Finland: The representativeness of trade unions and employer associations in the live performance sector

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Agreements,
  • Collective bargaining,
  • Social partners,
  • Employee representation,
  • Industrial relations,
  • Published on: 19 May 2013



About
Country:
Finland
Author:
Pertti Jokivuori
Institution:

The number of companies in the Finnish live performance sector has increased notably in the decade from 2000 to 2010. However, the majority are very small, like self-employed persons. In 2010, there were a total of 2,496 companies and 9,601 workers in the live performance sector. Despite the fact that there are quite a lot of employer associations in the live performance sector, the representativeness is clear and well-established. The trade unions are representing certain occupational groups like actors and musicians. All in all, the Finnish live performance sector has no problems of representativeness.

1. Sectoral properties

Economic background

Development of sectoral employment and companies
  2000 2010

Number of companies in the sector

1,558

2,496

Comment

   

Source of company data

Statistics Finland

Statistics Finland

Aggregate employment

8,270

9,601

Male employment

4,457

5,003

Female employment

3,813

4,598

Share of sectoral employment as a % of total employment in the economy

0.4%

0.4%

Source of employment figures

Statistics Finland

Statistics Finland

Comment

   

Aggregate employees

6,989

7,842

Male employees

3,703

3,990

Female employees

3,286

3,852

Share of sectoral employees as a % of total employees in the economy

0.3%

0.4%

Source of employee figures

Statistics Finland

Statistics Finland

Comment

   

The number of companies in the Finnish live performance sector has increased notably from the year 2000 to year 2010. However, the majority are very small, like self-employed persons. The aggregated level of employment has increased from 8,270 (in 2000) to 9,601 (in 2010). The gender-distribution is quite equal in the sector. The significant number of temporary contracts and freelancers are characteristic to the sector.

2. The sector’s trade unions and employer associations

This section includes the following trade unions and employer associations:

(i) trade unions which are party to sector-related collective bargaining

(ii) trade unions which are a sector-related member of the sector-related European Union Federations (i.e. the Media and Entertainment International – Technical Professions of the Entertainment Sector – EURO-MEI; the European Federation of Artists and Actors – EuroFIA; and the International Federation of Musicians – FIM)

(iii) employer associations which are a party to sector-related collective bargaining

(iv) employer associations (business associations) which are a member of the sector-related European Employer/Business Federation (i.e. the Performing Arts Employers Associations League in Europe – PEARLE*)

2a Overview of the Industrial relations landscape in the sector

2b Data on the trade unions

The scope of this study relates to the live performance sector, which is defined as embracing the following sub-activities:

  • Performing arts (e.g. live theatrical presentations, concerts, operas, dance productions)
  • Support activities to performing arts (e.g. activities of directors, producers, stage-set designers and builders, scene shifters, lighting engineers etc.)
  • Artistic creation (activities of individual artists such as sculptors, painters, cartoonists, engravers, etchers etc.; activities of individual writers, for all subjects including fictional writing, technical writing etc.; activities of independent journalists; restoring of works of art such as paintings etc.)
  • Operation of arts facilities (i.e. operation of concert and theatre halls and other arts facilities)
Teatteri- ja Mediatyöntekijät, Teme
Theatre and Media Employees in Finland

The union’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

Yes

4. Operation of arts facilities

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes. Teme covers workers with fixed-term contracts and freelancers.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

Yes, Teme is covering employees in the audiovisual sector too.

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Mainly multi-employer bargaining, but two single-employer agreements (in the Finnish Broadcasting Company and in the Finnish National Theatre)

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

(Nearly) equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

UNI

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

The European Federation of Artists and Actors (EuroFIA)

UNI-MEI

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

Teme is a member union of the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK).

Source of information

Spokesperson for Teme, Anne Saveljeff.

Website: www.teme.fi/

EIRO national correspondent: Pertti Jokivuori

Suomen Näyttelijäliitto, SNL
The Union of Finnish Actors

The union’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

No

3. Artistic creation

Yes

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes; employees with fixed-term contracts and freelancers are covered by the union.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

No

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining and one single-employer agreement (in the Finnish National Theatre)

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On a regular basis (at least once a year)

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Info not available according to union, but the union density is at a very high level.

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

FIA

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

The European Federation of Artists and Actors (EuroFIA)

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

The Union of Finnish Actor (SNL) does not have membership in the national level organisations.

