Sector-level bargaining and possibilities for deviations at company level: Italy
Italian industrial relations are characterised by a low degree of ‘legal institutionalisation’. Legislation and the state have a limited role in the regulation of collective bargaining, conflict and union representation. In fact, it is possible to say that there is almost a complete abstention of the law. However, the Protocol of 23 July 1993, a tripartite agreement, represents a kind of ‘constitutional charter for industrial relations’, ‘the basic agreement’ that formed the basis for subsequent accords. An overview report is available.