Employment and working conditions of migrant workers — Czech Republic

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Employment and labour markets,
  • Published on: 30 May 2007



About
Country:
Czechia
Author:
Milada Horáková
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

The share of migrants within ekonomic active population in the Czech Republic has been growing continuoustly since 1990.The most frequent nationalities in Czech labour market are Slovak, Ukrainians, Vietnamese and Polish. Basically there are two main groups of migrant workers with different legal conditions. First group consist of the EU/EEA/EFTA citizens who profit from free movement and who have mostly the status of employees. Second group create so called “third country nationals" whose position on labour marker is considerably worse. They are more often selfemployed without employyes compared to first mentioned group.

This Report intends to investigate the employment and working conditions of migrant workers, that is of persons who migrate from one country to another for any reasons and work as employees or self-employed in the country of destination. Clearly, migrants workers include both EU citizens and non-EU citizens moving from their country of origin to one of the countries covered by this study. In other words, you should consider both migration across EU member states, Bulgaria, Romania and Norway and (im)migration from outside this area. The general objective is to compare the employment and working conditions of non-nationals and nationals

Please stick as much as possible to the definition above. However, if this definition does not reflect an interest or the debate on migrants’ working conditions in your country, consider whether using a narrower (eg only non-EU citizens) or broader definition (eg also migrants who acquired your country’s nationality and “second generations”) would provide insights on the employment and working conditions of migrants workers or on the closely related issue of workplace discriminations based on ethnicity. In the latter case, you should report data and information on these narrower or broader groups, stating clearly the definition of migrants you are using and providing indications on how the employment and working conditions of such groups can approximate those of migrants workers as defined above.

This study aims to analyse quality of work and employment of migrants in the European Union, Bulgaria, Romania and Norway. In particular, it will cover:

  • The distribution of migrant workers, by gender, across sectors and occupations, with a view to identify possible concentrations and their reasons, such as skill shortages filled by migrants (like in healthcare), or difficulties in filling positions in some jobs with lower skilled roles.

  • The contractual relations of migrants

  • An assessment of working conditions of migrants.

  • Entry job positions, training and career opportunities.

Answers to this questionnaires should refer to data sources other than those already integrated in Eurostat data sets. Of course, this information will be included in the final report, but the authors will access these data sets directly, with a view to concentrate your efforts on less accessible sources. In practice, you should not refer to Population and Labour Force statistics provided by your national statistical service, as long as they are already included in the Eurostat data sets. This means that questions 2.1, 2.3 and 2.4 should be answered only if sources other that those already integrated in the Eurostat data sets are available and significant.

Before responding to this questionnaire, you may want to check at the following Eurostat web pages the presence and scope of your country’s data which are already available:

Population and social conditions, under:

  • Population and International migration and asylum;

  • Labour market.

General and regional statistics, under:

  • Regions and Migration statistics.

As a consequence, your answers should refer to any specific research or studies carried out by public or private bodies, selecting the most authoritative and relevant ones in terms of significance and/or coverage. Please, consider both quantitative and qualitative studies in order to cover the different issues addressed by the questionnaire. Qualitative data may replace or complement quantitative data. You will list such sources in Section 1. We are looking for national information on migrants’ working conditions based on validated sources. You will provide this information under Section 2. Please, keep into account that the questionnaire is quite open and leaves ample space for specific national input, with a view to provide a picture as complete as possible of the employment and working conditions of migrants workers and of the national debates on such issue in the countries covered by the present study. Section 3 gives room to illustrate national contexts and provide further information and comments on sources and on the presence/lack of data.

Of course, any information or analyses carried out by national statistical offices on Population or Labour Force data-sets which integrate or complement standard data should be covered (for instance, ad-hoc analyses on the labour market conditions of migrants workers recently released by a national statistical office should be included).

Please provide clear and complete references of data sources.

1. Sources of information on migrant workers

  1. Are there studies or analyses in your country which cover the employment and working conditions of migrant workers? If so, please specify for each of these sources:

  2. (RILSA, VUPSV) publish regularly “Bulletin of International Labour migration in the Czech Republic” with six month periodicity and every year a regular report on international labour migration development in connection of labour market development in the CR is elaborated, both publish on website www.vupsv.cz.

  3. of foreigners in the Czech Republic” - Survey of a representative sample of foreigners (N=923) from selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries holding a work permit who are employed in the Czech Republic for more than one year. The research was realized in a second half of 2001.

Empirical reports “The illegal employment of foreigners on the Czech labour market” were elaborated and concerned on working conditions of labour migrants. The report was published in 1997 for ILO.

The RILSA prepared study “Undeclared Labour in the Construction Industry” for The European Federation of Building and Woodworkers and The European Institute for Construction Labour Research in 2006 see http://www.clr-news.org/CLR-Studies/Czech Republic 03-OK.pdf .

The type:

  1. specific chapters in general working conditions’ surveys;

No regular monitoring of general working condition nor special chapter within Labour Force Survey concerns of migrant working conditions exist.

  1. ad-hoc surveys on migrants’ working conditions;

Sociological surveys on immigrants working conditions are rather limited till now, but exists.

  1. case studies - ie studies of specific situations, such as on certain nationalities, local areas and the like - on migrants’ working conditions.

Case studies on migrants’ working conditions concerned on Ukrainians and Vietnamese mostly. Case studies about certain ethnic or national group were carried out by Ethnologic Institute of the Academy of sciences of CR (EUAV) and concerned on integration of Ukrainians, Vietnamese, Russians, Afro and Afro Americans, Chinese, Albanians, Greeks, Yugoslavians, Bulgarians; integration studies include economic activities of ethnic minorities living in the Czech republic.

  1. other relevant reports on migrants’ working conditions which have been regularly or recently published.

A regular monitoring of temporary labour migrant position in the Czech labour market is carried out by Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs, Employment Service Administration (MPSV SSZ) by ISCO and NACE. Regularly statistical evidences of migrant workers are available.

  1. the authors of such studies or analyses (national statistical office - only if distinct from regular surveys which are included in Eurostat data sets, like Labour Force Surveys -, labour inspectorates, bodies responsible for health and safety at the workplace, social security bodies, other public bodies, employers, trade unions and NGOs, universities or research institutes);

Research Institute for Labour and Social Affairs (RILSA) ; Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Natural Science, Department of Demography and Social Geography (PřFUK); Ethnologic Institute of Academy of Sciences (EUAV), Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences of the CR (SOU), Institute for Reproduction and Integration of Society, Faculty of Social Sciences University of T.G. Masaryk in Brno (IVRIS MU), Mining University in Ostrava (VSB), Czech Statistical Office (CZSO), Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs - Employment Service Administration (MPSV SSZ) collects data on migrant workers by NUTS 1, NUTS 2, NUTS 3, NUTS 4. MPSV SSZ is a co-ordinator of interdepartmental commission on illegal employment of foreigners. Different participants are conjugate in commission as labour inspectorates, representatives of labour offices, ministry of interior-foreigner police, trades, academics, statistic office, RILSA, etc.). Ministry of Interior of the CR is responsible for migration policy as whole and for Schengen information system.

