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  • Article
    27 June 1999

    June 1999 saw the conclusion of new national agreements for Italy's key
    metalworking and food industries. The most innovative aspects of the deals
    concern pay increases, the role of Rsu representative bodies in decentralised
    bargaining, and the reduction and management of working time.

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    The reduction of taxation on labour and other non-wage labour costs has been
    part of the European Commission's strategy to raise employment for almost
    five years, as it is considered that high non-wage labour costs, particularly
    on low-paid labour, are leading to high rates of unemployment among
    low-skilled workers and are encouraging clandestine, undeclared activity. The
    Commission's 1999 Broad Economic Policy Guidelines [1] re-emphasised the
    importance of Member States' reducing taxes, particularly on low-paid labour.
    It is intended that this reduction in taxation of labour be offset by new
    taxes or tax increases on environmental pollution, energy or consumption. The
    social partners are similarly called upon to commit themselves to control
    wage and other non-wage costs, as a contribution to the European employment
    strategy. The draft Broad Economic Policy Guidelines estimate that, with an
    average rate of 43% of GDP, the tax burden in the European Union in 13%
    higher than in the USA. The tax burden indeed exceeds 40% in most of the EU
    Member States, with only Ireland being comparable with the USA in this
    respect. Despite the fact that the effective tax rate on labour and the
    labour "tax wedge" have declined in the EU since 1994, the level of the "tax
    wedge" indicates that around 50% of the gross wage is absorbed by taxes in a
    number of EU Member States,

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg02/document/econeur/beg/begidxen.htm

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    On 15 June 1999, the Austrian government failed to approve a legislative
    proposal for submission to parliament that would have removed the remaining
    legal differentiation between wage earners and salary earners (AT9801160N
    [1]). The two main distinctions that remain between them relate to
    compensation during sick leave and regulations governing dismissal
    (AT9903138N [2]). The Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
    Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) and the Austrian Chamber of the Economy
    (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ) had failed to resolve their own
    differences on the question at a meeting on 9 June. WKÖ had submitted a
    number of counter-demands in exchange for harmonisation, including:

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/unions-seek-further-harmonisation-of-labour-law
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/labour-contract-act-under-negotiation

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    In anticipation of a debate scheduled for the end of June 1999 in the Lower
    House of the Dutch Parliament, the Netherlands' largest employers'
    association, VNO/NCW, is pushing for fundamental change in the social
    security structure. It believes that the new system should offer a flat-rate
    benefit at subsistence level as a safety net. In addition, employees should
    be assigned "personal responsibility" and have the option of taking out
    additional insurance against loss of income.

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    At its congress in June 1999, France's CFE-CGC trade union confederation,
    which represents managerial and professional staff and supervisors, elected a
    new management team. After some years of falling membership and support, the
    confederation sought to present a united front and to refocus on its
    traditional goals and grassroots.

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    Denmark is not participating in the third stage of EU Economic and Monetary
    Union (EMU), which has seen the introduction of the euro single currency.
    This is one of the consequences of the country's initial "no" vote on the
    Maastricht Treaty in a 1992 referendum, which led to Denmark having a number
    of reservations inserted in the Treaty, including non-participation in the
    third stage of EMU. A subsequent referendum resulted in a majority in favour
    of the modified version of the Treaty among the otherwise "EU-sceptic" Danish
    population.

  • Article
    27 June 1999

    Speaking at the national conference of the British Chambers of Commerce (BCC)
    on 3 June 1999, Stephen Byers, the trade and industry secretary, devoted his
    speech to the issue of regulation and the Labour government's commitment to
    reduce the burden of regulation on business, including employment
    legislation. He said that "getting regulation right" was a major priority for
    the government, and that an essential element of this was to avoid burdening
    businesses - especially small businesses - with unnecessary regulation.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2020

    ​Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2020, the seventh edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications