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  • Article
    27 June 1999

    In anticipation of a debate scheduled for the end of June 1999 in the Lower
    House of the Dutch Parliament, the Netherlands' largest employers'
    association, VNO/NCW, is pushing for fundamental change in the social
    security structure. It believes that the new system should offer a flat-rate
    benefit at subsistence level as a safety net. In addition, employees should
    be assigned "personal responsibility" and have the option of taking out
    additional insurance against loss of income.

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    The reduction of taxation on labour and other non-wage labour costs has been
    part of the European Commission's strategy to raise employment for almost
    five years, as it is considered that high non-wage labour costs, particularly
    on low-paid labour, are leading to high rates of unemployment among
    low-skilled workers and are encouraging clandestine, undeclared activity. The
    Commission's 1999 Broad Economic Policy Guidelines [1] re-emphasised the
    importance of Member States' reducing taxes, particularly on low-paid labour.
    It is intended that this reduction in taxation of labour be offset by new
    taxes or tax increases on environmental pollution, energy or consumption. The
    social partners are similarly called upon to commit themselves to control
    wage and other non-wage costs, as a contribution to the European employment
    strategy. The draft Broad Economic Policy Guidelines estimate that, with an
    average rate of 43% of GDP, the tax burden in the European Union in 13%
    higher than in the USA. The tax burden indeed exceeds 40% in most of the EU
    Member States, with only Ireland being comparable with the USA in this
    respect. Despite the fact that the effective tax rate on labour and the
    labour "tax wedge" have declined in the EU since 1994, the level of the "tax
    wedge" indicates that around 50% of the gross wage is absorbed by taxes in a
    number of EU Member States,

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg02/document/econeur/beg/begidxen.htm

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    On 15 June 1999, the Austrian government failed to approve a legislative
    proposal for submission to parliament that would have removed the remaining
    legal differentiation between wage earners and salary earners (AT9801160N
    [1]). The two main distinctions that remain between them relate to
    compensation during sick leave and regulations governing dismissal
    (AT9903138N [2]). The Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
    Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) and the Austrian Chamber of the Economy
    (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ) had failed to resolve their own
    differences on the question at a meeting on 9 June. WKÖ had submitted a
    number of counter-demands in exchange for harmonisation, including:

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/unions-seek-further-harmonisation-of-labour-law
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/labour-contract-act-under-negotiation

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    Two mediators, Mr Ingemar Mundebo and Mr Gunnar Samuelsson, had been having
    intense contacts throughout a week in the middle of June with the pay
    negotiators from the Coach Employers' Association (Bussarbetsgivarna, BUA)
    and the Swedish Transport Workers' Union (Svenska
    Transportarbetareförbundet, Transport). Transport had given notice of a ban
    on overtime and a boycott of any new charter tourist traffic. The industrial
    action was due to commence on 22 June 1999.

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    At its congress in June 1999, France's CFE-CGC trade union confederation,
    which represents managerial and professional staff and supervisors, elected a
    new management team. After some years of falling membership and support, the
    confederation sought to present a united front and to refocus on its
    traditional goals and grassroots.

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    Denmark is not participating in the third stage of EU Economic and Monetary
    Union (EMU), which has seen the introduction of the euro single currency.
    This is one of the consequences of the country's initial "no" vote on the
    Maastricht Treaty in a 1992 referendum, which led to Denmark having a number
    of reservations inserted in the Treaty, including non-participation in the
    third stage of EMU. A subsequent referendum resulted in a majority in favour
    of the modified version of the Treaty among the otherwise "EU-sceptic" Danish
    population.

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    Speaking at the national conference of the British Chambers of Commerce (BCC)
    on 3 June 1999, Stephen Byers, the trade and industry secretary, devoted his
    speech to the issue of regulation and the Labour government's commitment to
    reduce the burden of regulation on business, including employment
    legislation. He said that "getting regulation right" was a major priority for
    the government, and that an essential element of this was to avoid burdening
    businesses - especially small businesses - with unnecessary regulation.

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    From 1 July 1999, Dutch employers must comply with obligations stemming from
    the Flexibility and Security Act. Following three consecutive contracts,
    temporary agency workers must be offered a permanent contract. However, in
    anticipation, temporary work agencies began dismissing staff in June. The FNV
    union confederation has condemned the mass dismissals.

Series

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications