Survey on equal opportunities among journalists
Female journalists in Greece face low rates of participation in the labour market, low pay, insecurity about the future, obstacles to professional development, fear of dismissal for gender-related reasons and an increase in incidents of sexual harassment. These are among the findings of a survey of journalists carried out in February 2002, focusing on equal opportunity issues in the profession.
From 29 January to 21 February 2002, V-PRC Ltd conducted a quantitative survey of a sample of 400 journalists, examining the way in which Greek journalists view their profession and the quality of information provided in Greece. The survey, which was carried out on behalf of the European Greek Women Journalists' Network, laid particular emphasis on investigating possible professional, economic or other discrimination against women in the journalism profession. Women make up 41.3% of Greek journalists, compared with 58.7% men.
The survey found that 13.4% of those surveyed whose main employment is with a specific employer are not on the company payroll. Furthermore, of those who are on the payroll (86.1% of the total number of people employed), 23.2% are not paid in accordance with the Journalists' Union of Athens Daily Newspapers collective agreement (GR0203101F) - 21.0% of men and 26.4% of women. Another 9.9% state that their pay is much lower than that set in the agreement - 7.3% of men and 13.5% of women. While 34.7% of employed respondents are categorised as low paid, having a personal monthly income of EUR 440 to EUR 880, the figure is 46.6% for women, compared with 26.3% for men. While 3.5% of respondents have a monthly income below EUR 440, this applies to 7.4% of women and only 0.9% of men. The pay situation for women journalists is even worse in rural areas.
Of employed respondents, 22.6% have no form of social insurance, with the proportion considerably higher (at 28.6%) among women than among men (18.8%). While 48.1% of all respondents say that they have 'little' to 'no' job security for the immediate future, this is true of 51.5% of women.
With regard to various other equal opportunities issues, about one in three women journalists (32.7%) are of the opinion that their gender has been and continues to be a disadvantage for their professional development. Furthermore, 36.2% state that they have been the victims of economic/job discrimination because they are women. A similar proportion (42.2% and 42.9% respectively) of men and women journalists believe that there is no equality of opportunity as regards professional advancement in their workplaces. This opinion is supported by the findings of the survey regarding the job positions held by journalists. Of all respondents, 4.6% hold positions in general management - 6.9% of men and 1.2% of women. Whereas the positions of head of editorial board and chief editor represent 2.8% and 8.6% of all jobs, the proportions of men in these positions is 3.9% and 9.9% respectively, but the proportions of women are only 1.2% and 6.7%.
Among women journalists, 14.1% state that dismissals of women due to pregnancy are a frequent phenomenon. Another 16% say that this happens, but only rarely. Some 32.5% of female respondents say that they have been victims of sexual harassment on the job. The figure is 29.1% for Athens and 36.4% for the rest of Greece. The women journalists evaluate such incidents as 'insulting behaviour' (84.9%) and as 'sexual assault' (15.1%). Some 46% of women journalists say that in their profession sexual harassment is a very frequent or somewhat frequent occurrence. Among journalists in Athens, this figure rises to 54.6%.
Finally, 80.3% of all journalists surveyed say they are a little or not at all satisfied by the way the media provide information on and report issues of violence within the family. Similarly, 81.5% say that they are not satisfied with the presentation of sexual harassment issues.