Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
In June 1999, the social partners in the woodworking and furniture sector of
Italy's north-eastern regions signed an agreement which aims at modifying the
pay system through a lower tax levy, and at introducing flexible working
hours. This new inter-regional collective bargaining level represents a
further development of the Italian bargaining process.
In June 1999, Spanish unions called a strike to demand the implementation of
the 1998-2005 coal mining plan, signed in July 1997. The strike received
massive support among the 20,000 coal miners, but the government criticised
the unions for exaggerating the problems.
On 4 June 1999, CGT and CFDT, the majority trade unions at France's SNCF rail
network, signed an agreement with the management on the reduction of working
time. This agreement, rejected by the other unions, had been the subject of a
referendum among the company's staff organised by management and the two
In May 1999, in response to a request from the Greek government,
representatives of trade unions and employers' organisations lodged their
proposals for the 1999 National Action Plan (NAP) on employment to implement
the EU Employment Guidelines. Here we focus on the proposals aimed at
encouraging the adaptability of businesses and their employees.
In anticipation of a debate scheduled for the end of June 1999 in the Lower
House of the Dutch Parliament, the Netherlands' largest employers'
association, VNO/NCW, is pushing for fundamental change in the social
security structure. It believes that the new system should offer a flat-rate
benefit at subsistence level as a safety net. In addition, employees should
be assigned "personal responsibility" and have the option of taking out
additional insurance against loss of income.
The reduction of taxation on labour and other non-wage labour costs has been
part of the European Commission's strategy to raise employment for almost
five years, as it is considered that high non-wage labour costs, particularly
on low-paid labour, are leading to high rates of unemployment among
low-skilled workers and are encouraging clandestine, undeclared activity. The
Commission's 1999 Broad Economic Policy Guidelines  re-emphasised the
importance of Member States' reducing taxes, particularly on low-paid labour.
It is intended that this reduction in taxation of labour be offset by new
taxes or tax increases on environmental pollution, energy or consumption. The
social partners are similarly called upon to commit themselves to control
wage and other non-wage costs, as a contribution to the European employment
strategy. The draft Broad Economic Policy Guidelines estimate that, with an
average rate of 43% of GDP, the tax burden in the European Union in 13%
higher than in the USA. The tax burden indeed exceeds 40% in most of the EU
Member States, with only Ireland being comparable with the USA in this
respect. Despite the fact that the effective tax rate on labour and the
labour "tax wedge" have declined in the EU since 1994, the level of the "tax
wedge" indicates that around 50% of the gross wage is absorbed by taxes in a
number of EU Member States,
On 15 June 1999, the Austrian government failed to approve a legislative
proposal for submission to parliament that would have removed the remaining
legal differentiation between wage earners and salary earners (AT9801160N
). The two main distinctions that remain between them relate to
compensation during sick leave and regulations governing dismissal
(AT9903138N ). The Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) and the Austrian Chamber of the Economy
(Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ) had failed to resolve their own
differences on the question at a meeting on 9 June. WKÖ had submitted a
number of counter-demands in exchange for harmonisation, including:
Two mediators, Mr Ingemar Mundebo and Mr Gunnar Samuelsson, had been having
intense contacts throughout a week in the middle of June with the pay
negotiators from the Coach Employers' Association (Bussarbetsgivarna, BUA)
and the Swedish Transport Workers' Union (Svenska
Transportarbetareförbundet, Transport). Transport had given notice of a ban
on overtime and a boycott of any new charter tourist traffic. The industrial
action was due to commence on 22 June 1999.
On 14 June 1999, the UK government launched a new, non-statutory code of
practice to encourage employers to adopt policies designed to avoid age
discrimination in employment. The code - Age diversity in employment -
covers good practice in six areas of the employment "cycle", urging employers
June 1999 saw the conclusion of new national agreements for Italy's key
metalworking and food industries. The most innovative aspects of the deals
concern pay increases, the role of Rsu representative bodies in decentralised
bargaining, and the reduction and management of working time.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the overlaps between different parts of the public sector, especially with regard to social services. Firstly, the overlaps in terms of employment structures are analysed; secondly, the overlaps of all national sector-related organisations are assessed; and thirdly, the overlaps of the European social partner organisation are considered. The conclusions of this report should help decision-making regarding which ESSDC social services activities fit best in.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
While unemployment is still a challenge in Europe, some countries, sectors and occupations are experiencing labour shortages. This report explores various approaches to identifying labour shortages and maps national policy debates around the issue. It documents public and social partner interventions to tackle labour shortages, such as measures fostering geographic or occupational mobility, addressing skills shortages and underinvestment in skills, improving working and employment conditions, and better matching procedures.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.