those of the ESSU and EPOU

9.1.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the trade unions within the sector, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

There are no visible rivalries or conflicts between the above-mentioned about the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formation and implementation.

9.1.3 If yes, are certain trade unions excluded from these rights?

Not applicable

9.2 Inter-employer association relationships

There are no employer associations in this sector.

9.2.1 Please list all employer associations covered by this study whose domains overlap within the sector.

Not applicable

9.2.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the employer associations within the sector, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

Not applicable

9.2.3 If yes, are certain employer associations excluded from these rights?

Not applicable

9.2.4 Are there large companies or employer associations within the sector which refuse to recognise the trade unions and refuse to enter collective bargaining?

Not applicable

9. Commentary

The electricity sector employs less than 1% of the total workforce in Malta. The sector has been monopolised by the state corporation, Enemalta, since 1977. This monopoly has often been considered the reason behind Enemalta’s effectiveness.

In recent years two industrial disputes were declared by the GWU, because of what the GWU considered bad practice by Enemalta’s top management. In 2008 the union accused Enemalta of discrimination at the power stations workshop. The union claimed that certain people had been chosen by top management to get additional remuneration, which created a precedent and discouraged other workers in the same section. In 2011 the GWU also protested over claims that the workers of Enemalta’s credit control section had been given nothing to do for over a year while their work was being done by other employees working on overtime.

Conversely, the integrity and efficiency of Enemalta’s workers, as well as the sole-dependency on Enemalta for electricity supply were called into question by politicians and top Enemalta officials following national powercuts between 2009 and 2011. Nevertheless, unions, particularly the GWU, have actively contributed to ensuring that Enemalta remains efficient and sustainable by participating in thorough reform within Enemalta. This has taken place over the past three years, involving an analysis of Enemalta’s sections, their reorganisation (in certain cases), and changes in some workers’ job descriptions (allowing for more flexibility). This exercise allowed for a better understanding of the HR needs of each section within Enemalta, providing the opportunity for Enemalta to make better use of its resources. This reform has also provided opportunities for increases in workers’ salaries and has ensured that work is distributed more evenly among workers. Thus, the reform addresses complaints against both workers and management within Enemalta.

Nonetheless, Enemalta’s monopoly of the sector may soon be challenged, since local political parties have explored various options for reforms in Malta’s energy policy. Improved means of providing electricity, aimed at reducing electricity costs for consumers, thereby facilitating national economic competitiveness, have been at the core of a hotly-contested electoral campaign.

Another possible change could be that Enemalta’s electricity division will be split into smaller companies, thereby separating the generation, distribution and consumer services.

Workers’ unions (which collectively represent around 90% of workers in the sector) have already voiced concerns over the impact the various changes may have on workers and have acknowledged that these changes will also have implications on the unions’ work within the sector.

Jeannine Vassallo, Centre for Labour Studies

Annex: Organisations which are members of the sector-related European organisations

 

EPSU

IndustriALL

EURELECTRIC

AT

GDG, VERDI

PRO-GE

Österreichs E-Wirtschaft 

BE

CSC, CSC - Services Publics, SLFP,

CGSP ACOD,

CGSP-P, CGSP-G

GAZELCO Distrigas,

CG-FGTB,

CGSP-ACOD Gazelco,

CGSP Admi

ACV/CSC BIE,

LBC-NVK,

SETCA-BBTK

FEBEG,

SYNERGRID asbl

BG

NSFEB,

FEW-Podkrepa,

PK Services,

FCIW-PODK,

NDWU, VODOSNABDITEL,

FITUGO,

FCIW-PODKREPA

NF Energy - CL Podkrepa,

NFE,

NEWF Podkrepa

 Bulgarian Electric Power Association

CY

FSGEC, PASYDY

FPUEAE

Electricity Authority of Cyprus

CZ

OS UNIOS,

Public Services International,

OS ECHO,

OS DLV, RWE

OS ECHO

CSZE

DE

VERDI

IG BCE

BDEW

DK

3F workers union,

DM, PEU, FOA,

DK Funktionærforbund,

DEF,

CO Industri

 Dansk Energi

EE

AEEWTU

AEEWTU - EEAÜL

The Union of Electricity Industry of Estonia

ES

FITAG-UGT,

AGBAR,

FSAP-CCOO,

FSP UGT

FITAG-UGT,

FITEQA-CC.OO,

ELA-HAINBAT,

FI CC.OO,

UNESA

FI

JYTY, JHL, UNION of SALARIED EMPLOYEES,

PARDIA,

SÄHKÖLIITTO,

UIL (INSINÖÖRILIITTO),

Energiateollisuus ry

FR

CGT – FNME, FPSPSS-FO, CGT-SP, Public Services International, PSI,

INTERCO CFDT,

FNEM-FO, CFTC,

UNSA, FNME-CGT,

FCE-CFDT,

FNEM FO

UFE

GR

-

PFEPPRCI,

GENOP-DEI

HELAS

HU

VKDSZ, EVDSZ, HVDSZ 2000

V.D.Sz.Sz. (EVDSZ),

BDSZ

EMT

IE

ESBOA, IMPACT,

SIPTU, Electricity Supply Board Officers Association

SIPTU

EAI

IT

FEMCA, UILCEM,

FP-CGIL, FLAEI-CISL, FILCTEM-CGIL,

UILCEM

UNEI

LT

LITUF, LVPF,

LTUSE

 

Nacionaline Lietuvos Elektros Asociacija

LU

CGT-L,

Confédération Luxembourgeoise des Syndicats Chrétiens - Secteur Public, LCGB,

LCGB

Organisation des Entreprises d’Electricité du Luxembourg

LV

LTUE, LAKRS

ENERGIJA, LINA

LEEA

MT

GWU

 

ENEMALTA Corporation

NL

ABVAKABO FNV, CNV

FNV Bondgenoten,

ABVAKABO FNV, EON

FNV,

CNV Vakmensen

Energie-Nederland,

Netbeheer Nederland

PL

SKEE Solidarnosc,

PSS Solidarnosc

SGiE Solidarnosc,

PKEE

PT

Sindicato dos Trabalhadores da AdministraçãoPública,

STAL, SINTAP,

SINDEL, STE

SINDEL

ELECPROR

RO

GAZ ROM,

UNIVERS,

Public Services International,

ENERGETICA,

APA NOVA,

GAZ MEDIAS,

FS Gaz Romania

UFS ATLAS, FSLCP,

FNME, Hidrosind,

FS Hidrosind,

IRE,

SE

SEKO, NOFS,

VISION,

HK Kommunal,

KOMMUNAL, TRANSPORT, FACKFORBUNDET

UNIONEN, SEF,

SVERIGES INGENJORER,

SEKO

Svensk Energi Swedenergy AB

SI

SDE SLOVENIJE

SDE

Slovenian Chamber of Commerce, Energy Association, EURELECTRIC Section

SK

SOZE, TUWIFWS,

POZ,

Slovak Gas Industry Trade Union,

Slovak Trade Union of Health and Social Services,

ECHOZ, SOZPS,

SPP

ZOJES

ZZES

UK

Prospect, UNISON,

NIPSA, FDA,

Unite the Union,

GMB

GMB,

UNITE (ex-TGWU),

UNITE the UNION

ENA, Energy UK, ERA

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