Working conditions

Working conditions in sectors

Report
Published
5 November 2020
pdf
Formatos
Executive summary in 22 languages
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Principais conclusões

  • While job quality is generally improving, the trend is comparatively downward in some sectors. The only aspect deteriorating in all sectors is social environment, especially in public administration and health.
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  • While job quality is generally improving, the trend is comparatively downward in some sectors. The only aspect deteriorating in all sectors is social environment, especially in public administration and health.
  • The sectors most affected by changes in work organisation and digitalisation (education and services) and with low levels of training participation (agriculture, construction and commerce and hospitality) should be provided with training to improve workers’ employability.
  • A high level of flexibility and a digitalised work environment are found mainly in service sectors and within high-skilled occupations. Despite the advantages of these work arrangements, workers are more likely to report work–life balance problems.
  • While formal in-company employee representation exists for only 50% of workers, its presence is an important factor in improving the situation of workers. This absence is particularly salient in agriculture, commerce and hospitality and other services, and is more evident in the Eastern countries than in other regions in Europe.
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Resumo

Megatrends, such as digitalisation, globalisation, demographic change and climate change, are transforming the world of work, with knock-on effects for working conditions and job quality. Against this background, this report examines working conditions and job quality from a sectoral perspective,Read more

Megatrends, such as digitalisation, globalisation, demographic change and climate change, are transforming the world of work, with knock-on effects for working conditions and job quality. Against this background, this report examines working conditions and job quality from a sectoral perspective, using data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). The report first outlines the sectoral characteristics underpinning employment – economic structure, demographics, occupational level and employment status. It then goes on to focus on four main topics: changing tasks, skills, training and employability; non-standard employment and employment security; health, well-being and flexible work organisation; and employee representation and voice. Differences in working conditions arising from age, gender, occupation and education level are taken into account. According to the analysis, developing measures to address relevant issues such as skills development, job security and work intensity should be a priority for policy. The data also show that the presence of employee representation and voice is key to improving the situation of employees.

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Formatos

  • Relatório

    Número de páginas: 
    78
    N.º de referência: 
    EF19005
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-2121-9
    N.º do catálogo: 
    TJ-02-20-860-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/024695
    Catalogue info

    Working conditions in sectors

    Formatos

    Cite esta publicação: 

    Eurofound (2020), Working conditions in sectors, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

  • Executive summary

    N.º de referência: 
    EF19005EN1
    Catalogue info

    Condições de trabalho nos setores

    Autor(es): 
    Eurofound

    As megatendências, como a digitalização, a globalização, as alterações demográficas e as alterações climáticas, estão a transformar o mundo do trabalho, com repercussões nas condições de trabalho e na qualidade do emprego. Neste contexto, o presente relatório analisa as condições de trabalho e a qualidade do emprego numa perspetiva setorial, utilizando dados do Inquérito Europeu sobre as Condições de Trabalho (IECT) de 2015. O relatório começa por descrever as características setoriais subjacentes ao emprego — estrutura económica, demografia, nível profissional e estatuto profissional. Em seguida, centra-se em quatro temas principais: evolução das tarefas e das competências, formação e empregabilidade; emprego atípico e segurança do emprego; saúde, bem-estar e organização flexível do trabalho; e representação e voz dos trabalhadores. São tidas em conta as diferenças em termos de condições de trabalho decorrentes da idade, do género, da profissão e do nível de formação. De acordo com a análise, o desenvolvimento de medidas para abordar questões relevantes, como o desenvolvimento de competências, a segurança do emprego e a intensidade do trabalho, deve ser uma prioridade política. Os dados mostram igualmente que a presença de uma representação e de uma voz dos trabalhadores é fundamental para melhorar a sua situação.

    Disponível para descarregamento em 22 línguas

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  • Tables and graphs

    List of tables

    Table 1: Sectoral coverage
    Table 2: Country coverage
    Table 3: Job quality indices
    Table 4: Occupation and job quality by sector, 2015 (percentage difference for higher ISCO categories (1–3) relative to lower ISCO categories (4–9))
    Table 5: Summary of sociodemographic characteristics and job quality by sector, 2015
    Table 6: Task indicator scores by occupation category within sectors
    Table 7: Regression between task indicators and perceived employability by sector, 2010 and 2015
    Table 8: Job quality and non-standard forms of employment by sector, 2015 (percentage difference in the case of non-standard employment)
    Table 9: Well-being and health indicators, 2015 by sector and country cluster, 2015
    Table 10: Average scores for autonomy and working time flexibility by digital worker category, 2015
    Table 11: Distribution of digital worker categories (with high, medium and low levels of flexibility) by sector, 2015 (%)
    Table 12: Distribution of digital worker categories (with high, medium and low levels of flexibility) by occupation, 2015 (%)
    Table 13: Difference in average level of health and well-being indicators for each category of worker (with high and medium levels of flexibility) by sector, 2015
    Table 14: Job quality and representation by sector, 2015

    List of graphs

    Figure 1: Change in employment by sector, 2008–2019 (100 = 2008)
    Figure 2: Change in sectoral employment by country cluster, 2008–2019 (%)
    Figure 3: Proportion of total EU employment by sector and country cluster, 2015 (%)
    Figure 4: Female share of employment by sector, 2015 (%)
    Figure 5: Age structure of the workforce by sector, 2015 (%)
    Figure 6: Occupational structure by sector, 2015 (%)
    Figure 7: Shifts in occupational structures by sector, 2010–2015
    Figure 8: Distribution of educational attainment by sector, 2015 (%)
    Figure 9: Proportion of part-time and temporary employment by sector, 2015 (%)
    Figure 10: Involuntary part-time work by gender and sector, 2015 (%)
    Figure 11: Usual hours worked by contract duration and sector, 2015
    Figure 12: Job quality indices by sector, 2015
    Figure 13: Job quality indices by sector and country cluster, 2015
    Figure 14: Job quality indices by subsector (NACE Rev. 2), 2015
    Figure 15: Job quality indices by sector and occupational category, 2015
    Figure 16: Job quality indices over time, 1995–2015
    Figure 17: Convergence and divergence of sectoral job quality over time, 2005–2015
    Figure 18: Changes in task indicators by sector, 2010–2015 (%)
    Figure 19: Breakdown of changes in physical routine tasks by sector, 2010–2015 (%)
    Figure 20: Breakdown of changes in cognitive tasks by sector, 2010–2015 (%)
    Figure 21: Breakdown of changes in interactional tasks by sector, 2010–2015 (%)
    Figure 22: Share of employees who had received training provided by the employer (during the previous 12 months) by sector, 2010 and 2015 (%)
    Figure 23: Share of employees who had received training paid for by the employee (during the previous 12 months) by sector, 2010 and 2015 (%)
    Figure 24: Average score for the level of employability by sector, 2010 and 2015
    Figure 25: Share of non-standard forms of employment by sector, 2015 (%)
    Figure 26: Perception of employment security and job insecurity in the EU27 and the UK by sector and country cluster, 2015
    Figure 27: Non-standard employment and job quality indices by sector, 2015
    Figure 28: Health and well-being indicators by sector – deviation from the EU average, 2015
    Figure 29: Presence of representative bodies (trade unions and OSH committees) or employee meetings (voice) by sector, 2015 (percentage of workers)
    Figure 30: Employee representation and voice and job quality by sector, 2015

This report presents the results of research conducted largely prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in Europe in February 2020. For this reason, the results do not fully take account of the outbreak.

A investigação realizada antes da saída do Reino Unido da União Europeia, em 31 de janeiro de 2020, e posteriormente publicada, pode incluir dados relativos aos 28 Estados-Membros da UE. Após esta data, a investigação apenas tem em conta os 27 Estados-Membros da UE (UE28 menos o Reino Unido), salvo especificação em contrário.

Part of the series

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

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