Impact of vocational training on the supply and demand of jobs

A report on the impact of vocational training on the supply and demand of labour in Romania was published in August 2012. The research revealed that 9% of Romanian workers have taken part in vocational training programmes over the past three years. Of these, 40% attended training/retraining courses, and 60% took post-graduate and refresher courses. The data also highlighted a mismatch between the number of people on some training courses and the number of vacant jobs in that sector.

About the survey

A report published by the National Trade Union Bloc (BNS) in August 2012 has examined the impact of vocational training and retraining on the supply and demand of labour in Romania.

The report, Impact of vocational training and retraining on the supply and demand of labour (in Romanian, 356.6Mb PDF), is based on an analysis of data collected for selective research in Romanian households, part of a project known as Office for the Monitoring of the Labour Market and Quality of Workplaces. The project is co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF) through the Sectoral Operational Programme for Human Resources Development.

A sample of people seen to be representative at a national level were questioned, and the survey consisted of a two-tier poll.

In the first stage, the sampling plan relied on the Multifunctional Sample of Territorial Zones (EMZOT) 2002, the master sample comprising 780 primary sampling units in Romania’s 41 counties and the six administrative sectors of Bucharest Municipality. EMZOT 2002 was developed from the March 2002 Population and Housing Census data, and will be periodically updated.

The second stage was the selection of 6,221 households from the stock of Romania’s Household Labour Force Survey (AMIGO), where at least one person in each household was aged between 20 and 59. There were 11,073 replies out of a possible total for these households of 12,068. The non-response rate was 8.25%. The results were then extrapolated based on coefficients assigned to those respondents aged 20–59.

The questions referred to the period between May 2009 and May 2012, and the aim was to assess the efficiency of vocational training programmes for adults.

Key findings

The analysis showed that 913,916 people had attended vocational training in the three-year period covered by the survey. Of these, 423,694 took training/retraining courses, and 490,222 signed up for post-graduate and refresher courses.

Of the total number of people employed in Romania aged 20–59, around 9% (775,143) had been involved in vocational training courses in the same three-year period.

Of all those who attended training/retraining courses, 73.3% were employed (310,462), 11% were unemployed, and 15.7% were classed as inactive.

Trainees and vacancies by sector

The figures revealed, as shown in Table 1, that the highest proportion of attendees taking training and retraining courses were from the manufacturing industry (22.4% of all participants), commerce (18%), agriculture, forestry and fishing (15%), and construction (12.8%). The sectors with the lowest figures were real estate (none), financial brokerage, and information and communications.

Table 1: Participants in training/retraining courses and vacant jobs, by sectors (%)

Sector

Trainees

Vacant jobs

Manufacturing industry

22.4

34.0

Commerce

18.0

8.0

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

15.0

2.0

Construction

12.8

5.0

Hotels and restaurants

6.6

2.0

Public administration

4.1

11.0

Administrative and support services

4.0

5.0

Education

3.1

2.0

Other branches of the national economy

3.0

0.0

Transport, storage

2.9

6.0

Health and social assistance

2.4

12.0

Mining industry

1.4

0.0

Water supply, sanitation, etc.

1.4

3.0

Highly specialised scientific and technical activities

1.3

2.0

Energy production and distribution

1.2

0.0

Showbusiness, culture and entertainment

0.5

1.0

Information and communications

0.5

3.0

Financial intermediations and insurance

0.2

3.0

Real estate transactions

0.0

0.0

Source: Impact of vocational training and retraining on the supply and demand of labour, BNS, Bucharest, August 2012.

Sectors in which vacancies outnumbered trainees were manufacturing (-11.6 percentage points), social services (-9.6) and public administration (-6.9).

Sectors where the number of trainees was higher than the share of all available jobs included agriculture (+13 percentage points), commerce (+10), construction (+7.8) and hotels and restaurants (+4.6).

Trainees and vacancies by occupation

Compared by occupation, there was also a mismatch between the percentages of participants on courses and the number of vacant jobs. There were more trainees than vacant jobs in the following categories (Table 2):

  • operative workers in services, trade and associated industries; Craft and related trades workers
  • artisans and craftspeople in machinery and installations maintenance and adjustment
  • farmers and skilled workers in agriculture, forestry and fishery.
Table 2: Distribution of trainees and vacant jobs by occupation (%)

Groups of occupations

Trainees

Vacant jobs

Operative workers in services, trade and associated industries

31.1

11.0

Artisans and craftspeople in machinery and installations maintenance and adjustment

35.1

31.0

Technicians, foremen and associated professionals

5.0

10.0

Civil servants

5.6

6.0

Specialists with intellectual and scientific occupations

4.6

22.0

Members of legislative body, executive, etc.

0.0

4.0

Farmers and skilled workers in agriculture, forestry and fishery

7.2

0.0

Unskilled labour

11.6

16.0

Source: Impact of vocational training and retraining on the supply and demand of labour, BNS, Bucharest, August 2012.

Specialists with intellectual and scientific occupations, technicians, foremen and associated professionals, as well as members of the legislative body, etc. were groups of occupations for which the percentage of trainees was lower than their proportion of vacant jobs.

Commentary

The analysis of the correlation between the percentage in the number of participants at training courses and the number of vacant jobs for various branches and occupations is useful for assessing the efficiency of the training programmes.

The data collected and processed could be of even higher value if they were correlated with figures illustrating the share of the trainees in total employment in each sector or in each main group of occupations. As the authors themselves point out, in financial intermediations, for example, although the share of the branch in the total number of trainees was only 6%, they in fact accounted for more than 40% of all employment in the sector.

Reference

Soviani, R., Simionescu, L., Voineagu, V., Duma, V., Jifcu, P., Sinigaglia, L., et al (2012), Impactul calificării și recalificării asupra cererii și ofertei de muncă (356.6Mb PDF) [Impact of vocational training and retraining on the supply and demand of labour], BNS, Bucharest.

Luminita Chivu, Institute of National Economy, Romanian Academy

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