This report delivers the findings of research into the use of direct and indirect employee participation in decision-making in European establishments. Indirect employee participation is the involvement of employee representatives in decision-making processes, while direct employee participation describes direct interaction between employers and employees. Building on the overview report for Eurofound’s Third European Company Survey (ECS), this report analyses the survey data with a special focus on how direct and indirect employee participation are related to each other and to national-level industrial relations characteristics. Also examined are the effects of direct and indirect employee participation practices on establishment-level outcomes – which practices of employee participation are beneficial both for the establishment and the employees in ‘win–win’ arrangements. Read more in the report - see Related content.