Denmark: The representativeness of trade unions and employer associations in the live performance sector

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Agreements,
  • Collective bargaining,
  • Social partners,
  • Employee representation,
  • Industrial relations,
  • Published on: 19 May 2013



About
Country:
Denmark
Author:
Carsten Jorgensen
Institution:

The employees in this sector, artists in general, fall under the category of ‘precarious work’, mostly based on individual short-term contracts. However, the large employers and employer organisations have ‘framework agreements’ with the various single unions. Freelancers under fixed-term contracts are covered under the provisions of the agreement between the company they are working for and the union they are a member of. Even fewer are the artists working on a ‘normal’ collective agreement and being paid on a regular monthly basis. Only at the national and regional level are artists employed on a regular basis. Thus, the following questions are answered from this point of view.

1. Sectoral properties

Economic background

One noticeable effect of the economic downturn in the (public) sector was the dismissal of 100 employees at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagenin January 2012 which affected all artist groups in the theatre: actors, singers, dancers and technical staff. However, as for the economy in the private sector of live performance there do not seem to have been significant changes.

The figures below hold one peculiarity. There are more members of the unions than artists recognised by Statistics Denmark. This is not caused by a high number of resting members. Many artists are members of two or three unions according to their scope. Most of all the discrepancy between the numbers can be related to the fact that most artists have two jobs. Only if Statistics Denmark considers the artistic performance to be the main occupation are they ‘added’ to the sector. But that does not prevent a part-time musician from being recognised as a member of the musicians union.

Development of sectoral employment and companies
  2000 2010

Number of companies in the sector

1,055

2008: 1,545

Comment

Source of company data

Statistics Denmark; Generel Firmastatistik

Statistics Denmark; Generel Firmastatistik

Aggregate employment

7,232

8,417

Male employment

4,079

4,370

Female employment

3,153

4,047

Share of sectoral employment as a % of total employment in the economy

0.26%

0.31%

Source of employment figures

Statistics Denmark; Arbejdsmarked

Statistics Denmark; Arbejdsmarked

Comment

Aggregate employees

6,194

6,294

Male employees

3,335

3,134

Female employees

2,859

3,160

Share of sectoral employees as a % of total employees in the economy

0.24%

0.25%

Source of employee figures

Statistics Denmark; Arbejdsmarked

Statistics Denmark; Arbejdsmarked

Comment

2. The sector’s trade unions and employer associations

This section includes the following trade unions and employer associations:

(i) trade unions which are party to sector-related collective bargaining

(ii) trade unions which are a sector-related member of the sector-related European Union Federations (i.e. the Media and Entertainment International – Technical Professions of the Entertainment Sector – EURO-MEI; the European Federation of Artists and Actors – EuroFIA; and the International Federation of Musicians – FIM)

(iii) employer associations which are a party to sector-related collective bargaining

(iv) employer associations (business associations) which are a member of the sector-related European Employer/Business Federation (i.e. the Performing Arts Employers Associations League in Europe – PEARLE*)

2a Overview of the Industrial relations landscape in the sector

Organisation density in the sector is very high. The many (small and large) artists’ unions have a density of more than 90%. The main reasons are that the unions give the artist the needed legitimacy, and the employment relations and contracts are precarious. It is good to have a union expert on one’s side. All (or very nearly all) employers are gathered in three employers’ associations. Nonetheless, collective agreement coverage is very low due to the great number of freelancers in the sector.

The economic crisis had/has no impact on the sector’s relevant social partner organisations.

2b Data on the trade unions

The scope of this study relates to the live performance sector, which is defined as embracing the following sub-activities:

  • Performing arts (e.g. live theatrical presentations, concerts, operas, dance productions)
  • Support activities to performing arts (e.g. activities of directors, producers, stage-set designers and builders, scene shifters, lighting engineers etc.)
  • Artistic creation (activities of individual artists such as sculptors, painters, cartoonists, engravers, etchers etc.; activities of individual writers, for all subjects including fictional writing, technical writing etc.; activities of independent journalists; restoring of works of art such as paintings etc.)
  • Operation of arts facilities (i.e. operation of concert and theatre halls and other arts facilities)
DAF
The Danish Artists’ Union
Dansk Artistforbund

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

No

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No.

The union covers only performing artists and musicians.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

No in case your answer is ‘no’, please provide more details.

The union covers only occupations related to performance

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

Yes

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Both single-employer and multi-employer bargaining

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

n.a.

The members of DAF have many contracts during a year and they shift between the audiovisual sector and the live performance sector. Therefore, it is not possible to give a fixed number.

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

1,200 members

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

n.a.

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

FIA

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

EURO-FIA

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

The Danish Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO)

Source of information

Thomas Gisselmann Søemod

Website: www.artisten.dk

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

DSF
The Danish Actors Association
Dansk Skuespillerforbund

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

No

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No

The union covers only actors

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

Noin case your answer is ‘no’, please provide more details.

The union covers only occupations related to performing arts, in this case actors, opera singers, dancers, choreographers

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

Yes

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Both single-employer and multi-employer bargaining

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

n.a.

The members of DSF have many contracts during a year and they shift between the audiovisual sector and the live performance sector. Therefore, it is not possible to give a fixed number

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

Approximately 2,000

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

n.a. – see above

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

FIA

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

EURO-FIA; Nordisk Skuespillerråd (Nordic Actors’ Council)

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

Confederation of Professionals in Denmark , FTF

Source of information

Mr Mikael Waldorff, December 2011, e-mail

Website: www.skuespillerforbundet.dk

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

DMF
The Danish Musicians' Union
Dansk Musikerforbund

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

No

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No

The union does not cover blue-collar workers

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

No

DMF organises performing artists and some music teachers

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

Yes – in the audiovisual sector.

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Both single-employer and multi-employer bargaining

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

n.a.

The sector is dominated by freelancers and short-term contracts. The employees thus have many employers during a season and move between different types of jobs in both the audiovisual sector and live performance. It is not possible to give a fixed number.

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

6,800 members

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

n.a.

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

FIM

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

FIM

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

Confederation of Professionals in Denmark, FTF

Source of information

Ms Toni Dürr Sørensen

Website: www.dmf.dk

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

FAF
The Danish National Trade Union for Film- and Television Workers
Film- og TV- arbejderforeningen

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

1. Performing arts

No

2. Support activities to performing arts

No

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No in case your answer is ‘no’, please provide more details.

White-collar workers (provided that technicians are white-collar workers)

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

n.a.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

n.a.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

n.a.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

n.a.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

n.a.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

n.a.

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes – in the audiovisual sector only

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

n.a.

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

869 members in total

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

None

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

n.a.

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

None

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

EURO-MEI

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

Confederation of Professionals in Denmark, FTF

Source of information

Niels McNair and Carsten Juul

Website: www.filmtv.dk

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

TL
The Danish Association of Professional Technicians
Teknisk Landsforbund

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

No

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No in case your answer is ‘no’, please provide more details.

White-collar workers (provided that technicians are white-collar workers)

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

No in case your answer is ‘no’, please provide more details.

TL’s members are theatre tehnicians

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

Yes

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Approximately 300 (200 are members of TL, the rest of the members work on a freelance basis or on short-term contracts)

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

30,000

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

575

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Higher than overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

UNI-global union

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

EURO-MEI

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

Danish Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO)

Source of information

Anne Hjort

Website: www.tl.dk

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

SDS
The Association of Danish Set Designers
Sammenslutningen af Danske Scenografer

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

No

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

They are set designers

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

No in case your answer is ‘no’, please provide more details.

As set designers they are present in ‘support activities’

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes – most set designers are freelancers

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

No in case your answer is ‘yes’, please provide more details.

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Both single-employer and multi-employer bargaining

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Approximately 30

Most set designers are freelancers

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

215

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

215

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

None

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

None

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

Confederation of Professionals in Denmark, FTF

Source of information

Mr Jakob Pelch

Website: http://scenograf.dk/resume_in_english/

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

FDS
The Association of Danish Stage Directors
Foreningen af Danske Sceneinstruktører

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

No

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

They are stage directors

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

No in case your answer is ‘no’, please provide more details.

The union members belong to ‘support activities’

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes – freelancers

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

No in case your answer is ‘yes’, please provide more details.

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Both single-employer and multi-employer bargaining

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

n.a.

As a rule the members are not employed on permanent or longer fixed-term contract. They are mostly freelancers. A few work under agreements with DanmarksRadio and the employer organisation TIO, see below.

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

157

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

157

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

None

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

None

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

Confederation of Professionals in Denmark, FTF

Source of information

Mr Steen Madsen

Website: www.stagedirectors.dk/

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

DJØF
The Danish Association of Lawyers and Economists
Dansk Jurist og Økonomforbund

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

1. Performing arts

No

2. Support activities to performing arts

No

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No white-collar workers

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

Yes in case your answer is ‘yes’, please provide more details.

Lawyers, economists, sociologists, spin doctors, consultants

Media and arts is far from being DJØF’s main sector

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

No

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

n.a.

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

n.a.

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

No

Is the consultation carried out…

No

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

n.a.

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

44,873

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

DJØF has 100 members affiliated to EURO-MEI but detailed sector-related information is not available.

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Info not obtained – but (nearly) equal to its overall density is most likely

Overall density is higher than 90%

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

Uni-Global

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

EURO-MEI; EPSU

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

The Danish Confederation of Professional Associations (Akademikernes Centralorganisation, AC)

Source of information

Ann Grøndahl Larsen

Website: www.djoef.dk

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

DJ
The Freelance Group in The Danish Union of Journalists
FreelanceGruppen i Dansk Journalistforbund

The union’s domain

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

No

2. Support activities to performing arts

No

3. Artistic creation

Yes

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No in case your answer is ‘no’, please provide more details.

DJ does not cover blue-collar workers

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

No in case your answer is ‘no’, please provide more details.

DJ freelancers work within ‘artistic creation’

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Only freelancers

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

Yes

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Both single-employer and multi-employer bargaining

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

n.a. – the total number of freelancers is not known

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

15,500

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

2,500

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

(Nearly) equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

IFJ (International Federation of Journalists)

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

EFJ (European Federation of Journalists)

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

None

Source of information

Mr Christian Dølpher

Website: http://www.freelancegruppen.dk/

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

2c Data on the employer associations

Danish Association of Theatres
Danske Teatres Fællesorganisation

The employer organisation’s domain

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, companies pursuing all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

No – only the theatres that are considered to be ‘large’ – in contrast to the small theatres and the children’s theatres. However, no numerical limit is given.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies, within the live performance sector, in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies outside the live performance sector?

No

General information on the organisation

 

Is the employer organisation engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining

How many companies are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

11

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

2,500

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

11

How many employees work in these member companies in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

2,500

How many member companies does the employer organisation have within the live performance sector only?

11

How many employees work in these member companies within the live performance sector only?

2,500

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

None

To which European level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

PEARLE**

To which national level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

None

Source of information

Ms Hanne Josephsen

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

LOF
Association of Danish Regional Symphony Orchestras
Landdelssorkesterforeningen

The employer organisation’s domain

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, companies pursuing all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

No – only regional orchestras

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

No – the regional orchestras are symphony orchestras

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies, within the live performance sector, in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies outside the live performance sector?

No

General information on the organisation

 

Is the employer organisation engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining

How many companies are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

5

(the five regional orchestras)

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Approximately 340

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

5

How many employees work in these member companies in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

Approximately 340

How many member companies does the employer organisation have within the live performance sector only?

5

How many employees work in these member companies within the live performance sector only?

Approximately 340

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

IAOA (The International Alliance of Orchestra Associations)

To which European level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

PEARLE*

To which national level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

None

Source of information

Ms Anne Drud

Website: www.symphony.dk

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

TIO

The Theatres’ Interest Association

Teatrenes Interesse Organisation

The employer organisation’s domain

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, companies pursuing all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

NB: TIO is a merger between the Confederation of Danish Stage Companies and the Children’s Theatre Association as of September 2011

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes, potentially

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

No – only small and medium-sized theatres and children’s theatres

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies, within the live performance sector, in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies outside the live performance sector?

No

General information on the organisation

 

Is the employer organisation engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining

How many companies are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

70

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

n.a.

The number of employees changes over the year dependant of the number and size of the theatres total performances. Very few employees are employed on permanent contracts. However, taken the number of members (70) into consideration, the agreements signed by TIO cover a large number of employees during the season. The agreements with the artists unions functions as a framework agreement. All artists that are hired at the theatres are automatically covered by the relevant TIO-agreement.

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

70

How many employees work in these member companies in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

n.a.

How many member companies does the employer organisation have within the live performance sector only?

70

How many employees work in these member companies within the live performance sector only?

n.a.

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

 

To which European level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

None

To which national level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

Danish Chamber of Commerce (Dansk Erhverv)

Source of information

Ms Loa Haislund Larsen

Website: www.proscenium.dk/opslag.asp?menu=14

EIRO national correspondent: Carsten Jørgensen

3. Inter-associational relationships

3a Inter-union relationships

3a.1 Please list all trade unions covered by this study whose domains overlap within the sector.

DMF and DAF

3a.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the trade unions within the sector, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

No

3a.3 If yes, are certain trade unions excluded from these rights?

n.a.

3b Inter-employer association relationships

3b.1 Please list all employer associations covered by this study whose domains overlap within the sector.

None

3b.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the employer associations within the sector, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

No

3b.3 If yes, are certain employer associations excluded from these rights?3b.4 Are there large companies or employer associations within the sector which refuse to recognise the trade unions and refuse to enter collective bargaining?

No

4. The system of collective bargaining

4.1. Estimate the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage (i.e. the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector).

The sector’s collective bargaining rate is very low. The forms of employment in the sector are dominated by individual contracts on short term basis. No more than an estimated 15%–20% of the artists in the sector are in permanent or fixed-term employment and thus entitled to be covered by a collective agreement.

4.2. Estimate the relative importance of multi-employer agreements and of single-employer agreements as a percentage of the total number of employees covered. (Multi-employer bargaining is defined as being conducted by an employer association on behalf of the employer side. In the case of single-employer bargaining, it is the company or its subunit(s) which is the party to the agreement. This includes the cases where two or more companies jointly negotiate an agreement.)

The relative importance is estimated to be 40-60 in single-employers’ favour. It is a gross estimation. The orchestras and national theatres dominate the multi-employer agreements while the broadcasters and small theatres dominate the single-employer agreements. It should be noted that some collective agreements appear as framework agreements. The relevant agreements cover those freelance union members for the time when, for instance, they are employed in a theatre that is member of an association. However, they do not have the same rights as the permanent employees.

4.2.1. Is there a practice of extending multi-employer agreements to employers who are not affiliated to the signatory employer associations?

No

4.2.2. If there is a practice of extending collective agreements, is this practice pervasive or rather limited and exceptional?

n.a.

4.3. List all sector-related multi-employer wage agreements* valid in 2011 (or most recent data), including for each agreement information on the signatory parties and the purview of the agreement in terms of branches, type and number of employees and territory covered.

* Only wage agreements which are (re)negotiated on a reiterated basis.

Sector-related multi-employer wage agreements
Bargaining parties Purview of the sector-related multi-employer wage agreements
  Sectoral Type of employees Territorial Number of employees covered

DSF, DMF, TL - DTF

Performing arts and support activities

Musicians and actors and theatre tecnicians

National

About 2,500

DMF, TL - LOF

Performing arts and support activities

Musicians

Regional

About 340

DSF – TIO

Performing arts

Actors

National

n.a.

FDS – TIO

Support activities

Scene directors

National

n.a.

DDF – TIO

Artistic creation

Dramatists, playwrights

National

n.a.

SDS – TIO

Support activities

Scenographs

National

n.a.

TL – TIO

Support activities

Theatre technicians

National

n.a.

4.4. List the sector’s four most important collective agreements (single-employer or multi-employer agreements) valid in 2011 (or most recent data), including for each agreement information on the signatory parties and the purview of the agreement in terms of branches, type and number of employees and territory covered. Importance is measured in terms of employees covered.

Four most important agreements in terms of employees covered
Bargaining parties Purview of the agreements
  Sectoral Type of employees Territorial Number of employees covered

Danmarks Radio (DR) and all artists’ and technicians’ unions

Broadcasting

Artists and technicians of all kinds

Company

n.a.

DR was not able to say how many employees work under the different agreements, nor to say how many work under the single agreements. However, the total number during a season is high in a Danish context.

DSF, DMF, TL - DTF

Performing arts

Musicians and actors and theatre technicians

National

2,500

DMF, TL - LOF

Performing arts

Musicians and theatre technicians

Regional

340

5. Formulation and implementation of sector-specific public policies

5.1. Are the sector’s employer associations and trade unions usually consulted by the authorities in sector-specific matters? If yes, which associations?

All the mentioned employer organisations and unions mentioned above are informed and consulted on an ad hoc basis about sector-specific matters.

5.2. Do tripartite bodies dealing with sector-specific issues exist? If yes, please indicate their domain of activity (for instance, health and safety, equal opportunities, labour market, social security and pensions etc.), their origin (agreement/statutory) and the interest organisations having representatives in them:

There are no sector-specific bipartite/tripartite bodies (for instance within education and health and safety) in this sector.

6. Statutory regulations of representativeness

6a Statutory regulations of representativeness for trade unions

6a.1 In the case of the trade unions, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union must meet, so as to be entitled to conclude collective agreements? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

No

6a.2 In the case of the trade unions, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union must meet, so as to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy and to participate in tripartite bodies? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

No

6a.3 Are elections for a certain representational body (e.g. works councils) established as criteria for trade union representativeness? If yes, please report the most recent electoral outcome for the sector.

No

6b Statutory regulations of representativeness for employer organisations

6b.1 In the case of the employer organisations, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which an organisation must meet, so as to be entitled to conclude collective agreements? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

No

6b.2 In the case of the employer organisations, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which an organisation must meet, so as to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy and to participate in tripartite bodies? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

No

6b.3 Are elections for a certain representational body established as criteria for the representativeness of employer associations? If yes, please report the most recent outcome for the sector.

No

7. Commentary

There are many (employment-related) problems in this sector, in which most workers are freelancers, but recognition and representativeness are not among them. Both unions and employer organisations have a very high organisation density and they recognise each other as social partners.

Carsten Jørgensen, FAOS, University of Copenhagen

Useful? Interesting? Tell us what you think. Hide comments

Add new comment