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  • Article
    27 April 1997

    The law on social welfare, adopted in November 1995, included provisions on a
    range of matters, such as: the submission of the social security budget to
    parliamentary vote; the setting up of a new tax known as "social security
    deficit clearance" (Remboursement de la dette sociale); the abolition of
    pension funds relating to specific sectors, which sparked off the rail strike
    in November and December 1995 and was finally withdrawn; and the setting up
    of personal health record books. One of the provisions related to the
    reduction of health expenditure and a reorganisation of the healthcare
    system. Two types of redistribution in particular were provided for:

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    The German chemical industry enjoys a long tradition of successful
    consensus-based industrial relations. In spring 1996, the bargaining partners
    concluded a "solidarity pact" in the form of a package of regional and
    national collective agreements. The agreements ran for 12 months and covered
    590,000 employees in western Germany. The aim of the deal was to meet the
    challenges of globalisation and structural change, as well as to extend the
    competences of the social partners at enterprise and company level. The
    implementation of the two most important elements of the solidarity pact -
    the employment alliance and the collective agreement on part-time work for
    older workers - has recently been reviewed.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    The Standing Committee for Social Dialogue (the Economic and Social Council's
    tripartite committee) has approved new rules relating to family credits in

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    HK, the largest affiliated trade union of the Danish Confederation of Trade
    Unions (LO), with 357,000 members, has launched a two-month image and
    recruitment campaign. DKK 4 million will be spent on newspaper advertisements
    and bill boards, which will be followed up by local initiatives. The campaign
    will aim to improve recruitment and visibility, initiate debates on
    objectives, and explain the utility value of being a member.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    An arbitration award delivered on 11 April 1997 has decided that blue-collar
    employees who are members of trade unions affiliated to the largest union
    confederation, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) will face a
    reduction in sick pay entitlement.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    The annual report of the Labour Inspectorate (Arbeitsinspektion) for 1995,
    has now become available to the public after debate in parliament. The
    Arbeitsinspektion's activities are regulated by the 1993 Labour Inspection
    Act (Arbeitsinspektionsgesetz, ArbIG). This stipulates that the Labour
    Inspectorate has to contribute through its activities to an effective
    protection of employees, and especially has to watch over compliance with
    protective legal regulations and to inform and support employers and
    employees accordingly. The Labour Inspectorate has free access to all places
    of employment as well as housing and accommodation and welfare institutions.
    Exceptions are places of employment covered by other organisations - as in
    agriculture and forestry, mining, areas of the transport sector and public
    education - as well as religious buildings, private households, and offices
    of the territorial administration.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    From 1979, the economic policy of successive Conservative Governments was
    based on a fundamental belief in the effectiveness of free markets. In the
    case of the labour market, there was an emphasis on deregulation and the
    importance of flexibility in creating employment and economic growth. The
    Conservatives claimed that the UK's lack of regulation has reduced
    unemployment, while the rest of Europe's higher social costs, greater
    regulation and the adoption of the "social chapter" (the social policy
    Protocol and Agreement attached to the Maastricht Treaty on European Union)
    has caused unemployment and a lack of competitiveness. This prompted the
    "opt-out" from the social chapter and a continuous resistance to other forms
    European Union-level regulation - over working time, for instance.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) has published more information
    about the activities to be launched as part of its "European Day of Action
    for Employment", to take place all across the EU as well as in some Central
    and Eastern European countries on 28 May 1997.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    The next step in the Renault Vilvoorde saga (BE9703202F [1]) was probably not
    initially foreseen by Renault senior management in Paris. Indeed, although
    the Renault managing director, Louis Schweitzer, has already announced that
    the tribunal decision to annul the closure of the Renault plant in Vilvoorde
    will in no way interfere with the plans to close the plant, it has slightly
    changed the dynamics and the timetable of the course of events.


  • Article
    27 April 1997

    "Territorial pacts" (patti territoriali) are an interesting and innovative
    form of social dialogue that could change the Italian experience of "social
    concertation", with important consequences. By developing the idea of these
    pacts, the consultative National Council for Economic Affairs and Labour
    (CNEL [1]), which had not previously played an important role in this field,
    could assume a key position in social dialogue, particularly in the
    preparation of agreements for the economic development of crisis-hit areas in
    Southern Italy.



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications