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  • Article
    27 May 1997

    One of the most significant transformations of British industrial relations
    in recent years has been the shift from national to enterprise-level
    bargaining. Multi-employer bargaining arrangements have tended to be replaced
    with multi-establishment, single employer bargaining, although there are also
    signs of decentralisation within the individual firm. Similarly, within the
    public sector (UK9702104F [1]), efforts have been made to fragment
    traditional bargaining arrangements through the introduction of "Agency"
    status and market-testing to the civil service and local authorities, and by
    further institutional decentralisation through the promotion of National
    Health Service (NHS) Trusts and local management of schools. These changes
    have occurred alongside a dramatic decline in coverage of collective
    bargaining, largely due to the decline of manufacturing employment and the
    expansion of the service sector.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/public-sector-pay-policies

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    Employment yielding less than ATS 3,740 gross per month or less than ATS 859
    per week or ATS 288 per day, is defined as "minor". Below this threshold,
    neither employee nor employer has to contribute to the national pension or
    health or unemployment insurance. Only national accident insurance has to be
    paid. Minor employment therefore does not earn an entitlement to unemployment
    benefits, maternity benefits, a pension, or medical coverage. On the other
    hand, because of the lower cost, minor employment may be an incentive for
    employers to hire.

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    The publication of an assessment commissioned by the National Assembly's
    Finance Commission, and the campaign for the May/June 1997 general election,
    have reopened the debate in France on the content and efficiency of the
    Robien law, which seeks to encourage working time reductions and
    reorganisation to create or save jobs. Politicians, economists, employers and
    unions remain divided whilst the number of collective agreements at company
    level based on the law is increasing.

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    Non-wage labour costs are those categories of the enterprise's total labour
    costs comprising other than direct compensation. Today, non-wage labour costs
    account for a very substantial and rising proportion of total labour costs.
    Since increasing labour costs tend to encourage substitution away from labour
    to more capital-intensive methods of production, rising non-wage labour costs
    are an impediment to job creation. Furthermore, some non-wage labour costs -
    such as social security contributions - drive a wedge between the labour
    costs that companies pay and the money that workers receive, thus making
    collective bargaining more difficult. Via unit labour costs - nominal labour
    costs divided by real value added - non-wage labour costs are likely to have
    some effect on companies' location decisions.

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    An agreement on resolving labour disputes out of court was signed in January
    1996 by Spain's largest unions (UGT and CC.OO) and employers' associations
    (CEOE and CEPYME), covering the period until 31 December 2000. The agreement
    built on the experience in mediation and arbitration at a regional level that
    had grown on the basis of joint quasi-judicial institutions formed in the
    1990s. We review the complex system which now applies in this area.

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    The findings of a Eurostat study entitled /Statistics in focus: income
    distribution and poverty in the EU 12 - 1993/, published on 14 May 1997, show
    that one out of six citizens and households in the 12 pre-1995 EU member
    states live below the "poverty threshold". In more than half of these
    countries, the figure was even higher - one in five. Even more alarmingly,
    over one-third of poor households were working. These findings are drawn from
    the first wave of statistics generated from the European Community Household
    Panel (ECHP). The ECHP consists of a sample of 60,500 households selected
    randomly in the 12 member states, using a harmonised questionnaire. This data
    does not allow for a comparison of social change over time, but does provide
    important information on the magnitude and dimensions of poverty and income
    disparity in the European Union in the early 1990s. The figures show that
    there are approximately 57 million socially excluded individuals in EU, a
    problem affecting both more and less affluent member states.

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    The Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (LO), the largest employee
    confederation in Norway, held its four-yearly congress on 10-16 May 1997. The
    most important issues were the question of continuing with the "Solidarity
    Alternative", and the adoption of the Action Programme for the period
    1997-2001. A discussion also took place between LO unions regarding the
    confederation's policy towards the privatisation of public activities
    (services), while the vice-presidency election received considerable
    attention.

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    May 1997 saw Unilever defending its pro-European stance to shareholders,
    while the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) was also signalling its
    willingness to work with the trade unions prior to the adoption of European
    Union legislation.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications