O presente relatório analisa o papel do diálogo social e da negociação coletiva na resposta aos desafios que o setor da aviação civil enfrentou durante a pandemia de COVID-19. O envolvimento dos parceiros sociais nas medidas introduzidas para atenuar os impactos negativos da pandemia varia entre países europeus. O diálogo social e a negociação coletiva desempenharam um papel de destaque na maioria dos países, ao passo que noutros tiveram um papel mais limitado.
Este relatório analisa o papel do diálogo social e da negociação coletiva na abordagem dos desafios criados ou exacerbados pela pandemia de COVID-19 no setor hospitalar. Também explora se o diálogo social e os processos de negociação coletiva existentes a nível nacional foram adaptados a fim de enfrentar estes novos desafios. A investigação incluiu uma revisão bibliográfica para contextualizar as características estruturais do setor hospitalar e uma análise das iniciativas políticas para gerir a crise implementadas em toda a UE27 e na Noruega.
O presente relatório é elaborado no contexto do projeto-piloto de três anos (2021-2023) intitulado «Papel do salário mínimo na criação da Garantia Universal do Trabalho», mandatado pela Comissão Europeia à Eurofound. Centra-se no módulo 3 do projeto, analisado a questão dos salários mínimos e outras formas de remuneração dos trabalhadores por conta própria.
As rigorosas restrições de saúde pública aplicadas pelos governos em 2020 para controlar a pandemia de COVID-19 alteraram abruptamente a vida profissional e continuaram a moldá-la ao longo dos dois anos que se seguiram. Entre março e novembro de 2021, foram realizadas mais de 70 000 entrevistas em 36 países pelo Inquérito Europeu sobre as Condições de Trabalho (IECT) por telefone, um inquérito de alta qualidade baseado na probabilidade. O objetivo era fornecer uma imagem pormenorizada da vida profissional dos europeus nesse período excecional.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the Food and drink sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
O relatório analisa a forma como a confiança dos cidadãos nas instituições – incluindo os governos nacionais, a UE, as instituições científicas e os meios de comunicação social – evoluiu durante a pandemia da COVID-19 em 2020 e 2021. O papel dos meios de comunicação social é analisado, em especial a relação entre a utilização das redes sociais e a confiança e o impacto da má informação (informação incorreta ou enganosa) e da desinformação (informação deliberadamente enganosa) durante o período de crise.
A qualidade das instituições é um fator essencial para alcançar uma convergência económica e social ascendente na UE, desempenhando um papel fundamental no crescimento da economia, atraindo investimento estrangeiro, assegurando a execução de políticas e reformas e acedendo com êxito aos fundos da UE. A adequação às necessidades das instituições públicas é atualmente particularmente relevante no contexto da execução do programa NextGenerationEU, uma vez que a má qualidade institucional pode impedir o acesso aos fundos e comprometer a eficácia do próprio programa.
The EU Presidency of Czechia organised a high-level conference in October 2022 on ‘Tackling energy poverty: EU approach & sharing best practices’. The event aimed to bring different actors together in order to strengthen the dialogue on possible solutions on how to further tackle energy poverty in the EU. This background paper, prepared at the request of the Czech Presidency, aims to contribute to the debate.
This working paper investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of solutions identified and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. In addition, the paper looks at how EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
Os mercados de trabalho europeus recuperaram da COVID-19 com solidez. No final de 2021, pouco mais de 18 meses após o início da pandemia, as taxas de emprego na UE situavam-se quase nos níveis anteriores à crise. O presente relatório sintetiza a evolução do mercado de trabalho em 2020 e 2021, com base em dados trimestrais do Inquérito às Forças de Trabalho da UE. Fá-lo de uma perspetiva estrutural, com destaque para os dados setoriais e profissionais e para as principais variáveis demográficas, nomeadamente o género e a idade.
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
In 2022, the European Semester was streamlined to integrate the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) established on 19 February 2021 (Regulation (EU) 2021/241). While facing the geopolitical and economic challenges triggered by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Member States have been implementing the national Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs) for more than one year and around 100 billion euro in RRF funds have already been disbursed.
As economies emerge from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, labour shortages are becoming increasingly evident. These include shortages exacerbated by the crisis in some sectors and professions where they had been endemic for some time. This report will look at measures implemented at national level to tackle labour shortages in the health, care and information and communications technology sectors, as well as those arising from the twin digital and green transitions.
This report explores the drivers of economic and social convergence in Europe, using a selected set of economic and social indicators to examine trends in the performance of individual Member States. It also investigates what role the Economic and Monetary Union plays in convergence, particularly in southern and eastern Member States. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on convergence is analysed and initial conclusions are drawn about the impact of EU recovery packages and their ability to prevent divergence.
As part of its response to Russia’s war on Ukraine, the EU swiftly activated its Temporary Protection Directive for those fleeing the conflict in Ukraine – enabling displaced persons to settle in the EU and have access to the labour market and basic public services. This policy brief highlights the main barriers encountered by these refugees (over 5 million people to date) when seeking a job and provides suggestions on how to facilitate their integration.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2022 yearbook, provides a snapshot of the latest developments in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2022. Eurofound’s research on working and living conditions in Europe provides a bedrock of evidence for input into social policymaking and achieving the Agency’s vision ‘to be Europe’s leading knowledge source for better life and work’.
The term ‘hybrid work’ became popular due to the upsurge of telework during the COVID-19 pandemic. The term has been increasingly used to refer to situations in which (teleworkable) work is performed both from the usual place of work (normally the employer’s premises) and from home (as experienced during the pandemic) or other locations. However, the concept of hybrid work is still blurry, and various meanings are in use. This topical update brings clarity to this concept by exploring available information from recent literature and the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
Housing affordability is a matter of great concern across the EU. Poor housing affordability leads to housing evictions, housing insecurity, problematic housing costs and housing inadequacy. These problems negatively affect health and well-being, create unequal living conditions and opportunities, and come with healthcare costs, reduced productivity and environmental damage. Private market tenants face particularly large increases in the cost of housing.