Employment and Industrial Relations in the Hotels and Restaurants

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  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Collective bargaining,
  • Health and well-being at work,
  • Migration and mobility,
  • Skills and training,
  • Industrial relations,
  • Published on: 23 April 2012



About
Country:
France
Author:
Hélène Tissandier
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

196 000 businesses (4.2% of commercial services). More than 900,000 working people (excluding seasonal) 705,000 employees, 200,000 self-employed, almost 300,000 seasonal jobs in summer (FAFIH Report 2010, published June 16, 2011). The employment figures are very good in 2011 in the area since 13,900 jobs were created in the first quarter of 2011. This success is attributed to the reduction in VAT since the 1st July 2009. In counterpart for this reduction, the social partners have negotiated on the rise in minimum wages. In addition, and to improve the sector's image, many campaigns have been directed at young people. The organization in charge of vocational training (OPCA FAFIH) is also very active as the sector has a shortage of (skilled and unskilled) labour. Concerning professional representation, a new employer's organisation has seen his representativeness recognized - it represents especially large groups.

1. Key developments and trends in the Hotels and Restaurants: trends, employment and working conditions

1.1 Please provide information on key trends in Hotels and Restaurants

A brief description of any significant shifts within the last four years affecting the Hotels and Restaurants sector, for example:

  • The impact of the crisis on the sector

The economic crisis has strong repercussions on employment in France in 2009: the French economy lost 257,000 jobs and the unemployment rate rose of 1.9%. Young people, traditionally exposed to economic downturns, are particularly affected. Senior workers too, with an unusual extent. In early 2011, an improvement has emerged on the labour market: employment started to rise again and the unemployment rate fell.

In the HORECA sector, the decline in purchasing power and the uncertainties on the future have led consumers to heavily cut spending in hotels, cafes and restaurants. For hotels, the various standards used (fire, grading, handicapped access) are a problem to companies who do not have the cash necessary to complete the work. A slight recovery of activity seems to be visible.Those informations come from the CPIH, employers’ organization.

  • Main drivers of change

The VAT reduction has nevertheless given some oxygen to the sector. After seven years of negotiations with the European Commission, France finally got the introduction to the area of ​​a reduced VAT rate (5.5%, excluding alcoholic beverages) from 1st July, 2009. In return, Christine Lagarde, Minister of Economy, Industry and Employment, and Hervé Novelli, Secretary of State for Trade, Crafts, Small and medium enterprises, tourism and services have asked the companies to engage in a "future contract", signed April 28, 2009.

Through this contract, the reduction in VAT should benefit all actors in the world of catering:

  • To consumers, through the impact of lower VAT on prices;
  • For employees, with the creation of 40,000 jobs in two years and improving the situation of employees;
  • for Restaurateurs themselves through increasing their capacity for investments to support the modernization effort of restoration.

The government ensures compliance with commitments. Each semester, the monitoring committee (composed of the signatories of the contract and qualified individuals) makes public the indicators included in the "contract for the future" (prices cuts, job creation, improvement of the situation of employees and modernization of the sector).

  • If there are specific developments affecting the following subsectors in terms of economic activity and employment, please add the information according to the following classification:
  • Hotels and other short stay accommodations
  • Restaurants, bars and cafes

According to the government, since July 2009, the HORECA sector is the main sector for employment growth: while the commercial sector, as a whole, suffers (-0.4% jobs in nine months), the sector is growing (+ 2.4% or 21,700 additional jobs between July 1 2009 and March 31, 2010). The impact of the VAT reduction is even clearer insofar as employment growth takes place in a difficult economic environment for tourism activities and recreation.

According to the investigation "needs manpower 2010", published April 13 by Pôle Emploi, hotels and restaurants should have been the most important recruiter in 2010. 14% of recruitment projects at national level concerned the sector HORECA. Among the 15 most wanted jobs in 2010, four belong to the sector HORECA.

Under the same survey for 2011 ( “Labour requirement survey”, BMO, published in April, 2011), many of the most sought-after professions are in the HORECA sector: catering professions (cooks, waiting staff) for which there are major difficulties in terms of recruitment and where the vacancies to be filled are mainly seasonal, hotel-industry employees, catering apprentices for which requirements are mainly seasonal too.

  • Catering and canteens

1.2. Please provide information on the views of the major social partner organisations (trade unions and employer organisations) on trends and changes in the Hotels and Restaurants sector.

The UMIH (Union des Métiers et des Industries de l’Hôtellerie), the GNC (Groupement National des Chaînes) et the CPIH (Confédération des Professionnels de l’Hôtellerie) were received at the parliament onTuesday, April 12.

Interviewed as part of the Committee on Economic Affairs, UMIH, CNG and CPIH reminded the MP PS Pascale Got and the MP UMP Jean-Louis Léonard their commitments regarding the implementation of the law of development and modernization of tourist services for the hospitality industry:

- Maintaining the maturity of the new hotel classification at July 20, 2012

- Alignment of the date of the standards of safety and accessibility to 2015, taking care not to confuse them for economic reasons.

- Alignment of regulatory safety and accessibility for all tourist accommodation merchants (the cottages as the "sleeping areas"): "We want the same rights and duties for all. Will it take a major incident for this regulation to make it applicable everywhere? "asked the spokesman for the UMIH.

1.3 Please provide the absolute number and shares of employment for the following indicators for the NACE code I (Accommodation and food service activities) in 2010 (if not available the most recent year with data available)

  • Share of employment of the HORECA sector as compared to the national economy

According to the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE), the employment in France represented 26 006 800 persons in 2009 (most recent datas): 23 616 300 employees and 2 390 500 self employed. The HORECA sector represented (in 2009) 3,5% of the whole employment.

  • Total employment in the sector and percentage of employees, employers, self employed and family workers

In 2010, the INSEE estimates the number of employees to 937,000 in HORECA. According to the FAFIH, in 2008, there were 230,000 self employed (nearly 40% of establishments do not have employees).

  • Number and share of temporary employees

In 2010, number of temporary employees in France: 3,420,600(Eurostat). In the HORECA sector, there are a lot of seasonal workers: 157,000 for 2010 (Eurostat) or 4,6% .

  • Number and share of workers in part time employment

According to Eurostat, share of workers in part time employment is 24,4% of the whole part time employment.

  • Number and share of female workers in employment : 47% (in 2009) (FAFIH)
  • Number and share of foreign workers in employment : no data

1.4 With regard to the following employment and working conditions, could you provide relevant information on the main issues and developments since 2006

The aim is to provide a general picture of the key issues with regard employment and working conditions in the Hotels and Restaurants sector in your country

Undeclared work

Undeclared work is still important in the sector even though it tends to decrease because of the increase of controls. It is mainly linked to the employment of illegal workers, and the urgency of some hiring (eg extras), when services such as Pôlemploi (job center) may not have qualified staff to propose, or available immediately. In 2008, illegal workers were estimated to 40 000 (CFDT data). 16% of illegal workers work in the HORECA sector (Survey).

In 2010, the government intensifies the fight against illegal work with new sanctions: the prefects can now initiate an administrative closure against companies that repeatedly employ illegal workers.

A study by the "Obervatoire National de la Délinquance" (National Observatory of Crime (OND)) was released in late December 2009. This survey relies on data from the Labour Branch (DGT), which collects records of illegal work prepared by the police, gendarmerie, customs and taxes - 1871 controls in the HORECA sector were carried out in 2008 and 3023 convictions for illegal working were made.

Youth employment and conditions for young people in the sector

The HORECA sector remains an area of integration for young people : the proportion of people under 25 years is twice that of all sectors of the economy. With the exception of the most skilled, young workers easily obtain a first job in the sector. There are however variations depending on the degree of training and the specialty chosen. The choice of learning as a way of training seems to be the best: the former apprentices have better access to jobs with better conditions (more permanent and full time jobs), whereas the wage advantage is not significant. The access of young people for jobs in industry may at first seem satisfactory, but fairly quickly (as early as three years) a fundamental change is noticed: the young tend to leave the sector for other activities. Moreover, two thirds of young workers (beginners) hired in hotels and restaurants are among young people not trained in the sector. Thus, the employment in the "employee" category (the most numerous), is powered by a pool of young, graduates or not, with a wide range of specialties. (FAFIH, study 2010)

Seasonal work and working hours

The “Observatoire des Métiers” initiated a survey in 2010, with data collected in 2007. In 2007, 1 611 600 seasonal contracts were concluded, especially for men (51%), and young workers. There are both part-time and full-time workers. The share of part-time work is 42%. The duration of the employment is shorter in the winter (24 days) than in the summer (42 days).

Qualifications and Skills development

Health and safety

Others

The sector is committed until 2015 on 20 000 recruitments and 5000 apprenticeship contracts per year. The professional organizations have signed Thursday, April 28th, an amendment to the "contract for the future" they had concluded exactly two years ago with the government. To extend the reduction of VAT, the professionals have made new commitments: they undertake to establish, under the terms of the endorsement, on average at least 20,000 new jobs each year during the execution of this contract", until July 2015. On the other hand, they agree to "strengthen the dynamic of alternation" and to meet the objectives of the President of the Republic of alternating reach 800 000 by 2015 (including 600 000 apprentices, against 420,000 today). The amendment stipulates that those creations of complementary capabilities depend on the objectives contracts and resources that are currently being negotiated between the government and the Regions'. In these circumstances, the signatories undertake to increase by an average of at least 5000 per year the number of beneficiaries of contracts of apprenticeship or professional training contracts, primarily for youth under 26 years and for job seekers over 45 years during the implementation period of this contract .

2. Industrial relations structures in the sector

2.1 Please provide details on the structure of trade union representation in the hotels and restaurants sector.

  • The name of each relevant trade union active at national level in the sector and their overall number of members within the sector.
  • Total number of members of trade unions in the sector, the membership share (%) among the employees in the sector (e.g. 20% of employees in the sectors are members of trade unions), which occupations and which employees – according to company size – are typically covered.

There are few data on membership available. The rate of union membership is notoriously lowThere are 5 representative trade unions in the sector:

2.2 Please provide information on the structure of employer organisations in the hotels and restaurants sector.

  • The name of each relevant employer organisation active in the sector at national level, overall number of members in terms of companies and number of employees working in member companies.
  • The total number of companies members of employers organisations in the sector (if available), the membership share (%) among all the companies, excluded companies with no employees and the self employed (e.g. 30% of companies in the sector are members of employers organisations) and breakdown by company size: micro companies 1-9 employees, small size companies 10-49 employees, medium size companies 50-249 and more than 250 employees, excluded companies with no employees and the self employed (e.g. 20% of companies between 1 and 9 employees are members of employers organisations in the country)
  • Are self-employees in the sector organised? If so, please develop on the key aspects (nature, coverage, role in collective bargaining).

Very few data are available. There are 5 representative employers organisations :

  • SYNHORCAT (Syndicat National des Hôteliers Restaurateurs Cafetiers) : 10 000 members, 100 000 employees
  • CPIH (Confédération des Professionnels Indépendants de l’Hôtellerie) : 20 000 members
  • UMIH (Union des Métiers et des Industries de l’Hôtellerie) : 80 000 members
  • FAGIHT (Fédération Autonome Générale de l’Industrie Hôtelière Touristique) 
  • SNRTC (Syndicat national de la restauration thématique et commerciale) : 1513 members, 35000 employees. Recognized as a representative organisation since october, 2010.

Self-employed are organised in the sector. They are represented by the CPIH, the UMIH and the FAGIHT (for seasonal employers). As they are representative, they can participate in collective bargaining.

2.3 Please provide information on the structure of collective bargaining in the hotels and restaurants sector.

  • At what level are collective agreements in the hotels and restaurants sector concluded (company and/or sectoral level)?

Both company and sectoral level

  • At national level, which trade unions and employers organisations are involved in the negotiations of collective agreements?

All trade unions and employers organisations listed above

  • Estimate the coverage rate of collective bargaining in terms of a) companies and b) employees.

Because of the practice of extending sectoral agreements, the coverage rate is almost 100%.

  • Is there a practice of extending sectoral agreements to employers who are not affiliated to the signatory employer associations?

Yes. In France, this practice is pervasive.

2.4 Is there a forum for social dialogue dealing with matters of the Hotels and Restaurants sector? (Bi-partite and/or tripartite social dialogue at national or regional level?). What are the aims of these bodies? Specify which unions and/or employers organisations are involved.

  • - FAFIH OPCA (Fonds national d'Assurance Formation de l'Industrie Hôtelière) : joint body responsible for managing vocational training schemes collecting fees and for vocational training. The FAFIH is a joint body run together and represented in equal numbers by professional organizations of employers and trade unions.
    • Trade unions: Syndicat national CFTC Commerce, Services et Force de Vente, Fédération des services CFDT, Fédération Générale des Travailleurs de l’Agriculture, de l’alimentation, des tabacs et des activités annexes Force Ouvrière (FGTA/FO), Fédération nationale de l’Hôtellerie-Restauration, Sport, Loisirs et casino (INOVA-CFE/CGC), Fédération CGT Commerce, Distribution, Services
    • Employers organisations: Union des Métiers de l’Industrie Hôtelière (UMIH), Groupement National des Chaînes Hôtelières (GNC), Confédération des Professionnels Indépendants de l’Hôtellerie (CPIH), Syndicat National des Hôteliers, Restaurateurs, Cafetiers et Traiteurs (SYNHORCAT), Fédération Autonome Générale de l’Industrie Hôtelière Touristique (FAGIHT), Le Syndicat National de la Restauration Collective (SNRC), Syndicat National de la Restauration Publique Organisée (SNRPO), Syndicat National des Discothèques et Lieux de Loisirs (SNDLL), Syndicat National des Entreprises de Restauration et Service (SNERS), Syndicat National de la Thalassothérapie, Casinos de France, Syndicat des Casinos Modernes de France.
  • - CPNE IH (Commission Paritaire Nationale de l'Emploi dans l'Industrie Hôtelière) : it aims to set general policy directions of the sector in training. It works to align employment and training of sector employees, to contribute to improve employment. It is a national joint organism composed of representatives of all professional organizations of employers and unions representing employees. Its objectives are:
  1. To define an Employment Policy
  2. To identify training needs for the development of sector activities and set priorities
  3. To identify and validate new qualifications for the entire profession: Creation, validation and administration of Certificates of Professional Qualification in specific activities of the HORECA sector; Registration of qualifications recognized by the profession on a list which is kept and updated.
  • - ADEFIH (Association pour le Développement de l'Emploi et de la Formation dans l'Industrie Hôtelière) : The ADEFIH is the Association for the Development of Employment and Training in the Hospitality and catering. It is a joint association founded in 2002 by the CPNE-IH to administer the CQP (Certificate of Professional Qualification) in hotels and catering. It implements the actions that the CPNE-IH decides to drive, especially on recognition of qualifications and validation.

2.5 Summarise about the incidence of industrial action in the past four years within the hotels and restaurants sector (increase or decrease, nature of industrial action, the main reasons for conflict and main outcomes)

In April 2008, many foreign employees who are employed for several years but without a work permit, within various industries including restaurants, demonstrated to demand the regularization of their situation. The Government - which has always opposed to mass legalization - issued a circular in November 2009 with a guide of good practices to the attention of prefectures that defines the conditions to take into account to regularize a foreign employee in an illegal situation. This text, presented as a breakthrough for the regularization of illegal migrants will in fact be more restrictive by imposing more conditions, without putting an end to arbitrary situations. With the support of the CGT and other unions, and many associations, 6 000 employees engaged in a strike that lead the Government to make adjustments to harmonize regulation criteria for the job. An addendum (June 18, 2010) is added to the guides of good practices that complement the circular of 2009. These changes apply only to cases filed between July 1, 2010 and March 1, 2011. The prefecture should respond within four months, once the complete file. Similarly, the ability of employers or their representative organizations to be heard by hearing by the permanent working group set up by the Directorate General of Labour (responsible for monitoring the implementation of the procedure) has been established.

3. Contribution of collective bargaining, social dialogue and social partners to addressing the challenges facing the Hotels and restaurants sector

3.1 Please indicate whether collective bargaining / social dialogue at national sectoral level, has contributed to address the challenges facing the hotels and restaurant sector since 2006. Has collective bargaining / social dialogue introduced specific clauses/instruments/initiatives to address these challenges? Please illustrate the most important of such clauses/instruments/initiatives and include a brief assessment of their impact. If there are relevant clauses/instruments/initiatives at regional or company level (bigger companies) covering a large share of employees, could you please add the same information for those agreements?

3.1. 1 Include clauses/instruments/initiatives for the following issues:

  • Agreements on working time and minimum wages

The National Collective of HORECA was signed April 30, 1997 and applies from December 8, 1997. Since then, it has been amended on numerous occasions, including:

  1. Amendment to the industry-wide collective agreement on wages in the sector, signed on 12th January, 2011 by FAGIHT, SYNHORCAT (only two employers organisations), FO, CGT, CFDT, CFE-CGC, CFTC. It offers a pay scale above the minimum wage. It was extended on 27th April, 2011.
  2. Amendment n°6 to the wide-industry collective agreement, signed on 30th April, 2011. This amendment is very important: it is the counterpart of the reduction of the VAT. First new feature, it organizes the disconnection of the negotiated minimum wage (versus the SMIC) by providing that the gross minimum hourly rate is set at € 8.92 (while the hourly minimum wage is set at € 8.86 on 1st January 2010). The social partners agree that the hourly wage of the first step in the first level is then at least 1.01 of the legal minimum wage (SMIC), that is to say at least 1% higher than the minimum wage. Moreover, it provides a wage increase with an average of 5%. All employees are affected by the revaluation of wages whatever the nature of their employment contract, that is to say, CDI, CDD, or contract based on training. Apprentices, training contracts and other benefit from this revaluation salary. And in consideration of the reduced VAT rate to 5.5% on 1st of July 2009, hotels, cafes and restaurants have to pay a specific premium to employees who have at least one year of service (maximum € 500).
  3. Amendment dated February 5, 2007 on working hours, payment of overtime from the 36th to the 39th hour.
  • Improvement of gender equality (including improvement of work-life balance arrangements);

There is a commitment to negotiate in the future on this subject, no change at this time of the collective agreement.

  • Improvement of access to career development/lifelong learning/qualifications in the sector.

Another novelty was introduced in the amendment n°6 (see above) which concerns primarily the pay scale: the development of vocational qualification certificates of the sector – the titles recognize the professional qualifications of an employee and are integrated into the classification grid.

The sector pursues an active policy to promote continuing education. In 2007, nearly 140,000 employees have received training funded by the OPCA FAFIH (1 employee of the sector on 5). A special effort is made in small and micro businesses (a quarter of the formations were made in companies employing fewer than ten employees). 4 new qualification certificates have been created in 2010 (report for 2010 of the FAFIH)

  • Addressing risk factors at work, including health risks, ergonomics, violence and harassment;

Every restaurant must have the "Guide to good hygiene practices. " This guide suggests ways to ensure the hygienic control of manufacturing and handling, especially during the service, in accordance with the principles of the Directive 93/43/EEC on the hygiene of foodstuffs.

Food Safety Commission of the Snarr –employer organisation in fast-food sector- has developed a guide to good hygiene practices currently being validated by the government. This document developed by quality experts summarizes the best practices to implement in fast food (raw materials, local staff). He also recalls the applicable reference texts in terms of hygiene and safety. Are also treated Hazard Analysis (HACCP method), the management of non-compliance and traceability.

  • Measures dealing with migration (including any agreements on ethical recruitment; measures for the better integration of migrant workers, etc.);

No

  • Measures with the aim to tackle undeclared work in the sector

There are local inititatives, for example trade unions (CGC, CFTC, FO), FIH 13 (Fédération de l’industrie hôtelière des Bouches du Rhône), the labour administration and the Urssaf network signed a collective text about the "fight against illegal employment in hotels, cafes and restaurants" in the Bouches-du-Rhone department. Together, they recognized a situation that threatens competition, degrades the image of the profession, deprives the state of tax revenue, is detrimental to the social rights of employees, etc. The charter stresses the information of employers and employees and the sanctions they both have to face (not only the employer).

  • Improvement of the working conditions of seasonal workers

The first national study on seasonal employment was published at the end of 2010. Commissioned by the FAFIH, it contributes to the development of an ambitious training program dedicated to seasonal workers in the sector. In 2007, among the 1,611,600 paid positions in the sector of hotels and restaurants, there are 101 400 seasonal positions for the winter 2006-2007 and 301 200 seasonal positions for summer 2007. "This study provides harmonized and comparable data on seasonal employment and thus represents a good working basis," explains Dominique Fournié, Department of Labour, Employment and professionalization of Cereq. It was a necessary first step for the FAFIH in order to pilot a development program of seasonal employment. The main difficulty lies in communicating to an audience not easily accessible during off-season. Despite the creation of a dedicated website (www.saisonniers-hotel-resto.fr), regional information campaigns or the introduction of relays, seasonal workers are not well enough informed.

The amendment No. 6 (see above) provides for two additional public holidays, allowing employees in the sector (with one year of seniority in the company) to enjoy 10 public holidays in addition to May 1st which is guaranteed. But, for seasonal workers, the seniority is only 9 months.

  • Promotion of employment for young workers

The HORECA sector is committed until 2015 on 20 000 recruitments and 5000 apprenticeship contracts per year. The professional organizations have signed Thursday, April 28th, an amendment to the "contract for the future" they had concluded exactly two years ago with the government.

  • Other measures with regard employment and working conditions (if relevant)

The amendment No. 6 (see above) provides an improvement in social welfare with a constant contribution.

All the social partners signed on October 6, 2010 a collective agreement establishing a mutual mandatory for all employees of the sector. Extension by the decree of December 17, 2010. It has applied since early 2011 in all companies and for all employees subject to the national collective agreement of hotels, cafes, restaurants, dated April 30, 1977.

3.1.2 Illustrate the most important of such clauses/instruments/initiatives and include a brief assessment of their impact

To summarize, the social partners have negotiated measures that improve the working conditions and, by implication, that make the sector more attractive (there is a lack of manpower). The most important measures (quantitatively and qualitatively) are the wage increases (negotiated now and not just related to the national minimum wage) and the development of learning and training.

3.2 Please indicate whether there are specific unions’ initiatives to address the challenges facing the hotels and restaurant sector since 2006. Please illustrate the most important of these initiatives.

The following issues were dealt with in Joint committees (see collective bargaining, 3.1.1)

3.2.1 Include initiatives for the following issues:

  • Improvement of gender equality (including improvement of work-life balance arrangements);
  • Improvement of access to career development/lifelong learning/qualifications in the sector.
  • Addressing risk factors at work, including health risks, ergonomics, violence and harassment;
  • Measures dealing with migration (including ethical recruitment; measures for the better integration of migrant workers, etc.);
  • Measures with the aim to tackle undeclared work in the sector
  • Improvement of the working conditions of seasonal workers
  • Promotion of employment for young workers
  • Other measures with regard employment and working conditions (if relevant)

3.2.2 Illustrate the most important of such initiatives and include a brief assessment of their impact

3.3 Please indicate whether there are specific employer organisations’ initiatives to address the challenges facing the hotels and restaurant sector since 2006. Please illustrate the most important of these initiatives.

The following issues were dealt with in Joint committees (see collective bargaining, 3.1.1)

3.3.1 Include initiatives for the following issues:

  • Improvement of gender equality (including improvement of work-life balance arrangements);
  • Improvement of access to career development/lifelong learning/qualifications in the sector.
  • Addressing risk factors at work, including health risks, ergonomics, violence and harassment;
  • Measures dealing with migration (including ethical recruitment; measures for the better integration of migrant workers, etc.);
  • Measures with the aim to tackle undeclared work in the sector
  • Improvement of the working conditions of seasonal workers
  • Promotion of employment for young workers
  • Other measures with regard employment and working conditions (if relevant)

3.3.2 Illustrate the most important of such initiatives and include a brief assessment of their impact

4. Commentary

The social partners in the sector have negotiated to improve wages, the situation of seasonal workers and the situation of the young - rise of the minimum wages, premium VAT, more apprenticeship contracts... This negotiation was possible only because of the reduction in VAT. One might think that it will be maintained only if this reduction is maintained! A major problem of the profession is the lack of manpower, and the development of employees' loyalty (to retain them). On this point, the government projects to reduce immigration would be a blow, since foreign workers appear to be a necessary component of the workforce. However, the sector seems to have little interest on the issue of professional equality. The social partners seem to have started thinking about the arduous work. Employers' organizations aim to "restore the prestige" of a disparaged profession. People consider that this sector offers poor working conditions, and that the trades are difficult. Employers have launched a communication campaign, improved working conditions and tried to make the sector more attractive (especially for young people).

References (in French)

Hélène Tissandier, HERA

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