Employment and Industrial Relations in the Hotels and Restaurants sector

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  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Collective bargaining,
  • Health and well-being at work,
  • Migration and mobility,
  • Skills and training,
  • Industrial relations,
  • Published on: 23 April 2012



About
Country:
Germany
Author:
Heiner Dribbusch, Birgit Kraemer
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

The key challenge to Hotels and Restaurants in recent years was the effects of the economic and financial crisis between 2008 and 2010. The crisis hit the whole sector with the exception of fast food catering. Employment levels, however, increased between 2007 and 2010 by about 7%. A particular challenge is a certain lack of skilled employees and difficulties within the industry to find and keep apprentices. Working conditions in the sector are marked by long and unsocial hours. Industrial relations are marked by a comparatively low bargaining coverage and the large absence of works council representation in the sector. Joint initiatives at national and sectoral level between the trade union and employers’ associations are rather limited.

1. Key developments and trends in the Hotels and Restaurants sector: trends, employment and working conditions

1.1 Please provide information on key trends in Hotels and Restaurants

A brief description of any significant shifts within the last four years affecting the Hotels and Restaurants sector, for example:

  • The impact of the crisis on the sector
  • Main drivers of change
  • If there are specific developments affecting the following subsectors in terms of economic activity and employment, please add the information according to the following classification:
  • Hotels and other short stay accommodations
  • Restaurants, bars and cafes
  • Catering and canteens

According to various reports by the Trade Union for Food, Beverages, Tobacco, Hotel and Catering and Allied Workers (Gewerkschaft Nahrung – Genuß – Gaststaetten, NGG), as well as the employer organisation the German Hotels and Restaurants Association (Deutscher Hotel- und Gaststättenverband, DEHOGA) the HORECA sector and in particular the Hotel industry were severely hit by the financial and economic crisis. Companies reduced or cancelled seminars, conferences and business trips. According to the 2009/2010 winter report of DEHOGA, based on a survey covering owners and managers of 2,000 hotels and 2,000 restaurants, more than half of those surveyed reported a decline of business volume in 2009. Against the overall trend fast food chains were able to increase their business volume in 2009 against 2008 as customers switched to cheaper restaurants. According to the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt, destatis), the hotel business lost 8.1% in business volume in 2009 compared to the previous year whereas restaurants bars and cafes lost 4.9%. The catering and canteen industry was negatively affected in 2009 by the high rate of short-time working in manufacturing which led to some canteens also entering into short time work. In its 2010 summer report DEHOGA reported that business started to recover in the HORECA sector. The economic recovery was particularly strong in the hotel sector.

1.2. Please provide information on the views of the major social partner organisations (trade unions and employer organisations) on trends and changes in the Hotels and Restaurants sector.

DEHOGA anticipates an increase in competition in the hotel industry in the forthcoming three years as some 400 planned new hotels will bring more than 70,000 rooms to a market which is already marked by overcapacities. The restaurant, bars and café sector faces increased competition from retail outlets and petrol stations, according to DEHOGA. The employers’ association regards the quality of the service as a key for success.

NGG is more concerned with the overall employment situation. The trade union points to the fact that in 2009 full-time employment declined whereas part-time employment increased in all segments of the HORECA sector (except for catering). NGG is concerned in particular by the rise of contingent part-time, so-called ‘mini-jobs’ that are jobs which do not pay more than 400 Euro a month and are not liable to social security contributions.

With effect from 1 January 2010 the German government reduced the VAT for hotel accommodation. The tax savings were intended to spur investments in employment, further vocational training and salaries. This move was welcomed by DEHOGA. NGG criticised this tax reduction saying that contrary to announcements made by the hotel industry the tax savings had not been invested as had been planned.

1.3 Please provide the absolute number and shares of employment for the following indicators for the NACE code I (Accommodation and food service activities) in 2010 (if not available the most recent year with data available)

  • Share of employment of the HORECA sector as compared to the national economy
  • Total employment in the sector and percentage of employees, employers, self employed and family workers
  • Number and share of temporary employees
  • Number and share of workers in part time employment
  • Number and share of female workers in employment
  • Number and share of foreign workers in employment

Both NGG and DEHOGA complain that the Federal Statistical Office has reduced its coverage of the HORECA sector. The result is that comparisons with previous years in terms of employment are very difficult.

According to data from the Federal Employment Agency (Bundesagentur für Arbeit, BA), as of June 2010 the sector employed 846,373 employees liable to social security contributions (a share of about 3% of total employment liable to social security). To these add 810,441 employees who held a so-called mini-job (a share of about 11.1% of employees in so-called mini-jobs). 544,982 of the latter had a mini job as sole employment and 266, 459 hold a mini-job as a job on the side. Employment liable to social security contributions increased by 2.2% and mini-job employment jumped by 3.1% compared to June 2009. Between June 2007 and June 2010 all employment liable to social security contributions increased by about 7%. Some 57% of employees liable to social security contributions are women. The share of women amongst marginal part-timers who have a mini-job as sole employment is 69%.

Data on self-employment is only available based on micro census data which differs somewhat from the employment figures of the BA. In 2009 (latest figures available) according to micro census data from the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesam t, destatis) total employment in the sector was 1,488,000 or 3.7% of total national employment. 613,000 or 54% of total sectoral employment worked part-time (standard working time less than 32 hours/week). The micro census recorded 169,000 employers, 65,000 self-employed, 21,000 family workers and 1,132,000 blue and white collar employees in 2009. Figures on temporary employment and foreign workers are not available for the sector.

1.4 With regard to the following employment and working conditions, could you provide relevant information on the main issues and developments since 2006

The aim is to provide a general picture of the key issues with regard employment and working conditions in the Hotels and Restaurants sector in your country

Undeclared work

Due to the nature of undeclared work there are no figures available on its dimensions. However, undeclared work is a concern both for DEHOGA as for NGG. In a joint leaflet they deplore that undeclared work leads to a distortion of competition, that jobs subject to social security contributions are threatened and that social security funds and tax authorities suffer billions in lost revenue. Furthermore undeclared workers are inadequately insured against illness, unemployment and old-age. Employers and trade union, however, have different views on how to tackle undeclared work. Whereas DEHOGA points to increasing financial burdens for employers as potential incentives for using undeclared work and rejects all proposals for a statutory minimum wage, NGG stresses that on the contrary, the introduction of such a minimum wage would help to tackle undeclared work as then there would be clear minimum standards for pay in the industry and it would be easier to enforce these regulations.

Youth employment and conditions for young people in the sector

There are no recent figures available about the age structure of employment in the industry. The latest figures by the Federal Statistical Office on the age structure of employment date back to 2005. The data refers to employees subject to social security contributions (sozialversicherungspflichtig Beschäftigte) and do not cover the so-called mini-jobs. In 2005 some 8% of employees were under the age of 20 and a total of 39% of employees were under the age of 30.

According by the Bundesverband der Systemgastronomie, BdS, in systems catering a subsector of the industry which comprises major fast food chains at the beginning of 2010 about 11.4% of employees were under the age of 20 and another 43.1% of employees were between 20 and 30 years of age.

DEHOGA demands a liberalization of the Youth Employment Protection Act (Jugendarbeitsschutzgesetz, JArbSchG) in order to allow young employees under the age of 18 to work until 11 pm (currently the legal limit is 10 pm). The legal working time limit per shift should be extended from 11 to 12 hours. These demands have been rejected by NGG. Long hours, unpaid overtime and a lack in training are amongst the most frequent complaints amongst young employees in the sector. NGG regards the harsh working conditions as a major cause for the large numbers of young workers who quit their apprenticeships and leave the industry.

Qualifications and Skills development

The number of apprenticeships in the industry continued to decline in 2009, reaching a new low level of 96,000 training posts. Many establishments cannot find apprentices to fill vacancies, this is partly to do with the fact that there is an overall decrease in school leavers in Germany. The drop-out rate of apprentices is above average. According to NGG this has to do with the fact that the industry is not qualified to adequately compete for apprentices. DEHOGA stresses its commitment to qualified training in the industry as a key for getting qualified employees. The employers’ association points out that accommodating to the specific working times and stress in the industry constitutes a necessary part of adequate job training but condemns that some employers misuse apprentices as cheap labour.

In the systems catering a subsector the situation is somewhat different. According to BdS between 2004 and 2008 (latest figures available) the number of apprenticeship posts continued to increase. According to NGG the reason must be seen in the expansion of the sector and especially in increased training activity at McDonalds.

Seasonal work and working hours

There is no data available on the extent of seasonal work. Until 2011 the employment of seasonal workers from eastern European countries was limited. According to DEHOGA about 11,000 employees from eastern European countries received working permits as seasonal workers in the HORECA industries. Since 2011 such a permit is no longer necessary and from May 2011 the last restriction for employees from eastern European EU countries (except for those from Bulgaria and Romania) to work in Germany will be abolished. NGG demands the introduction of a statutory minimum wage as a precondition for all considerations to further extend seasonal work.

The collectively agreed working time varies according to bargaining region - between 169 and 173 hours per month. In some bargaining regions a collectively agreed weekly working time of 39 hours has been agreed. In most bargaining regions daily working time can vary between 5 and 10 hours.

Effective working times vary according to the seasonal demand. They can be very long during peak season and overtime is a regular feature of working conditions in the sector. NGG repeatedly reported excessive numbers of hours worked in some establishments and that even apprentices sometimes work shifts of up to 14 and 16 hours. For 2003 (latest figures available) the Federal Statistical Office reported that 67% of employees in Hotels and Restaurants were affected by work at weekends, at night or by shift work compared to only 47% of employees in the economy as a whole.

Health and safety

Work-related stress caused by time pressure is among the main hazards reported by the employers’ liability insurance association for hotel and restaurants (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gastgewerbe, BGN). According to NGG a considerable reason for stress is understaffing. Workers in the hotels and restaurants sector are also exposed to considerable ergonomic risks related to physical stress caused by permanent standing and walking and working in hot and cold environments and the exposure to damp and moisture.

According to the 2009 Report on Occupational Health and Safety (SUGA 2009, Table TB8), out of the total number of reported accidents at work, 2.6% happened in the HORECA sector. The HORECA sector attributed to about 3.3% of the total of attested occupational diseases (Table TC5). Sectoral data on health risks, sick leave and working conditions is not available.

Because of the risk of musco-skeletal disorders, the sector is targeted by the 2009-2012 work programme of the Joint German Occupational Safety and Health Strategy (Gemeinsame deutsche Arbeitsschutzstrategie, GDA). The BGN has also a focus on these physical disorders.

A qualitative study on working conditions (to be published in 2011) by BGN resumes that trainees are affected by pains of the musco-skeletal system, fatigue and sleep disorder. Since overtime work and night shifts cannot typically be compensated by free time, trainees face a considerable risk of burn-out. According to the authors, adaptability to working conditions depends on working time schedules, but also on organisational and social resources that are provided.

Others

2. Industrial relations structures in the sector

2.1 Please provide details on the structure of trade union representation in the hotels and restaurants sector.

  • The name of each relevant trade union active at national level in the sector and their overall number of members within the sector.
  • Total number of members of trade unions in the sector, the membership share (%) among the employees in the sector (e.g. 20% of employees in the sectors are members of trade unions), which occupations and which employees – according to company size – are typically covered.

NGG is the only trade union which is involved in collective bargaining in the sector. NGG has an overall membership of 206,000 (2010). Some 41% of members are women. Figures about membership in Hotel and Restaurants are not published but it is admitted that overall union density in the sector is low. The structure of the industry, with its predominance of small establishments, makes it very difficult to build a broad and sustainable union presence. This is partly mirrored in the marginal presence of works councils in the sector. According to the Institute for Employment Research (Institut für Arbeitsmarktforschung, IAB) of the Federal Employment Agency (Bundesagentur für Arbeit, BA) in ‘Hotel, restaurants and other services’ only 3% of establishments covering 14% of employees in establishments with at least five employees in western Germany have a works council. For eastern Germany the coverage rate of works councils in 2009 was 4% and 16% respectively.

2.2 Please provide information on the structure of employer organisations in the hotels and restaurants sector.

  • The name of each relevant employer organisation active in the sector at national level, overall number of members in terms of companies and number of employees working in member companies.
  • The total number of companies members of employers organisations in the sector (if available), the membership share (%) among all the companies, excluded companies with no employees and the self employed (e.g. 30% of companies in the sector are members of employers organisations) and breakdown by company size: micro companies 1-9 employees, small size companies 10-49 employees, medium size companies 50-249 and more than 250 employees, excluded companies with no employees and the self employed (e.g. 20% of companies between 1 and 9 employees are members of employers organisations in the country)
  • Are self-employees in the sector organised? If so, please develop on the key aspects (nature, coverage, role in collective bargaining).

The German Hotels and Restaurants Association (Deutscher Hotel- und Gaststättenverband, DEHOGA) is the umbrella organisation of 17 DEHOGA organisations at federal states (Laender) level and of three particular employers’ associations covering the hotel sector, motorways restaurants and international caterers. As regards systems catering there is some overlap with BdS, mentioned below. DEHOGA (national level) represents about 75, 000 member companies. It is not possible to provide facts pertaining to numbers of employees covered or membership share of companies throughout all companies. Self-employees who own a small business can become members of DEHOGA. Membership will be in one of the 17 regional DEHOGA organisations. They are not organised in a trade union and therefore not covered by collective bargaining.

The Bundesverband der Systemgastronomie, BdS, founded by systems caterers McDonald’s Germany and Burger King in 1988, is the employers’ and business association of systems caterers. According to the BdS the association has about 700 member companies with some 100,000 employees in some 2,500 establishments. Membership is open to franchisers who act as independent entrepreneurs. Membership is therefore marked by small and medium-sized enterprises. BdS estimates that it represents 60% of companies and 80% of employees in systems catering.

2.3 Please provide information on the structure of collective bargaining in the hotels and restaurants sector.

  • At what level are collective agreements in the hotels and restaurants sector concluded (company and/or sectoral level)?

Sectoral collective bargaining by region is the predominant pattern of collective bargaining in the sector.

  • At national level, which trade unions and employers organisations are involved in the negotiations of collective agreements?

Collective agreements at sectoral level are concluded between NGG and the regional organisations of DEHOGA. In 10 out of the 18 regional organisations of DEHOGA a so-called OT-status is allowed. The so-called OT membership status means that employers can be members of the regional organisation of DEHOGA without having a binding commitment to the collective agreements concluded (OT is the acronym for Ohne Tarifbindung). In systems catering NGG and BdS conclude sectoral agreements at national level.

BdS has no OT-membership. Since 2010 BdS allows its members to alternatively conclude single-employer agreements with NGG.

  • Estimate the coverage rate of collective bargaining in terms of a) companies and b) employees.

According to the latest figures of the Institute for Employment Research (Institut für Arbeitsmarktforschung, IAB) of the Federal Employment Agency (Bundesagentur für Arbeit, BA) concerning ‘Hotel and Restaurants and other services’, in 2010 about 34% of establishments with five and more employees in west Germany and 12% in east Germany were covered by sectoral collective bargaining (2009: 34% and 13% respectively). Another 1% of establishments in west Germany and 2% of establishments in east Germany were covered by company level collective agreements (2009: 1% and 1%).

48% of employees in establishments with at least five employees in the west and 25% in the east were covered by sectoral collective agreements (2009: 48% and 26% respectively). An additional 2% of employees in west Germany and 7% of employees in east Germany were covered by a company level collective agreement (2009: 4% and 7% respectively).

  • Is there a practice of extending sectoral agreements to employers who are not affiliated to the signatory employer associations?

There is a practice of extending collective framework agreements (Manteltarifverträge) concluded by NGG and DEHOGA at Bundeslaender level. As of January 2011, six collective framework agreements concluded at Laender level and one regional collective agreement on retirement pensions have been extended. There is no such practice for collective agreements on pay.

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2.4 Is there a forum for social dialogue dealing with matters of the Hotels and Restaurants sector? (Bi-partite and/or tripartite social dialogue at national or regional level?). What are the aims of these bodies? Specify which unions and/or employers’ organisations are involved.

Some form of sectoral dialogue is institutionalised by the bargaining parties being represented on the boards of the sectoral employers’ liability insurance association (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gaststätten, BGN), dealing with occupational safety and health (OSH) and in committees at Bundeslaender level on OSH of young workers.

Union representatives and employers are also represented in the vocational training committees (Berufsbildungsausschüsse) which are set up by competent authorities at local level (chambers of commerce, public administrations etc.). The committees set up according to provisions regulated in the Vocational Training Act (Berufsbildungsgesetz).They committees deal with apprenticeship curricula and examination issues.

2.5 Summarise the incidence of industrial action in the past four years within the hotels and restaurants sector (increase or decrease, nature of industrial action, the main reasons for conflict and main outcomes)

The official strike statistics of the Federal Employment Agency (BA) do not report any industrial action in Hotels and Restaurants over the last four years (2007-2010). Incidences of industrial action in the sector are rare and there are years where there is no industrial action at all. NGG was only occasionally involved in a number of regional or single-employer disputes in the hotel sector. Strike action was in general limited to stoppages lasting a couple of hours or a shift. The major reason for these stoppages was dead-locks in wage negotiations.

In the subsector catering, the by far most outstanding strike dispute in the industry lasted six months from October 2005 to April 2006 and involved the employees at the airline caterer Gate Gourmet in Düsseldorf. The strike, which won national attention, took place against plans to cut employment and involved issues of pay and working conditions. It finally ended with a compromise safeguarding a number of collectively agreed minimum standards for the employees.

3. Contribution of collective bargaining, social dialogue and social partners to addressing the challenges facing the hotels and restaurants sector

3.1 Please indicate whether collective bargaining / social dialogue at national sectoral level, has contributed to addressing the challenges facing the hotels and restaurant sector since 2006. Has collective bargaining / social dialogue introduced specific clauses/instruments/initiatives to address these challenges? Please illustrate the most important of such clauses/instruments/initiatives and include a brief assessment of their impact. If there are relevant clauses/instruments/initiatives at regional or company level (bigger companies) covering a large share of employees, could you please add the same information for those agreements?

3.1. 1 Include clauses/instruments/initiatives for the following issues:

  • Agreements on working time and minimum wages
  • weekly working times are agreed in the framework collective agreements. There is no agreement on minimum wages. Whereas NGG campaigns strongly for a national statutory minimum wage, DEHOGA is strongly opposed to any statutory minimum wages.
  • Improvement of gender equality (including improvement of work-life balance arrangements);
  • to NGG there are no such agreements.
  • Improvement of access to career development/lifelong learning/qualifications in the sector.
  • are no collective agreements on this issue. The issue is probably dealt with in an unknown number of cases at company level.
  • Addressing risk factors at work, including health risks, ergonomics, violence and harassment;
  • the framework of legal requirement (Arbeitsschutzgesetz) there should be an assessment of risk factors at work at establishment level. Members of works councils will deal with those issues as part of their legal duties. There are no sectoral agreements which tackle the issue.
  • Measures dealing with migration (including any agreements on ethical recruitment; measures for the better integration of migrant workers, etc.);
  • are no agreements or joint initiatives by the bargaining parties.
  • Measures with the aim to tackle undeclared work in the sector
  • only joint initiative to deal with this issue was an information leaflet issued by DEHOGA, NGG and the Federal Customs Agency (Zoll). DEHOGA reports having regular talks at the Federal Ministry of Finance (Bundesministerium der Finanzen).
  • Improvement of the working conditions of seasonal workers
  • work is partly dealt with in the wider framework of working-time issues in some collective agreements.
  • Promotion of employment for young workers
  • reports that some regional organisations of DEHOGA want to jointly address the problem of shrinking numbers of apprentices and the high rate of drop-outs amongst apprentices. However, so far no concrete agreements or initiatives can be reported.
  • Other measures with regard employment and working conditions (if relevant)

3.1.2 Illustrate the most important of such clauses/instruments/initiatives and include a brief assessment of their impact

The relations between the bargaining parties in the industry are largely confined on the classical issues of pay and working time. Institutionalised cooperation - be it in the form of collective bargaining or in the form of works councils - is limited.

3.2 Please indicate whether there are specific unions’ initiatives to address the challenges facing the hotels and restaurant sector since 2006. Please illustrate the most important of these initiatives.

3.2.1 Include initiatives for the following issues:

  • Improvement of gender equality (including improvement of work-life balance arrangements);
  • Improvement of access to career development/lifelong learning/qualifications in the sector.
  • Addressing risk factors at work, including health risks, ergonomics, violence and harassment;
  • Measures dealing with migration (including ethical recruitment; measures for the better integration of migrant workers, etc.);
  • Measures with the aim to tackle undeclared work in the sector
  • Improvement of the working conditions of seasonal workers
  • Promotion of employment for young workers
  • Other measures with regard employment and working conditions (if relevant)

3.2.2 Illustrate the most important of such initiatives and include a brief assessment of their impact

The most important initiative of NGG is certainly the national campaign for a statutory minimum wage. This is the central campaign of NGG. NGG was the first affiliate of the DGB to demand a national statutory minimum wage. The union’s campaigning was highly successful in so far as the union could convince the DGB to adopt the campaign for a national minimum wage. The DGB demands the introduction of a national minimum wage of €8.50 an hour. Repeated surveys by news papers and polling institutes show broad public support for the introduction of such a minimum wage. NGG regard the introduction of such a minimum wage as an effective means to tackle low pay and precarious employment in the sector. NGG strongly advocates that any extension of labour migration shall be accompanied by minimum wages in order to avoid wage dumping.

3.3 Please indicate whether there are specific employer organisation initiatives to address the challenges facing the hotels and restaurant sector since 2006. Please illustrate the most important of these initiatives.

3.3.1 Include initiatives for the following issues:

  • Improvement of gender equality (including improvement of work-life balance arrangements);
  • Improvement of access to career development/lifelong learning/qualifications in the sector.
  • Addressing risk factors at work, including health risks, ergonomics, violence and harassment;
  • Measures dealing with migration (including ethical recruitment; measures for the better integration of migrant workers, etc.);
  • Measures with the aim to tackle undeclared work in the sector
  • Improvement of the working conditions of seasonal workers
  • Promotion of employment for young workers
  • Other measures with regard employment and working conditions (if relevant)

DEHOGA and BdS report that they address some of the above-mentioned issues most notably concerning career development, measures dealing with migration and measures to promote employment of young workers.

As far as gender equality is concerned BdS stresses in its 2009/2010 business report that not only the majority of employees are women but that also 52% of all management posts are filled with women.

BDS reports in its annual business report (Geschäftsbericht) 2009/2010 that it supports in cooperation with the vocational training schools (Berufsschulen) concerned several competitions for apprentices who learn the profession of ‘specialist in systems catering’ (Fachmann/-frau für Systemgastronomie). Since 2008 the BdS supports a special university education for Management in Hotel and Tourism and Food, Beverage and Culinary Management. During these studies students get an education at a university and take part in training programs in catering companies.

DEHOGA is in favour of the promotion of what it calls ‘well directed’ labour immigration. It considers migrant labour as a necessary means to fill vacancies in the sector, not least for seasonal work.

3.3.2 Illustrate the most important of such initiatives and include a brief assessment of their impact

Some important initiatives of DEHOGA concern training and apprenticeships. On its website DEHOGA provides information about career opportunities and apprenticeships in the sector and offers links to regional DEHOGA websites which present information about job opportunities in the sector. In May 2010 DEHOGA started an initiative on apprenticeship quality (Initiative Ausbildungsqualität) which aims at supporting instructors and supervisors in establishments to improve training and apprenticeships. The goal is to reduce drop-out rates and job exits. Whether these initiatives will have an impact remains to be seen in the light of future developments of apprenticeships and drop-out rates.

The BdS points in particular to its Charta of Systems Catering (Charta der Systemgastronomie). The Charta is signed by the major companies within BdS and contains a commitment to collective bargaining and to apprenticeships and further training.

4. Commentary

Industrial relations in the HORECA sector are characterized by the fact that institutionalised cooperation - be it in the form of collective bargaining or in the form of works councils - is limited. Whereas almost half of employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements only a small minority of employees works in establishments where a works council is established. This is largely due to the fact that many workplaces are small and workforces are highly fragmented. This makes it particularly difficult for the union to establish a sustainable presence in a large number of establishments. The largest employers’ and business association by far is DEHOGA, which represents small and medium-sized enterprises - of which an unknown but presumably growing number has chosen to opt out of sectoral collective bargaining over recent years. The sectoral dialogue between the bargaining parties is limited and characterized by marked differences between employer and employee representatives regarding some core issues, most notably marginal part-time jobs, low pay and the introduction of minimum wages.

Heiner Dribbusch, Birgit Kraemer, Institute of Economic and Social Research, WSI

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