  1. the definition of migrant worker they use. Are migrant workers who acquired citizenship or “second generations” included in such definition?;

  2. general definition of a migrant worker is used in the CR. Definition of an immigrant used by Czech Statistical Office is: “a person who stays in the CR territory over one year”. Migrant workers who acquired citizenship, holding permanent residence permit, or “second generations” of migrant workers are not investigated separately by the Czech Statistical Office within Labour Force Survey. They are included in population as a whole; temporary migrant workers are monitored regularly by MPSV SSZ. Immigrants holding citizenship and second generation of immigrants are investigated mostly in Ethnologic institute EUAV as ethnic minorities. RILSA, IVRIS, SOU will do it next year within project on integration of immigrants within labour market.

  3. at which level these studies are carried out (national, sector, regional, other);

The studies are carried out mostly on national or regional level, rarely sector analysis are carried out. An analysis of illegal employment of foreigners in building industry was elaborated by RILSA in 2006, see above.

  1. present briefly the methodology and structure of such studies or analyses, including the scope and focus of the questions on migrant workers.

The methodology of the above mentioned study are the statistical analysis, sociological surveys using standardized questionnaires, expert interviews, focus group, snowball method, comparative analysis, and analysis of documents. Scope is about 50-100 pages. The aim of this studies is the describe migrant workers (employees and entrepreneurs) in their structure according sectors, professions, type of contract, salaries, working and living conditions, and their comparison with Czech population. Target groups of mentioned studies were foreigners from Central and Eastern Europe working over 1 year in the Czech Republic. Ukrainians working in the Czech Republic was investigated several times. Some overviews are prepared by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of Interior. The Czech Statistical Office regularly from this data publishes the yearbook “Foreigners in the Czech Republic”. These publication cover most important areas of foreigners life in the CR as: demographic aspects of the foreigners life, asylum and asylum facilities, economic activities of foreigners, education of foreigners, crime of foreigners, health care of foreigners, and illegal migration across the state border of the CR.

  1. If available, please provide links to relevant websites. www.vupsv.cz, www.natur.cuni.cz , www.czso.cz, www.mpsv.cz, www.cizinci.cz www.mvcr.cz

2. Information on migrant workers

Please present the results of the above mentioned studies and analyses. The questions below provide indications on the aspects we would like you to cover in your answers, if relevant and significant information are available. If the variables used in your sources do not match precisely the ones indicated below, use those available, providing a brief description if needed.

Questions 2.1, 2.3 and 2.4 should be answered only if sources other that those already integrated in the Eurostat data sets are available and significant (see the introductory section for the Eurostat web pages which should be consulted).

In each case, state clearly the source and, if available, provide relevant links.

Moreover, indicate whether data include illegal migration and, whenever possible, distinguish between legal and illegal migrants.

2.1 Migrant population (including recent trends in the 2000-2005 period)

  1. Total number (by gender, age, nationality, education level).

  2. 280 111 (source ; Ministry of the Interior of the CR)of foreigners; males 166 886 (59,6%), females 113 225 (40, 4%) as at 31 December 2005; 62% of foreigner population is between 20-44 years; thereof 29% is in age 25-34 years. Females are younger. Data on education of foreign population are not available. Only data on selected qualified foreign labour are available. Foreigners by nationality: total 173 different national citizenship resident permit holders were identified at 31 December of 2005. Most frequent are: Ukrainians (88 thousands), Slovakia (49 thousands), Vietnam (37 thousands), Polish (18 thousands) (see table 5). Number of Slovak and Polish citizens holding residence permits is under-estimated, because there is no obligation for EU/EEA/EFTA citizens to be registered by foreigner and border police. Recent trends: continual increase of foreign population, and an increase of females. Policy of attracting and settlement of qualified labour.

  3. results of empirical research titled “Employment of Foreigners in the Czech Republic” from 2001, conducted by RILSA (sample of 923 immigrants from central and eastern Europe resident in the Czech Republic for more than 1 year), show that a relatively small proportion (16%) of respondents had only elementary education. Almost half the respondents had apprenticeship (46%); more than a quarter (26%) had completed secondary education with school-leaving certificate; and 12% of respondents had completed university education. The level of education and qualification attained by foreigners employed in the Czech Republic slightly exceeded the education level of the Czech population; compared to the education of unemployed people it was higher, but it was lower than the level of education attained by those in employment in the Czech economy. More than half the respondents (53.3%) were qualified in a technical field (technical sciences, manufacturing, construction). Other fields of education were less represented 7% was qualified in services, 5% of respondents had studied teacher training; 4% humanities and arts; 4% agricultural sciences; 3% social sciences, business and law; and just under 3% healthcare and social services. Just 2% of respondents had universal education and not vocational. Compared to the education of the Czech population, the respondents displayed a higher proportion of people educated in technical fields, manufacturing and construction, which was in line with the Czech labour market’s requirements, with a shortage of technical specialists, in particular in construction and machine engineering.

  4. As a percentage of total population (by gender, age, nationality, education level). Foreigners holding residence permits make up 2,7% of the CR population, males 3,4%, females 2,2%. CR population: males 49%, foreigners 60%; CR population females 51%, foreigners 40%. Age structure of foreigners is different, significant over-represented age cohorts are: 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49.

T a b l e 1 :Age structure of the CR population and age structure of foreigners
Age cohort CR population Foreigners holding residence permits Males the CR population Population of foreigners- males Females the CR population Population of foreigners- females
0 0.95 0.37 1.01 0.33 0.90 0.42
1-4 3.60 1.99 3.80 1.72 3.41 2.38
5-9 4.44 2.85 4.67 2.45 4.22 3.43
10-14 5.94 3.60 6.26 3.13 5.64 4.30
15-19 6.43 4.47 6.75 3.80 6.13 5.47
20-24 6.93 10.13 7.28 9.38 6.61 11.22
25-29 8.72 14.24 9.11 13.66 8.35 15.10
30-34 8.02 14.58 8.40 14.77 7.66 14.30
35-39 6.69 12.45 7.00 13.62 6.40 10.73
40-44 6.55 11.09 6.83 12.43 6.29 9.11
45-49 6.89 9.03 7.08 10.08 6.71 7.49
50-54 7.66 6.63 7.75 6.63 7.57 6.63
55-59 7.43 3.88 7.37 3.91 7.48 3.85
60-64 5.69 1.78 5.48 1.80 5.90 1.76
65-69 4.06 1.14 3.69 1.00 4.40 1.34
70-74 3.83 0.72 3.25 0.61 4.39 0.89
75-79 3.13 0.51 2.38 0.37 3.84 0.71
80-84 2.10 0.36 1.38 0.22 2.79 0.56
85-89 0.57 0.18 0.33 0.09 0.80 0.32
90-94 0.30   0.15   0.44  
95 0.05   0.02   0.07  
T a b l e 2 Population of foreigners in 2000-2005 as at 31 December
Year Foreigners holding permanent residence permits in the CR Foreigners holding long-term, temporary and visa for residence over 90 days Stateless Total foreigners holding residence permits Number of inhabitants of the CR* Proportion of foreigners holding long-term, temporary and visa over 90 days of inhabitants of the CR in % Proportion of total foreigners holding residence permits of inhabitants of the CR in %
2000 66 891 134 060 - 200 951 10 266 546 1.31 1.96
2001 69 816 140 978 - 210 794 10 269 726 1.37 2.05
2002 75 249 156 359 - 231 608 10 182 471 1.54 2.27
2003 80 844 159 577 - 240 421 10 211 455 1.56 2.35
2004 99 467 154 827 - 254 294 10 215 575 1.52 2.49
2005 110 598 167 714 - 278 312 10 251 100 1.64 2.71

Source: DABP-MI (Directorate of Alien and Border Police; Ministry of the Interior of the), in NTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, Bulletin No. 17, .M Horáková, September 2006

* Statistical yearbook of the Czech Republic, population as at June 30 2006

Note: Foreigners from the EU/EEA/EFTA have temporary or permanent residence permits; other foreigners (from third countries) have visas over 90 days (residence up to one year), long-term residence (over one year) and permanent residence

T a b l e 3 Education level of participants in the pilot project "Active selection of qualified foreign workers" as at 31 December 2005
Education level Secondary vocational without A - Levels examination (matriculation) Secondary general with GCE A-Levels examinations Secondary vocational with GCE A-Levels examinations Higher vocational Bachelorship degree University degree Doctorate degree Total
total 14 28 107 15 28 128 20 340
per cent 4.12 8.24 31.47 4.41 8.24 37.65 5.88 100,00

Source: Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (MLSA) in: INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, Bulletin No. 16, M. Horáková, March 2006

T a b l e 4 Foreigners by sex and age as at 31 December 2005
foreigners by sex and age males per cent of age group females per cent of age group total per cent of age group
0 550 0.33 480 0.42 1 030 0.37
1-4 2 871 1.72 2 694 2.38 5 565 1.99
5-9 4 097 2.45 3 879 3.43 7 976 2.85
10-14 5 217 3.13 4 864 4.30 10 081 3.60
15-19 6 342 3.80 6 192 5.47 12 534 4.47
20-24 15 660 9.38 12 707 11.22 28 367 10.13
25-29 22 789 13.66 17 097 15.10 39 886 14.24
30-34 24 644 14.77 16 193 14.30 40 837 14.58
35-39 22 738 13.62 12 147 10.73 34 885 12.45
40-44 20 745 12.43 10 313 9.11 31 058 11.09
45-49 16 823 10.08 8 478 7.49 25 301 9.03
50-54 11 069 6.63 7 510 6.63 18 579 6.63
55-59 6 518 3.91 4 362 3.85 10 880 3.88
60-64 2 996 1.80 1 989 1.76 4 985 1.78
65-69 1 669 1.00 1 513 1.34 3 182 1.14
70-74 1 019 0.61 1 005 0.89 2 024 0.72
75-79 622 0.37 808 0.71 1 430 0.51
80-84 363 0.22 637 0.56 1 000 0.36
85 154 0.09 357 0.32 511 0.18
total 166 886 100.00 113 225 100.00 280 111 100.00

Source: Directorate of Alien and Border Police; Ministry of the Interior of the CR in Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2006, CZSO

T a b l e 5 Foreigners holding permits by state citizenship as at 31 December 2005
state citizenship Permanent residence permits per cent of permanent residence permit holders Long-term, temporary and visa for residence over 90 days per cent of long-term residence permit holders Total residence permits per cent of total residence permit holders
total CR 110 598 100 167 714 100 278 312 100.00
Ukraine 15 334 13.86 72 455 43.2 87 789 31.54
Slovakia 20 227 18.29 29 218 17.42 49 445 17.77
Vietnam 23 235 21.01 13 597 8.11 36 832 13.23
Poland 11 384 10.29 6 426 3.83 17 810 6.40
Russian Federation 6 008 5.43 10 261 6.12 16 269 5.85
Germany 3 957 3.58 3 230 1.93 7 187 2.58
Moldova 678 0.61 3 996 2.38 4 674 1.68
Bulgaria 2 337 2.11 2 214 1.32 4 551 1.64
United States 2 051 1.85 1 901 1.13 3 952 1.42
China 1 470 1.33 2 103 1.25 3 573 1.28
Serbia and Montenegro* 2 306 2.09 1 253 0.75 3 559 1.28
Belarus 951 0.86 2 069 1.23 3 020 1.09
Romania 1 962 1.77 739 0.44 2 701 0.97
Mongolia 309 0.28 2 126 1.27 2 435 0.87
Austria 1 161 1.05 1 207 0.72 2 368 0.85
Kazakstan 1 313 1.19 934 0.56 2 247 0.81
United Kingdom 986 0.89 1 248 0.74 2 234 0.80
Croatia 1 524 1.38 616 0.37 2 140 0.77
Italy 1 079 0.98 682 0.41 1 761 0.63
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 349 1.22 335 0.2 1 684 0.61
France 603 0.55 948 0.57 1 551 0.56
Armenia 906 0.82 362 0.22 1 268 0.46
Netherlands 489 0.44 771 0.46 1 260 0.45
Japan 105 0.09 1 130 0.67 1 235 0.44
Macedonia 561 0.51 654 0.39 1 215 0.44
Greece 752 0.68 53 0.03 805 0.29
Turkey 229 0.21 406 0.24 635 0.23
Israel 183 0.17 431 0.26 614 0.22
Canada 310 0.28 280 0.17 590 0.21
India 153 0.14 388 0.23 541 0.19
Hungary 386 0.35 126 0.08 512 0.18
total selected nationals 104 298 94.31 162159 96.70 266 457 95.74

Source: Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (MLSA) in: INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, Bulletin No. 16, Milada Horáková Assistant Ivana Macounová, March 2006

2.2 Illegal immigration (including recent trends in the 2000-2005 period)

1. Please provide all data/estimates available concerning:

  1. Total number.

  2. migration across the state borders in 2005 was 5 689 persons total, thereof 4 745 of foreigners; 2 033 foreigners were detected as illegally respective irregularly employed in 2005. (Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2006, CZSO)

  3. Nationality.

  4. frequents state citizenship of illegal migrants (across state borders) in 2005: Russian federation (3725), China (1009), Ukraine (878), Georgia (564), Poland (553), Germany (456), Moldova (294), Vietnam (237), Bulgaria (162), Romania (152), India (149), Mongolia (121), Slovakia (106), Turkey (91), Belarus (63). Most frequently irregularly employed foreigners were: Slovaks, Ukrainians, Moldavians, Russians, Bulgarians, Romanians, Chinese, Macedonians, Vietnamese, Taiwanese; in 2005 (Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2006, CZSO)

  5. Distribution by sectors.

Illegal work is spread especially in building industry, manufacturing, gardening, restaurants, small businesses; females are as illegally employed in house keeping, cleaning, services (prostitution).

  1. Distribution by occupations.

Occupations of illegal workers: mostly unskilled work such as: unskilled building workers, cleaners, dish washers, packers, sawmill workers, woodcutters, warehouse workers. source: evaluation of labour offices controls in 2004

  1. Please briefly illustrate the methodology used to collect/generate such data/estimates.

  2. of Foreigner and Border Police ministry of the interior. Controls of labour offices, customs offices, foreigner and border police, financial offices collected by Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs Employment Service Administration according Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2006, CZSO.

Recent trends: Number of detected cases of illegal migration across the state borders decreases continually since 2000. Illegal employment copy legal one, e.g. an increase is probable as controls indicate.

There are the forms of illegal/irregular economic activities of immigrants which were detected by research carried out by the Research Institute for Labour and Social Affairs and Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Natural Science in 1998, 2005, 2006:

- Foreigners working in the Czech Republic illegally (without work permits, with a valid or lapsed tourist visa) for employers, predominantly small construction companies,

- Foreigners working illegally (without work permits or residence permits) for a company which is one of many subcontractors for a large company. The subcontractor company only has workers, and no means of production. In such a company, some foreigners are usually working legally, and some illegally.

- Foreigners working illegally (without work permits or residence permits) for a licensed employment agency (Temporary Agency Work) that has authorisation to lend its own employees pursuant to the Employment Act; it usually does so for large companies. As in the preceding example, some foreigners are working legally, and some illegally.

- Undeclared work by foreigners also takes the form of “quasi-business” relationships. The establishing and operation of business activities by foreigners is governed by two laws – the Trade Law for small enterprise and the Commercial Code for business entities. Of those laws, the Trade Law is most frequently abused by foreigners. The Commercial Code is used to an far lesser extent than the Trade Law to legalise residence, or for quasi-business. An explanation can be sought in the fact that establishing a corporation under the Commercial Code is much more costly, as business entities and cooperatives, with the exception of general commercial partnerships, must deposit an amount in the region of tens of thousands of crowns. In view of the relatively liberal nature of the Trade Law, which for unregulated trades does not impose any special restrictions on enterprise, foreigners do not ask employment offices to issue work permits, but operate as entrepreneurs in “quasi-business” relationships (so-called „Švarc“ system).

2.3 Migrant active population (including recent trends in the 2000-2005 period)

Migrant economic active population consists of employment of foreigners with status of employees (work permit holders, third country nationals of which work permit is not required and EU/EEA/EFTA citizens recorded by labour offices) and employment of foreigners with status of registered entrepreneurs. Both consist of total employment of foreigners.

  1. Total number (by gender, age, nationality, education level).

  2. number of employed in 31 December 2005 was 218 982 (Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of the CR); there of: males 154 128, females 64 854; education level migrant active population is not available; most numerous age cohort of migrant workers was 25-39 years.

  3. As a percentage of active population (by gender, age, nationality, education level).

  4. employment of foreigners consists of 4,04% of total labour force in national economy. Foreigner employed males consist of 2, 8% of total of labour force, foreigner female consist of 1, 2 % of total labour force according LFS.

  5. Employed (by gender, age, nationality, education level).

  6. consists of 29, 62% of total employment of foreigners; age se table 5, most frequent nationalities in the CR labour market are Slovak (84 thousands), Ukrainians (61 thousands), Vietnamese (23 thousands) and Polish (14 thousands) nationals.

  7. As a percentage of total employment (by gender, age, nationality, education level).

  8. of total employment, 3,2% of males’ employment and 1,4 % of females’ employment according LFS.

  9. Specific rates of: participation, employment, unemployment (by gender, age, nationality, education level).

  10. on specific rates by employment, unemployment, gender, age, nationality, education are not available. Most numerous age cohorts of foreigner workers are 25-39 years and 40-54 years, both males and females; males are over-represented in age cohort 40-54 years, females are more represented in age cohort 20-24 years. Active foreigners are more represented in youngest employed population (less than 19 years) and in age cohort 20-29 years. Employed foreigner population is younger than employed population in general.

  11. Do the abovementioned indicators vary significantly according with the nationality of migrant workers (for instance, a certain nationality is significantly more or less represented in active population or unemployment? If such variations exist, which are the reasons put forward to explain them?

Data on specific employment rate or unemployment rate of migrant workers by gender, age, nationality and education are not available. As at December 2005: Slovak citizens made up 78% of total EU citizens employment and 50% of total foreigners in position of employees; reasons of Slovak over-employment in the CR are both historical and cultural proximity and less favorable economic development of Slovakia than Czechia. Same reasons concern of Polish citizens, who make up 13% of total employment of EU citizens and 8% of foreigners in position of employees. Between third country nationals especially Ukrainians are over-represented. A reason lies in Ukrainian economic development especially, a historical or cultural proximity is also important. A part of Ukraine was a part of former first Czechoslovak republic between WWII.

Year Valid work permits of foreigners Information on foreigners from third countries** in the position of employee Registration/ information on Slovak citizens in position of employee Information on foreigners from the EU/EEA/EFTA (without SR) in the position of employee Foreigners holding trade licenses Total employment of foreigners in the CR Labour force in the CR* Proportion of foreigners in the total labour force of the CR in %
2000 40 080 - 63 567 - 61 340 164 987 5 210 973 3.17
2001 40 097 - 63 555 - 64 000 167 652 5 192 006 3.23
2002 44 621 - 56 558 - 60 532 161 711 5 245 663 3.08
2003 47 704 - 58 034 - 62 293 168 031 5 263 144 3.19
2004 34 397 747 59 818 13 022 65 219 173 203 5 242 782 3.30
2005 55 210 2 659 75 297 18 570 67 246 218 982 5 419 285 4.04

Source: INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, Bulletin No. 17, M. Horáková, September 2006

T a b l e 7 Percentage of migrant employment by age as at 31 December 2005
age employed foreigners share of age category in % employed in national economy share of age category in % the CR population share of age category in % portion of foreigners on employed population portion of foreigners on population 15 in %
-19 4 161 1.90 32 626 0.68 654 762 7.51 12.75 0.64
20-24 33 090 15.11 338 355 7.10 702 236 8.06 9.78 4.71
25-39 103 697 47.35 1 896 993 39.82 2 404 584 27.59 5.47 4.31
40-54 67 570 30.86 1 835 273 38.52 2 147 883 24.64 3.68 3.15
55-59 7 524 3.44 474 956 9.97 770 967 8.85 1.58 0.98
60-64 1 954 0.89 131 707 2.76 589 993 6.77 1.48 0.33
65 986 0.45 54 105 1.14 1 445 565 16.59 1.82 0.07
total 218 982 100.00 4 764 016 100.00 8 715 990 100.00 4.60 2.51

Source: MLSA, MPO in Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2006, CZSO , RILSA data by LFS on employment of population, calculations M. Horáková RILSA

T a b l e 8 Migrant active population by sex and age as at 31 December 2005
employed foreigners* by sex and age males per cent of males age category females per cent of females age category total per cent of total age category
-19 2 445 1.59 1 716 2.65 4 161 1.90
20-24 20 310 13.18 12 780 19.71 33 090 15.11
25-39 72 895 47.30 30 802 47.49 103 697 47.35
40-54 50 437 32.72 17 133 26.42 67 570 30.86
55-59 5 865 3.81 1 659 2.56 7 524 3.44
60-64 1 490 0.97 464 0.72 1 954 0.89
65 686 0.45 300 0.46 986 0.45
total 154 128 100.00 64 854 100.00 218 982 100.00

Source: MLSA, MPO in Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2006, CZSO , calculations Milada Horáková RILSA

T a b l e 9 Foreigners by economic activity an age
type of economic activity /age -19 20-24 25-39 40-54 55-59 60-64 65 total
foreigners in position of employees 3 760 29 284 69 957 42 026 5 111 1 144 454 151 736
trade license holders 401 3 806 33 740 25 544 2 413 810 532 67 246
total employment of foreigners 4 161 33 090 103 697 67 570 7 524 1 954 986 218 982
per cent of total employment of foreigners 1.90 15.11 47.35 30.86 3.44 0.89 0.45 100.00

Source: MLSA in Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2006, CZSO

T a b l e 10 Foreigners registered at labour offices by sex and age as at 31 December 2005
foreigners registered at labour offices by sex and age males % females % total %
-19 2 216 2.09 1 544 3.39 3 760 2.48
20-24 17 882 16.83 11 402 25.05 29 284 19.30
25-39 49 408 46.51 20 549 45.15 69 957 46.10
40-54 31 467 29.62 10 559 23.20 42 026 27.70
55-59 4 080 3.84 1 031 2.27 5 111 3.37
60-64 871 0.82 273 0.60 1 144 0.75
65 302 0.28 152 0.33 454 0.30
total 106 226 100.00 45 510 100.00 151 736 100.00

Source: MLSA in Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2006, CZSO

T a b l e 11 Foreigners holding valid trade licenses by sex and age as at 31 December 2006
foreigners holding trade license males % females % total %
-19 229 0,48 172 0,89 401 0,60
20-24 2 428 5,07 1 378 7,12 3 806 5,66
25-39 23 487 49,03 10 253 53,00 33 740 50,17
40-54 18 970 39,60 6 574 33,98 25 544 37,99
55-59 1 785 3,73 628 3,25 2 413 3,59
60-64 619 1,29 191 0,99 810 1,20
65 384 0,80 148 0,77 532 0,79
total 47 902 100,00 19 344 100,00 67 246 100,00

Source: Source: MPO in Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2006, CZSO

T a b l e 12 Employment of foreigners by state citizenship as at 31 December 2005
Strate citizenship Valid work permits of foreigners Information on foreigners from the EU/EEA/EFTA and foreigners from third countries in labour offices Foreigners holding trade licenses Total employment of foreigners Portion in per cent of particular state citizenship in total
Total foreigners 55 210 96 526 67 246 218 982 100.00
Slovakia 0 75 297 8 719 84 016 38.37
Ukraine 38 926 1 134 21 135 61 195 27.95
Vietnam 187 69 22 620 22 876 10.45
Poland 0 12 635 1 294 13 929 6.36
Russian Federation 2 200 247 1 482 3 929 1.79
Moldova 2 646 64 604 3 314 1.51
Germany 0 1 743 1 164 2 907 1.33
Bulgaria 1 624 108 1 091 2 823 1.29
Mongolia 1 780 20 213 2 013 0.92
United States 1 114 81 627 1 822 0.83
United Kingdom 0 1 119 579 1 698 0.78
Serbia and Montenegro 329 38 1 124 1 491 0.68
Belarus 906 62 394 1 362 0.62
Romania 652 277 217 1 146 0.52
China 891 44 165 1 100 0.50

Source: Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (MLSA) in: INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, Bulletin No. 16, Milada Horáková Assistant Ivana Macounová, March 2006

2.4 The distribution of migrant workers across sectors and occupations (including recent trends in the 2000-2005 period)

  1. Are migrant workers over- or under-represented in specific sectors or occupations? If so, specify which sectors and occupations. Please distinguish whenever relevant or possible between men and women. Sectors:

Migrant workers are over-represented in construction, manufacturing, mining and quarrying and real estate, renting and business activities sectors. They are under-represented in sectors: health and social work, education, transport, storage and communications, public administration and defense; compulsory social security. Occupations: Migrant workers are over-represented especially in class 9 (elementary occupations), in class 7 ISCO (craft workers), class 8 (machine operators). They are under-represented in calls 1 (managers), class 2 (professionals), class 3 (technicians), class 4 (clerks), class 5 service workers.

  1. What are the possible reasons of such over- or under-representation? Are specific skill shortages filled by migrants? Are there specific policies devised to attract migrant workers in certain sectors or occupations? Please distinguish whenever relevant or possible between men and women.

Deficit of employees with specific skills exist in CR since 1990. There is in construction, mining, machine industry. Reasons are mostly work conditions in mentioned sectors, especially wages level and insufficient interest of young people to be educated in named branches. Specific government policies attract migrant workers into qualified professions. Vacancies in construction, machine industry and manufacturing are filled by private initiatives or licensed agentives. Foreigners holding residence permit cannot be employed in public administration. Employment in education sector is limited by language barrier. Females from third countries occupy often less qualified jobs as cleaners dish washing, etc.

  1. Does the presence in the different sectors or occupations vary significantly according with the nationality of the migrant workers (for instance, a certain nationality is significantly more or less represented in cleaning, health, or in managerial position or in elementary occupations? If such variations exist, which are the reasons put forward to explain them?

There are significant differences in position in employment between certain national of EU/EEA/EFTA respective OECD countries and foreigners from third countries. EU/ETA/EFTA/OECD nationals occupied significantly more qualified jobs than third countries nationals. Reasons are know-how and special skills of EU/ETA/EFTA/OECD. Slovak citizens work often in health sector.

T a b l e 13 Employment of foreigners by ISCO classification as at 31 December 2005
IS CO Classification Employed foreigners Employed in national economy
Abs. % In thousands %
Class 1 Managers 4 659 3.07 301.1 6.27
Class 2 Professionals 10 614 7.00 519.2 10.81
Class 3 Technicians 11 339 7.47 1065.5 22.18
Class 4 Clerks 4 141 2.73 340.0 7.08
Class 5 Services workers 7 216 4.76 574.8 11.97
Class 6 Agricultural workers 2 905 1.91 73.4 1.53
Class 7 Craft workers 48 048 31.67 889.5 18.52
Class 8 Machine operators 24 402 16.08 671.9 13.99
Class 9 Elementary occupations 38 376 25.29 351.5 7.32
Class 0 Armed forces 36 0.02 15.1 0.31
Unknown   0.00 1.7 0.04
 Total 151 736 100.00 4803.7 100.00

Source: MLSA, LFS IV.Q.2005

T a b l e 14 Foreigners by sectors of national economy NACE as at 31 December 2005
  Sector NACE Employment in thousands Share in % Employees in thousands Share in % Foreigner employees (abs. fig.) Share in %
A Agriculture, hunting 144.5 3.0 117.4 2.9 4 311 2.8
B Forestry and fishing 39.3 0.8 30.1 0.7 7 0.0
C Mining and quarrying 52.2 1.1 50.7 1.3 4 119 2.7
D Manufacturing 1 319.1 27.5 1 222.7 30.3 54 039 35.6
E Electricity, gas and water supply 73.5 1.5 69.9 1.7 292 0.2
F Construction 457.5 9.5 293.1 7.3 35 263 23.2
G Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles, personal and household goods 612.1 12.7 462.6  11.5 13 401 8.8
H Hotels and restaurants 181.1 3.8 144.5 3.6 3 194 2.1
I Transport, storage and communications 356.8 7.4 310.9 7.7 4 286 2.8
J Financial intermediation 98.2 2.0 77.6 1.9 795 0.5
K Real estate, renting and business activities 304.1 6.3 198.8 4.9 20 506 13.5
L Public administration and defense; compulsory social security 339.7 7.1 319.8 7.9 151 0.1
M Education 306.4 6.4 296.4 7.4 2 416 1.6
N Health and social work 322.7 6.7 294.7 7.3 4 305 2.8
O Other community social and personal service activities 189.8 3.9 135.3 3.4 4 512 3.0
P Household activities 4.3 0.1 3.5 0.1 26 0.0
Q Exterritorial organizations . . . . 113 0.1
  unrecognized 1.7 0.0   0.0 .  
  Czech Republic Total 4 803.7 100.0 4 029.6 100.0 151 736 100.0

Source: MLSA, LFS IV.Q.2005

2.5 The contractual relations of migrants (including recent trends in the 2000-2005 period)

  1. Extent of undeclared employment (men, women). As a reference, please provide the same indicators for nationals.

Estimates of undeclared labour vary from 30 thousands up to 200 thousands according different experts.

T a b l e 15 Results of Delphi method form 2004-2005 (30 experts was interviewed)
Probable number of foreign illegal labour (stocks) In %
Less than 39999
40 000 – 99 999
100 000 – 149 999
150 000 – 199 999
More than 200,000

Source: Dušan Drbohlav Lenka Lochmanová, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science Department of Social Geography and Regional Development. drbohlav@natur.cuni.cz

T a b l e 6 Most important source countries of illegal employment (in terms of the probable amount of „their“ illegal workers in the Czech Republic)
Citizenship of illegal workers Rank of countires (Delphi I, n=24) New rank (Delphi I II, n=24, n=12)
Ukraine 1 1
Vietnam 2 3
Moldova 3 4
Russia 4 2
Belarussia 5 5
Slovakia 6-7 6-7
Other former USSR countries 6-7 6-7
Romania 8-9 9
Bulgaria 8-9 8
China 10 10
Former Yugoslavia 11 11
Poland 12 12
Albania 13 13
USA 14 14
Canada 15 15

Source: Dušan Drbohlav Lenka Lochmanová, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science Department of Social Geography and Regional Development. drbohlav@natur.cuni.cz

Total 2 033 foreigners were detected during controls of Labour Offices, Custom offices and Foerigner and Border Police as illegally respective irregularly employed in 2005. Between undeclared workers were significantly over represented males; Undeclared females were detected mostly in elementary occupations (cleaning, dish washing, public works in a parks); undeclared males are mostly unskilled workers in building industry, bus cleaners, property protection workers, sawmill workers, packaging workers. By state citizenship: Slovaks, Ukrainians, Moldavians, Russians, Bulgarians, Romanians, Chinese, Macedonians, Vietnamese, Taiwanese; in 2005. Job positions of illegal employees were mostly unskilled work such as: unskilled building workers, cleaners, dish washers, packers, sawmill workers, woodcutters, warehouse workers. Source: evaluation of labour offices controls in 2004. Illegal employment of foreigners copies legal/regular employment of foreigners (number and distribution by areas, regions and districts including nationalities); most numerous, both legally and illegally, employed are Slovak and Ukrainian citizens (in absolute figures); relatively most frequent illegally employed are Thai-van citizens, Vietnamese; however, number of employed in this group is small. Most of them are economically active as trades;

  1. Employment status: self-employed with employees, self-employed without employees, employee (men, women). As a reference, please provide the same indicators for nationals.

Migrant workers are mostly in position of employees, or self-employed (trades) without employees. Illegal work is spread especially in building industry, manufacturing, gardening, restaurants, small businesses or trades; Source: evaluation of labour offices controls in 2004.

  1. Type of contract: open-ended, fixed-term, temporary agency work (men, women). As a reference, please provide the same indicators for nationals.

Types of contracts are different; mostly fixed term temporary contracts or temporary agency work. Open contract exists also.

  1. Duration of contracts in case of temporary employment (average) (men, women). As a reference, please provide the same indicators for nationals.

Duration contracts of third countries nationals is mostly 12 month, than a contract could be prolonged. Nationals are contracted for longer period. Migrant workers are mostly in position of employees, or self-employed without employees.

  1. Retention: employment with the same employer after 12 months (men, women). As a reference, please provide the same indicators for nationals.

Employment of third country nationals holding work permits both men and women depends on labour market situation.

  1. Working hours: full-time, part-time, (men, women). As a reference, please provide the same indicators for nationals.

Full time mostly, over full-time in case of undeclared workers.

  1. Diffusion of “second jobs” (men, women) and the professional status in the further job(s) (men, women). Second jobs is diffused as undeclared jobs mostly

  2. Do the abovementioned dimensions vary significantly according with the nationality of the migrant workers (for instance, a certain nationality is significantly more or less represented in undeclared, work, self-employment, temporary employment and so on? If such variations exist, which are the reasons put forward to explain them?

Employment of third country nationals holding work permits both men and women depends on labour market situation.

T a b l e 17 Comparison of legal and illegal (according controls of illegal employment) employment of foreigners
state citizenship as at 31.12.2005 as at 31.12.2004 as at 31.12.2003
legally employed illegally employed share of illegal employed in per cent legally employed illegally employed share of illegal employed in per cent legally employed illegally employed share of illegal employed in per cent
Slovakia 75 297 123 0.16 59 818 397 0.66 58 053 1081 1.86
Ukraine 40 060 1 452 3.62 22 399 898 4.01 22 489 1098 4.88
Poland 12 635   0.00 8 882   0.00 7 403 49 0.66
Moldova 2 710 86 3.17 1 483 41 2.76 1 509 41 2.72
Mongolia 1 800   0.00 1 585 28 1.77 1 388   0.00
Russia 2 447 35 1.43 1 078 102 9.46 867 18 2.08
Germany 1 743   0.00 1 303   0.00 1 412 28 1.98
Bulgaria 1 732 98 5.66 1 651 19 1.15 1 792   0.00
USA 1 195   0.00 1 160   0.00 1 408   0.00
Romania 929 54 5.81 590 11 1.86 689   0.00
Byelorussia 968   0.00 815   0.00 967 41 4.24
Chine 935 27 2.89 322 8 2.48 267   0.00
Austria 474   0.00 390   0.00 502 7 1.39
Macedonia 423 13 3.07 405   0.00 406   0.00
Lithuania 353   0.00 142   0.00 40   0.00
Vietnam 256 109 42.58 183 40 21.86 237 18 7.59
Thai-wan 38 36 94.74 17   0.00 19   0.00
unrecognized, stateless 5     7 73 1042.86 1 33 3300.00

Source: MLSA , calculations M. Horáková, RILSA

2.6 Working conditions of migrants (including recent trends in the 2000-2005 period)

Please distinguish per nationality whenever relevant.

  1. Wage levels, compared with national workers;

Wages of foreigner workers vary according to sectors, professions and region of origin. Third country nationals are engaged on less paid jobs. Low paid jobs are often unattractive for national labor. 10-20 000 CZK/month, 40-60 CZK per hour (350-600 EURO) was investigated last year between illegal workers.

  1. The incidence of low-paid jobs (that is, according to the OECD definition, jobs which pay less than two-third of the median wage), compared with national workers.

Recent exact information on wages level is not available. Qualitative research show similar level of wages.

  1. Working hours, compared with national workers: n.a.- average hours usually worked per week, including overtime;- average hours of overtime work per week;- diffusion of long working hours (more than 10 hours a day);- diffusion of work at unsocial hours (night, weekend);- diffusion of work on shifts;- for migrant workers having more than one job, average hours worked per week in such further jobs.

  2. Exposure to risks and accidents at work: cases of risk work exist especially between illegal’s. - work accident rates for migrant workers and, as a reference, for nationals; exact statistics are not available- sectors and occupations where risks of accidents for migrant workers are higher; construction- working conditions (vibration, noise, high/low temperatures etc.) in the three sectors where migrant workers are mostly present in your country. Construction, machine industry, transport

  3. Health outcomes, work-related health problems and occupational illnesses: construction and mining workers are in risk of occupational illnesses often.- Occupational illness rates for migrant workers and, as a reference, for nationals; exact statistics are not available but unattractive and risky work is often refused by nationals.- sectors and occupations where risks of work-related health problems for migrant workers are higher. Building industry, mining, transport.

  4. Existence of information on risks, health and safety at the workplace in the national language of the migrants.If such information is present: legal conditions of work safety are spared by obligatory trainingi) what is the basis of this presence (law, collective bargaining, firm policy, other);ii) is it present in every sector or workplace? If no, please specify in which sectors and/or workplaces it is present; yes except illegals.iii) are there any specific initiatives, including training, on health and safety at the workplace devised specifically for migrant workers? If yes, please specify the initiators and content of such initiatives and whether they are implemented using the language of the migrant workers. n.a.

  5. Individual disputes at the workplace which involve migrant workers and, as a reference, nationals. n.a.

According to the “Employment of Foreigners in the Czech Republic” study by RILSA, 2001, almost a quarter of respondents (23%) believed that the work they do in the Czech Republic jeopardises their health. 15% of respondents, which is a relatively high proportion, is unable to judge this aspect; the majority (62%) is not convinced that their job in the Czech Republic could threaten their health. Nevertheless, the relative proportion of respondents answering in the affirmative is high.

Most respondents (81%) underwent a health examination before starting their job in the Czech Republic; the remaining 19% did not.

The majority of respondents (82%) has health insurance; 4% does not; and a relatively high proportion (13%) does not know whether they are insured or not. That means they are not sure if their employer pays health insurance into the state for them.

Almost half of the respondents (48%) had visited a doctor in the Czech Republic during their employment because of illness or injury. More than one third (34%) had received sickness insurance benefit during their illness in the Czech Republic; 66% had not received any.

2.7 Level of education and occupational position: over-qualification and under-qualification (including recent trends in the 2000-2005 period)

Please distinguish per nationality whenever relevant.

  1. The present job position of migrant workers appears to be adequate to their level of education? With reference to this aspect, what is the condition of nationals?

According to the “Employment of Foreigners in the Czech Republic” survey conducted by RILSA in 2001, more than half the respondents worked in the Czech Republic in professions that required apprenticeship; more than one-third worked in professions requiring no special qualifications and only elementary education (88% in total). Just under 7% work in professions requiring complete secondary education and 5% in professions requiring university education.

Table 18 Respondents’ education level required for their job in the Czech Republic compared to respondents’ highest attained education
education required educationabsolute incidence required education relative incidence highest education attained relative incidence
elementary 322 34.9 15.5
apprentice 489 53.0 46.0
secondary complete 59 6.4 26.3
university 43 4.7 11.9
not ascertained 10 1.1 0.2
total 923 100.0 100.0

Source: Employment of Foreigners in the Czech Republic, RILSA, 2001

Respondents often work in professions in the Czech Republic that require a lower education level than they attained. The difference between the required and attained education level is shown by the following breakdown of the incidence of respondents’ answers. The values in the table express relative incidence (percentage).

Table 19 Required and respondents’ completed education
. required education for job migrants’ highest education attained
  elementary apprentice secondary complete university
elementary 36.0 35.4 22.4 6.2
apprentice 4.9 61.4 25.9 7.8
secondary complete 3.4 10.2 69.5 16.9
university 0.0 0.0 2.3 97.7
total 15.6 46.0 26.3 12.1

Source: Employment of Foreigners in the Czech Republic, RILSA, 2001

Only 36% of those who attained only elementary education work in professions requiring elementary education in the Czech Republic; 35% of respondents in professions requiring elementary education were apprenticed, 22% had complete secondary education and 6% even had university education. The disproportions in this group are the biggest: respondents have a higher level of education than they need for the profession.

61% of apprentice work in professions requiring apprentice; but 26% of those working in professions requiring apprentice have complete secondary education and 8% university education. 5% of respondents have a lower level of education (elementary) than required.

70% of jobs requiring complete secondary education are held by respondents with the required education; 17% of the jobs are held by university-educated workers. 13% of respondents have a lower level of education (10% are apprentice; 3% have elementary education) than required.

The fewest discrepancies are found in professions requiring university education. 98% of these workers did indeed have the required education, but 2% (complete secondary education) did not.

Table 20 Field in which respondents work in the Czech Republic today compared to the field in which they last worked before coming to the Czech Republic
field in the CR, absolute incidence in the CR, relative incidence last field worked in before arrival in CR, relative incidence
Manufacturing 319 34.6 20.5
Construction 244 26.4 18.1
Agriculture 55 6.0 6.6
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles 63 6.8 8.3
Mining and quarryng 88 9.5 8.5
Electricity, gas and water supply 9 1.0 2.8
Forestry and fishing 9 1.0 1.7
Hotels and restaurant 16 1.7 3.7
Transport, storage and communications 14 1.5 4.7
Financial intermediation 2 0.2 0.7
Real estate, renting and business activities 5 0.5 0.5
Education 14 1.5 6.1
Health and social work 17 1.8 3.1
Other community social and personal service activities 27 2.9 2.6
Household activities 1 0.1 0
Exterritorial organizations 3 0.3 0.3
Unrecognised 37 4.0 3.3
Unemployment - - 7.3
Total 923 100.0 100.0

Source: Employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic, RILSA, 2001

2.8 Participation in training and possibilities for competence development (including recent trends in the 2000-2005 period)

Please distinguish per nationality whenever relevant.

  1. What is the rate of participation to training during working time of migrant workers (average over the last 12 months) and, as a reference, of nationals?

EU/REEA/EFTA nationals, azylants and permanent residence permit holders can use services of labour office and participate on training and re-qualification.

  1. Is the access to other possibilities of competence development (such as apprenticeship) of migrant workers equivalent to that of nationals?

Yes it is for EU/REEA/EFTA nationals, azylants and permanent residence permit holders. Temporary employed cannot participate on competence development mostly.

2.9 Career development (including recent trends in the 2000-2005 period)

Please distinguish per nationality whenever relevant.

  1. Entry occupations and the pace of career development (compared with those of nationals).

  2. labour migrant career development is very limited mostly in case of third countries nationals. For EU/EEA/EFTA is same as nationals career development.

  3. Do migrant workers have access to career advancements on an equal basis with nationals?

  4. Formally yes.

  5. Are there data/information on discrimination in careers between migrants and nationals? If yes, please provide a brief summary of the evidence.

  6. are very limited till nowdays.

The majority of respondents (90%) surveyed in the Employment of Foreigners in the Czech Republic research conducted in 2001 by RILSA did not answer questions concerning discrimination by employers, evidently because they were in some way anxious about sharing their experiences. 1% of those who did reply stated that they had encountered the disadvantaging of women; just under 1% had encountered a case of sexual harassment; 1% age discrimination; and just under 1% felt discriminated against in consequence of their religion and 0.3% in consequence of their health.

A question scrutinising discrimination by fellow workers was answered by the vast majority of respondents (99%); a relatively large proportion (15%) claimed to have encountered some form of discrimination by fellow workers.

The majority of respondents (85%) did not reply to detailed questions about the actual form this discrimination by co-workers took. Those that answered said most frequently that they felt discriminated against because of their nationality (11%), less frequently because of ethnic origin (2%); just under 2% had encountered physical violence in the workplace; more than 2% felt sexually discriminated against; more than 1% had encountered cases of sexual harassment; just under 2% had encountered age discrimination; and less than one percent (0.4%) discrimination on health grounds.

16% of respondents answered in the affirmative to a projective question whether they thought there was discrimination in their workplace. As far as the actual cases of discrimination the foreigners had encountered in the workplace are concerned, 12% of respondents mentioned the employee’s nationality as the reason, 5% the ethnic origin; just under 2% claimed to have encountered cases of physical violence. A relatively high percentage (6.5%) said that they had encountered the intimidation in the workplace; just under 4% had encountered disadvantaging on grounds of gender; just under 2% sexual harassment; 4% age discrimination; just under 2% discrimination on health grounds; and 2.5% on religious grounds.

2.10 Union representation and collective bargaining (including recent trends in the 2000-2005 period)

Union representation of migrant workers in not systematically monitored and is rare, as same as their participation on collective bargaining. Migrant workers have a right to be organised in trade unions. Mostly they do not it.

Please distinguish per nationality whenever relevant.

  1. Do migrant workers concentrate in non-union workplaces or in less-than-average unionised sectors? If yes, please provide some details. Not always, low skilled jobs in agriculture, building industry, manufacturing, cleaning etc., but exact information is missing.

  2. Do migrant workers concentrate in workplaces or sectors where collective bargaining coverage is lower than average? If yes, please provide some details. Probably yes.

  3. Union membership and presence among trade union representatives of migrant workers. N.a.

2.11 Any other information on employment and working conditions of migrant workers which is relevant for your country. Please distinguish per nationality if relevant.

Migrant workers are structured population. Between them they are high qualified professionals as same as manual less qualified labour. Two main groups with different legal conditions are EU/EEA/EFTA citizens who profit from free movement and so called “third country nationals”; between them are OECD nationals as representatives of economically developed world and others who are mainly from Eastern Europe and Asia. Third country nationals need mostly work permit which is issued according to labour market situation. Their proportion decreases, today they make up only a quarter of total employment of foreigners in the CR. Working conditions of migrant workers are different, as same as their position in employment and their access to occupations. They need often help of both formal and informal labour agencies (so called clients) that are able to find a job in the CR due to their social capitals and contacts. That brings into work conditions and relationship some factors that are difficult to control. Some of them have features of corruption. Illegal employment of foreigners is based on high unsatisfied demand in country of origin (push factors). They are two different groups of migrant workers in the CR labour market: eastern Europeans from former European part of Soviet Union and more visible Asians, Africans, Americans. Both groups are employed both legally and illegally. Asians significantly operate as small trades. Others nationalities are in position of employees. Ukrainians who are second most important group of labour migrants in the CR use small trade as a gate of entry into the CR labour market. They are also asylum seekers (today less numerous groups) who use asylum procedure as a gate of entry into the CR labour market. Illegal migrant workers are much metamorphosed.

Milada Horakova,VUPSV

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