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  • Article
    23 June 2003

    The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) held its10th statutory congress
    [1] in Prague on 26-29 May 2003, under the slogan 'Make Europe work for the
    people'. ETUC currently has 78 member organisations (national trade union
    confederations and centres) from 34 countries in western, central and eastern
    Europe, as well as 11 sectoral European industry federations, making a total
    of 60 million affiliated members. The congress is the supreme authority of
    ETUC and meets every four years (the ninth congress was held in 1999 -
    EU9907182F [2]). The congress is composed of delegates from the affiliated
    organisations in proportion to their membership. It elects the members of the
    executive committee, the president, the general secretary and the two deputy
    general secretaries.

    [1] http://www.etuc.org/EN/xCongress/en/
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-labour-market/ninth-etuc-congress-calls-for-a-european-system-of-industrial-relations

  • Article
    23 June 2003

    The government announced in May 2003 that it intends to introduce legislation
    on corporate manslaughter, with details to follow in the autumn. The home
    secretary, David Blunkett, said: 'there is great public concern at the
    criminal law's lack of success in convicting companies of manslaughter where
    a death has occurred due to gross negligence by the organisation as a whole.
    The law needs to be clear and effective in order to secure public confidence
    and must bite properly on large corporations whose failure to set or maintain
    standards causes a death.'

  • Article
    23 June 2003

    This article outlines a range of initiatives being undertaken by the UK's
    Trades Union Congress (TUC) and its affiliated unions aimed at combating
    disability discrimination and promoting equal rights for workers with
    disabilities, in the context of 2003 being designated by the EU as the
    European Year of People with Disabilities [1] (EU0209201N [2]), and
    European-level social partner statements in this area.

    [1] http://www.eypd2003.org/
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/2003-designated-european-year-of-people-with-disabilities

  • Article
    23 June 2003

    On 8 May 2003, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled (in case C-171/01
    [1] /Wählergruppe Gemeinsam Zajedno v Birlikte Alternative und Grüne
    GewerkschafterInnen/UG/) that the Republic of Austria must allow employees of
    Turkish nationality to be eligible to stand as candidates for election to the
    general assembly of the Chamber of Labour (Arbeiterkammer, AK). The judgment
    resulted from a case referred by the Austrian Constitutional Court
    (Verfassungsgerichtshof, VfGH) to the ECJ for a preliminary ruling in March
    2001. The VfGH - Austria's highest court for matters including elections to
    statutory representative bodies in the industrial relations field, such as
    the Chamber of Labour - had referred the matter to the ECJ since the former's
    members had been undecided as to whether Community law was in conflict with
    the Austrian legislation which excludes workers who are citizens of countries
    outside the European Economic Area (EEA) from eligibility to stand for
    election as officers in the Chamber of Labour (AT9802168N [2]).

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/jurisp/cgi-bin/gettext.pl?lang=en&num=79969491C19010171&doc=T&ouvert=T&seance=ARRET
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/controversy-surrounds-eligibility-of-foreigners-to-stand-as-worker-representatives

  • Article
    20 June 2003

    Dans l’Union européenne, l’année 2002 a en général été marquée par
    un ralentissement de la croissance économique, une hausse du chômage et une
    recrudescence de l’inflation. Il n’est pas surprenant dans ce contexte
    que les salaires - et notamment les appels à la modération salariale -
    aient revêtu autant sinon davantage d’importance dans les relations
    industrielles. Par ailleurs, l’évolution des salaires a plus que jamais
    été un thème phare en 2002, année où l’Union économique et monétaire
    (UEM) de l’UE est entrée dans une nouvelle phase avec l’introduction des
    billets et des pièces en euros dans les 12 pays de la 'zone euro'. Les
    avancées de l’UEM impliquent que les pays de la zone euro ne pouvant plus
    utiliser les taux de change et les taux d’intérêt comme moyens de
    compensation des déséquilibres des performances économiques, la politique
    salariale a dû jouer un rôle de plus en plus important pour corriger ces
    déséquilibres. En outre, dans le cadre de l’UEM, l’évolution des
    salaires constitue un facteur clé pour déterminer si l’économie de
    l’UE connaît une tendance inflationniste ou déflationniste.
    L’introduction de l’euro a par ailleurs amélioré la transparence en
    matière de comparaison des niveaux de salaire en Europe.

  • Article
    20 June 2003

    In der gesamten Europäischen Union war 2002 generell ein Jahr, in dem sich
    das Wirtschaftswachstum verlangsamte, die Arbeitslosigkeit zunahm und sich
    die Inflation verstärkte. Es ist nicht überraschend, dass in diesem Kontext
    die Entlohnung - und insbesondere Aufforderungen in Bezug auf maßvolle
    Lohnforderungen - ihre zentrale Bedeutung für die Arbeitsbeziehungen behielt
    und sogar noch ausbaute. Zudem standen im Jahr 2002 die Lohnentwicklungen
    stärker als je zuvor im Brennpunkt des Interesses, da in diesem Jahr die
    Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion (WWU) der EU mit der Einführung von
    Euro-Banknoten und -Münzen in den zwölf Ländern des 'Euro-Gebiets' in eine
    neue Phase trat. Der Fortschritt der WWU bedeutet, dass sich die
    Aufmerksamkeit mehr und mehr auf die Entlohnung als Mittel für die Anpassung
    an wirtschaftliche Ungleichgewichte richten wird, da die Länder des
    Euro-Gebiets für derartige Anpassungen keine Wechselkurse und Zinssätze
    mehr verwenden können. Ferner sind innerhalb der WWU die Lohnentwicklungen
    ein Schlüsselfaktor dafür, ob sich die Wirtschaft der EU in Richtung einer
    Inflation oder einer Deflation entwickelt. Durch die Einführung des Euro
    sind Lohnvergleiche innerhalb Europas auch transparenter geworden.

  • Other
    18 June 2003

    This report outlines the proceedings from a Foundation seminar on the theme of interactions between the labour market and social protection. The main conclusion to emerge is that interactions between the labour market and social protection are complex but very necessary in the current situation in Europe. Creative policy mixes are needed in order to make the trajectories of policy reform successful. They will lead to more sustainability of the European social model. The seminar expanded on work done previously by the Foundation such as the first Foundation paper on quality of work and employment. It referred also to a number of more specific projects, which are/have been carried out by the Foundation such as ‘negotiating the conditions of flexibility’, ‘pacts for employment and competitiveness’, and ‘integrated approaches towards the activation of minimum-income recipients’.

  • Article
    18 June 2003

    In May 2003, the white-collar Confederation of Vocational Unions
    (Yrkesorganisasjonenes Sentralforbund, YS) participated for the first time in
    the statutory congress [1] of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC),
    held in Prague. Over the previous year or so, YS had joined international
    trade union organisations at the Nordic, European and global level - ie the
    Council of Nordic Trade Unions (Norden Faglige Samorganisasjon, NFS [2]),
    ETUC, and the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU [3]).
    YS had long aspired to become a member of these organisations, and its
    leader, Randi Bjørgan, stated in a press release that she was delighted
    finally to be able to represent YS at the ETUC congress. She emphasised in
    her speech at the congress that the issues facing Norwegian trade unions are
    also important issues in other countries, and that the congress confirmed the
    value of cooperation to tackle these issues through the European trade union
    movement.

    [1] http://www.etuc.org/EN/xCongress/
    [2] http://www.nfs.net/
    [3] http://www.icftu.org/

  • Article
    18 June 2003

    Figures published by Statistics Norway (Statistisk Sentralbyrå, SSB) in
    mid-2003 suggest that approximately 150,000 working days were lost as a
    result of labour disputes in 2002. The number of working days lost per 1,000
    employees was approximately 70. This means that the number of working days
    lost in industrial disputes in 2002 (NO0206105F [1]) was lower than in the
    other years over the past decade when bargaining over main wage settlements
    occurred (ie 1992, 1996, 1998 and 2000). The equivalent figure in 2000, the
    year of the last main bargaining round, was just under 500,000. At the same
    time, however, the 2002 figures confirm that Norway is among those
    industrialised countries with a medium to high level of industrial conflict
    (TN0303104U [2]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/2002-bargaining-brings-high-wage-increases-and-few-conflicts
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/developments-in-industrial-action-1998-2002

  • Other
    18 June 2003

    This conference at Sheffield Halham University addressed some critical issues relating to how the supply of care workers – both those involved in childcare and those who provide domiciliary care for older people living in their own homes – can be stimulated to match the growing demand for their caring labour. The conference heard contributions from leading experts in the field, drawn from employers, trade unions, policymakers and academics, representing seven different European countries.

Series

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications