Vocational training geared towards job-specific skills

A wide range of vocational training is being provided to Romanian companies according to a study carried out by the National Institute of Statistics. The findings from 2010 show that up to one quarter (24.1%) of Romanian companies provide continuous vocational training for their employees. The subjects offered on the courses are most likely to be job-specific. Communication training is widely offered along with courses on teamwork, as well as IT skills. The study reveals significant differences across economic sectors and by company size.

About the survey

Romania’s National Institute of Statistics (INS) has published the results of its survey, The Main Features of Vocational Training in Romanian Companies in 2010. The main purpose of the survey was to collect information on the continuous vocational training programmes provided by companies to their employees.

The survey covered all companies with 10 or more employees, irrespective of ownership or legal status. The data were collected between April and June 2010, using questionnaires which respondents filled in and returned to an online portal. The sample consisted of 9,426 companies and the survey was structured as a multi-layer poll by single random choice.

The survey contains information on the competencies and skills training employees were offered in 2010 through continuous vocational courses.

Main findings

In 2010, 24.1% of companies included in the survey provided continuous vocational training courses to their employees – that figure is down from 40.3% in 2005.

The proportion of companies that provided training courses, broken down by size, was:

• 19.7% of companies with 10 to 49 employees;

• 36% of companies with 50 to 249 employees;

• 63.8% of companies with 250 employees or more.

In the company sample taken for the purposes of the survey, 16% gave their employees continuous vocational training, the others provided other types of training.

The survey was able to rank the skills for which workers were given the opportunity to train. In first place was training specific to the worker’s current job, offered by 77.7% of the companies surveyed. Next was training related to communication – general and client-specific skills – with a share of 51.3% of the companies offering this type of training. Teamwork skills training was ranked third, being offered by 37.5% of companies.

Distribution by company size

The data collected for the survey indicate that larger companies offer a greater variety of skills training opportunities. For example, training for job-specific skills was provided by 74.6% of the companies with between 10 and 49 employees. This rose to 80.2% among companies with 50 to 249 employees, and to 85.9% of the companies with 250 employees or more (Table 1).

Table 1: Training offered through training courses in 2010
 

Overall

Number of employees

10–49

50–249

250 or more

Number of companies

7,401

4,256

2,218

927

Range of skills offered (%):

General and IT

31.3

24.5

36.0

51.0

Management

27.8

20.7

34.4

44.1

Teamwork

37.5

32.1

42.5

50.0

Communication

51.3

48.0

51.0

67.4

Job-specific skills

77.7

74.6

80.2

85.9

Foreign languages

11.0

7.8

10.2

27.8

Problem solving

33.9

30.0

35.6

48.0

Source: Main Features of Vocational Training in Romanian Companies in 2010, INS, Bucharest, 2012.

Training courses for general skills and vocational IT skills vary with the size of the company. In companies with 10 to 49 employees, their frequency rate is 24.5%, and in companies of 250 and more employees, the rate is 51%.

Training in larger companies by sector

The figures give an indication of the structure of the training courses offered by the companies with 250 employees or more (Table 2). Job-specific training was offered by 85.9% of larger firms, communication skills training by 67.4%, and general and IT skills by 51%.

Table 2: Types of training provided at companies with 250+ employees, by sector (%)
 

Skills

Job-specific

Comm

IT

Teamwork

Problem solving

Management

Total

85.9

67.4

51.0

50.3

48.0

44.1

Mining industry

94.4

61.1

22.2

55.6

33.3

66.7

Manufacturing industry

88.8

51.4

48.1

50.1

50.6

42.4

Car manufacture

91.7

60.4

62.5

72.9

77.1

68.8

Metallurgy

94.7

42.1

73.7

36.8

57.9

47.4

Coking coal manufacture and crude oil processing

100.0

0.0

66.6

100.0

0.0

100.0

Garment industry

80.6

29.0

16.2

38.7

32.3

38.7

Energy production and supply

97.8

89.1

89.2

52.2

50.0

58.7

Construction

89.2

21.6

40.6

36.5

32.4

36.5

Hotels and restaurants

78.6

71.4

0.0

28.7

28.6

35.7

Commerce

70.0

100.0

42.5

61.3

48.8

48.8

Source: Main Features of the Vocational Training in Romanian Companies in 2010, INS, Bucharest, 2012.

Note: Comm = Communications.

Job-specific training was given in all companies in the coking coal or processing crude oil sector companies which had a workforce of 250 or more. Figures showed job-specific training was provided in 97.8% of larger companies producing and supplying energy, and in 70% of larger commerce companies.

The figures also indicate how important communication skills are for all companies from commerce. In other economic sectors, companies pay less attention to this type of training – only 21.6% of construction companies and 29% of clothing manufacturers included in the survey said they offered this type of training course.

Training in information technology (IT) is important for companies in the energy production and supply sector. This is reflected by the figures which showed a large proportion of energy companies (89.2%) offering their employees the opportunity to acquire extra IT skills, compared to only 16.2% of companies in the garment manufacturing sector. There was no IT training in the hotels and restaurants sector.

Commentary

The INS survey demonstrates the broad range of skills provided by employers to their workers through training sessions in 2010. The surveyed companies trained their workers in skills needed on the job, to communicate better, to work in teams, to solve problems, and to operate a computer.

The variations from sector to sector derive from the specifics of their different technologies, the intensity of labour, the type of work organisation, and the interactions at the workplace.

Reference

INS (2014), The Main Features of Vocational Training in Romanian Companies in 2010, Bucharest.

Luminita Chivu, Institute of National Economy, Romanian Academy

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