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  • Article
    27 April 1997

    On 1 April 1997, the whole air transport sector, including cabotage(domestic
    flights within other member states), was officially opened to EC-wide
    competition. Cabotageno longer has to be the continuation of a flight
    originating outside a particular country. So nothing now remains of Air
    Inter's monopoly in France, which had already been severely challenged by the
    European Commission in 1994, following a complaint from TAT, now one of
    British Airways' French subsidiaries.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    Based on the so-called Dual System (of Vocational Training) [1] (Duales
    System), practical vocational training [2] in Germany is given at work in the
    participating employer's establishment, backed up by statutory theoretical
    training and general education provided in vocational training school [3] s.
    The characteristic feature of the system is that the provision of knowledge
    and skills is linked to the acquisition of the required job experience.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/dual-system-of-vocational-training-0
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/vocational-training-2
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/vocational-training-school

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    With 270,000 persons either on early retirement, unemployed or otherwise
    excluded from the labour market, theSocial Democrat-led Government is anxious
    to involve the social partners in producing workable alternatives for job
    creation for these groups of workers, rather than simply paying lip-service
    to the idea. In the 1995 collective bargaining round, the social partners
    were invited to elaborate on social clauses in their collective agreements.
    Accordingly, 90% of the bargaining units in the are covered by the LO trade
    union confederation and DA employers' confederation agreed on what have
    become known as "Social Chapters", which contain framework provisions on job
    creation on special terms of employment - ie, content of work, working hours
    and pay - to be negotiated and elaborated upon at local and company level.
    Similarly, the bargaining parties in government employment agreed on Social
    Chapters in their 1995 collective agreements. Employees in local government
    at regional and municipal level were also covered by a framework agreement
    negotiated in May 1996.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    After three months' bargaining, the annual revision of the national
    collective agreement covering banks and other credit institutions was
    concluded in April 1997. It is the first collective agreement in Portugal to
    grant five weeks' paid holidays, and also increases pay and improves
    maternity and paternity provisions

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    Following negotiations which have been held in a cooperative atmosphere,
    Belgacom, the partially privatised, but still largely government-owned
    Belgian telephone company, has announced plans to reduce rather drastically
    its number of employees. The current workforce of about 26,000 will have to
    be reduced by about 5,000 by the end of 1998.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    April 1997 was a very good month for securing the future of British car
    plants. The Ford Halewood plant on Merseyside and the Peugeot Ryton plant in
    Coventry have both secured the production of new vehicles into the next
    century. The future of Rover's Longbridge plant is in the balance while an
    announcement is delayed over whether a new model /Mini/ will be produced.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    It emerged in April 1997 that the former president of the Irish Congress of
    Trade Unions (ICTU), Phil Flynn, is expected to play a key role in the new
    "partnership-based" industrial relations structure currently being drawn up
    between management and unions at Ireland's state-owned airline, Aer Lingus.
    Over 4,000 workers are employed by the airline and a further 1,600 by its
    maintenance subsidiary, TEAM.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    In March 1997, Guardian Europe SA, signed its first-ever collective agreement
    for blue-collar workers. The deal provides for pay increases, while its
    provisions on other terms and conditions largely mirror statutory provisions.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    On 8 April, AKZO-Nobel and the unions reached agreement on both working time
    reductions and pay increases. The dispute, which had served to divide
    AKZO-Nobel and the industrial unions since 13 March (NL9703108N [1]), was
    resolved to everyone's satisfaction.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/akzo-nobel-abandons-a-standard-36-hour-week

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    Padraig Flynn, the commissioner responsible for employment, industrial
    relations and social affairs, announced on 3 April 1997 that the Commission
    is to take infringement proceedings against three member states for their
    failure to apply certain Community legislation in the social field. Reasoned
    opinions outlining the Commission's view are to be sent to France, Italy and
    Greece. The details of the cases are as follows:

Series

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications