The recent financial crisis has brought to light the serious challenges that the European financial services sector is facing. This report reviews the economic trends in the banking and insurance industries and the debate on the regulation of financial markets. It looks in detail at the business models that are applied as a response to the crisis. Finally, it develops scenarios for the potential adaptation process of the European financial services sector. The research was conducted by means of case studies of a range of companies in the sector, an online survey and interviews with experts from companies, social partners, research institutions and public authorities.