Source of information

Organisation Secretary Helena Vesajoki

Website: www.nayttelijaliitto.fi/

EIRO national correspondent: Pertti Jokivuori

Suomen Muusikkojen Liitto, SML
The Finnish Musicians Union (FMU)

The union’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

Yes

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes. SML covers workers with fixed-term contracts and freelancers.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

No

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Info not available according to union

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

FIM (International Federation of Musicians)

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

FIM (International Federation of Musicians)

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

SML is a member union of the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK).

Source of information

Manager of Collective Bargaining, Mika Tarhio

Website: www.musicfinland.com/sml/

EIRO national correspondent: Pertti Jokivuori

Ammattiliitto Pro
The Salaried Employees' Trade Union Pro

The union’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

No

2. Support activities to performing arts

No

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No, just white-collar workers.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

No, only employees in the private sector.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

Yes; the majority of Pro members are in technology industries.

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

No

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

-

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

No

Is the consultation carried out…

-

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

-

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Info not available according to union

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

UNI

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

Euro-MEI

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

Pro is affiliated of the Finnish Confederation of Salaried Employees (STTK).

Source of information

Helka Stenroos and Liljan-Kukka Runolinna

Website: www.proliitto.fi/

EIRO national correspondent: Pertti Jokivuori

Erityisalojen Toimihenkilöliitto ERTO
Federation of Special Service and Clerical Employees ERTO

The union’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

No

2. Support activities to performing arts

No

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all of the following types of employees: Blue-collar workers and white-collar workers?

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

No

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover all occupations within the live performance sector?

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover (part of) the live performance sector in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover workers with other than standard employment contracts within the live performance sector (for instance, self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed term contracts, freelancers, etc.)?

Yes. SML covers workers with fixed-term contracts and freelancers.

According to its domain, does the union potentially cover employees outside the live performance sector?

No

General information on the union

 

Is the union engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

No

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

No

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the union within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the union being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

No

Is the consultation carried out…

-

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

-

Members

 

How many active members in employment does the organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many active members in employment does the organisation have within the live performance sector only?

Please indicate/ estimate whether the union’s density in terms of members within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Info not available according to union

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the union affiliated?

-

To which European level organisations is the union affiliated?

Euro-MEI

To which national level organisations is the union affiliated?

ERTO is affiliated of the Finnish Confederation of Salaried Employees (STTK).

Source of information

Chair of ERTO, Juri Aaltonen

Communication Manager, Kristiina Ahonen

Website: www.erto.fi/

EIRO national correspondent: Pertti Jokivuori

2c Data on the employer associations

Palvelulaitosten työnantajayhdistys ry, PTY

The Employers' Association for Service Enterprises

The employer organisation’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, companies pursuing all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

No. Domestic publicly owned companies, private companies, associations and foundations only.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies, within the live performance sector, in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies outside the live performance sector?

Yes, multiple sectors

Companies owned by municipal and private sector

Associations and foundations

General information on the organisation

 

Is the employer organisation engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Both forms apply

How many companies are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many employees work in these member companies in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many member companies does the employer organisation have within the live performance sector only?

How many employees work in these member companies within the live performance sector only?

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Lower than overall density

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Lower than overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

None

To which European level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

None

To which national level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

None

Source of information

Director of Bargaining Marja Tast

Website: www.ptyry.fi/Sivut/default.aspx

EIRO national correspondent: Pertti Jokivuori

Suomen Teatterit ry
The Association of Finnish Theatres

The employer organisation’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, companies pursuing all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

Yes

4. Operation of arts facilities

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies, within the live performance sector, in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies outside the live performance sector?

General information on the organisation

 

Is the employer organisation engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining and one single employer agreement

How many companies are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Within established tripartite structures

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On a regular basis (at least once a year)

Members

 

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many employees work in these member companies in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many member companies does the employer organisation have within the live performance sector only?

How many employees work in these member companies within the live performance sector only?

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Info not reliable, but about 50% of the Finnish professional theatres are members of Suomen Teatterit ry.

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Info not reliable, but about 75% of actors are working in theatres that are members of Suomen Teatteri ry.

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

None

To which European level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

PEARLE*

To which national level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

None

Source of information

CEO Tommi Saarikivi

Website: www.teatteriliitto.fi/

EIRO national correspondent: Pertti Jokivuori

Kunnallinen työmarkkinalaitos KT
KT Local government employers

The employer organisation’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, companies pursuing all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

Yes

4. Operation of arts facilities

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

No, only municipalities, local government organisations. KT Local government employers is an interest organisation for local government employers representing all Finnish local and joint authorities. It negotiates and concludes collective agreements in the local government sector.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies, within the live performance sector, in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies outside the live performance sector?

General information on the organisation

 

Is the employer organisation engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining

How many companies are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Please indicate the type of membership

Compulsory

Is the employer organisation being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many employees work in these member companies in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many member companies does the employer organisation have within the live performance sector only?

How many employees work in these member companies within the live performance sector only?

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

100%

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

The membership is compulsory for the municipalities to be a member of KT, based on legislation.

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

None

To which European level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

KT is a member in following organisations:

  • European Centre of Employers and Enterprises Providing Public Services (CEEP)
  • Employers´ Platform of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CEMR-EP)
  • European Hospital and Healthcare Employers’ Association (HOSPEEM)
  • European Federation of Education Employers (EFEE).

To which national level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

A KT Local government employer is an employer confederation in the local government sector.

Source of information

Labour Market Adviser Hannu Freund

Website: www.kuntatyonantajat.fi/fi/Sivut/default.aspx

EIRO national correspondent: Pertti Jokivuori

Suomen Sinfoniaorkesteri ry, SUOSIO
The Association of Finnish Symphony Orchestras

The employer organisation’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, companies pursuing all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

Yes

3. Artistic creation

Yes

4. Operation of arts facilities

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies, within the live performance sector, in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies outside the live performance sector?

No

General information on the organisation

 

Is the employer organisation engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

No, KT Local government employers do collective bargaining; SUOSIO is consulting KT, if needed.

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining and one single employer agreement; see above.

How many companies are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

 

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

Ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many employees work in these member companies in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many member companies does the employer organisation have within the live performance sector only?

How many employees work in these member companies within the live performance sector only?

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Info not reliable, but 100% of the Finnish professional symphony orchestras are members of SUOSIO.

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Info not reliable, but about 100% of musicians are working in symphony orchestras that are members of SUOSIO.

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

IAOA

To which European level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

PEARLE*

To which national level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

KT Local government employers

Source of information

Executive Manager Aila Sauramo

Website: www.sinfoniaorkesterit.fi/fi/index.php?trg=home

EIRO national correspondent: Pertti Jokivuori

Henkilöstöpaöveluyritysten Liitto, HPL
The Private Employment Agencies’ Association HPL

The employer organisation’s domain

 

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, companies pursuing all types of the sub-activities, as follows?

 

1. Performing arts

Yes

2. Support activities to performing arts

No

3. Artistic creation

No

4. Operation of arts facilities

No

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover, within the live performance sector, all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, etc.) (of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

No: only companies in the private sector, not public ownership.

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover all size classes of enterprises within the live performance sector?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies, within the live performance sector, in all regions of your country?

Yes

According to its domain, does the employer organisation potentially cover companies outside the live performance sector?

Yes; the Private Employment Agencies’ Association HPL is the employer and industry association for companies providing private employment services.

General information on the organisation

 

Is the employer organisation engaged in sector-related collective bargaining?

Yes

If yes, what form of collective bargaining?

Multi-employer bargaining

How many companies are covered by the collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

How many employees are covered by the sector-related collective agreement/s signed by the employer organisation within the live performance sector (including those covered via extension mechanisms)?

Please indicate the type of membership

Voluntary

Is the employer organisation being consulted by the authorities in sector-related matters?

Yes

Is the consultation carried out…

Unilaterally

How often do sector-related consultations occur?

On an ad-hoc basis

Members

 

How many member companies does the employer organisation have in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many employees work in these member companies in total (i.e. within the live performance sector and beyond)?

How many member companies does the employer organisation have within the live performance sector only?

How many employees work in these member companies within the live performance sector only?

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

Lower than overall density

Please indicate/ estimate whether the employer organisation’s density in terms of employees employed by member companies within the live performance sector is higher than/ lower than/ (nearly) equal to its overall density. Please provide sources, if possible.

(Nearly) equal to overall density

Affiliations

 

To which international organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

-

To which European level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

EuroCiett (International confederation of private employment agencies)

To which national level organisations is the employer organisation affiliated?

The Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK)

Source of information

Managing Director Merru Tuliara

Adviser Bettina Oldorff

Website: www.hpl.fi/henkilostopalveluyritysten_liitto/index.php

EIRO national correspondent: Pertti Jokivuori

3. Inter-associational relationships

3a Inter-union relationships

3a.1 Please list all trade unions covered by this study whose domains overlap within the sector.3a.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the trade unions within the sector, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

No, these three unions are representing different occupational groups, and they are representing these groups in the collective bargaining.

3a.3 If yes, are certain trade unions excluded from these rights?

n.a.

3b Inter-employer association relationships

3b.1 Please list all employer associations covered by this study whose domains overlap within the sector.3b.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the employer associations within the sector, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

The employer associations have specialised to represent certain kinds of companies. So, there are no rivalries or competition among the organisation.

3b.3 If yes, are certain employer associations excluded from these rights?

n.a.

3b.4 Are there large companies or employer associations within the sector which refuse to recognise the trade unions and refuse to enter collective bargaining?

No, there are not.

4. The system of collective bargaining

4.1. Estimate the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage (i.e. the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector).

The rate of collective bargaining coverage varies between the sub-sectors in the live performance sector a lot. One reason for that is the great number of freelancers and temporary workers. The estimation of the rate of collective bargaining coverage is around 60%.

4.2. Estimate the relative importance of multi-employer agreements and of single-employer agreements as a percentage of the total number of employees covered. (Multi-employer bargaining is defined as being conducted by an employer association on behalf of the employer side. In the case of single-employer bargaining, it is the company or its subunit(s) which is the party to the agreement. This includes the cases where two or more companies jointly negotiate an agreement.)

The rate of multi-employer agreements is around 80%, and the rate of the single-employer agreements is 20%. The most important single-employer agreements are concerning the Finnish Broadcasting Company YLE and the Finnish National Theatre (Kansallisteatteri).

4.2.1. Is there a practice of extending multi-employer agreements to employers who are not affiliated to the signatory employer associations?

The practice of extending collective agreements is pervasive.

The collective agreements have a generally or universally binding nature. Since 1971, a principle of general applicability of collective agreements has been in effect in Finland. In accordance with this principle, unorganised employers also have to comply with the national agreements relevant to their line of business. The generally binding character of a collective agreement depends on various factors, especially the organising rate of employers and employees in the industry concerned. A public authority (commission of the Ministry of Labour) formally decides whether collective agreements are generally binding. The authority’s decision may be appealed at the Labour Court, whose decision is final. The decision regarding the general validity will be published in the Regulations Collection, which is maintained by the authorities, and a list of generally binding collective agreements are available free of charge on the internet.

In 2001, the so-called confirmation procedure of universally binding collective agreements was introduced, in which a special commission confirms the general applicability. An agreement is generally applicable if it can be considered sufficiently representative of the field in question. The criteria for being representative are evaluated based on statistics which measure the general applicability of collective agreements, along with the established practices of agreements in the field, and the organisation rate of the negotiating parties. The aim of the system of general applicability to guarantee minimum conditions is also taken into consideration.

4.2.2. If there is a practice of extending collective agreements, is this practice pervasive or rather limited and exceptional?

This practice is pervasive.

4.3. List all sector-related multi-employer wage agreements* valid in 2011 (or most recent data), including for each agreement information on the signatory parties and the purview of the agreement in terms of branches, type and number of employees and territory covered.

* Only wage agreements which are (re)negotiated on a reiterated basis.

Sector-related multi-employer wage agreements
Bargaining parties Purview of the sector-related multi-employer wage agreements
  Sectoral Type of employees Territorial Number of employees covered

The Association of Finnish Theatres and the Theatre and Media Employees in Finland (Teme)

Support activities and occupation concerning operation of arts facilities)

Occupations concerning support activities

National, generally binding

1,500

The Association of Finnish Theatres and the Union of Finnish Actors

The collective agreement of actors

Actors

National, generally binding

1,200

KT Local government employers and the Finnish Musicians Union (FMU)

Musicians in symphony orchestras owned by municipalities

Musicians

National, generally binding

800

The Association of Finnish Theatres and the Finnish Musicians Union (FMU)

Temporary musicians in theatres

Musicians

National, generally binding

660

The Finnish Hospitality Association, MaRa and the Finnish Musicians Union (SML)

Restaurant musicians

Musicians

-

500

The Employers’ Association for Service Enterprises and the Finnish Musicians (SML)

Musicians

Musicians

National, generally binding

500

KT Local government employers and the Union of Finnish Actors

Actors in theatres owned by municipalities

Actors

National, generally binding

200

The Association of Finnish Theatres and the Finnish Musicians Union (FMU)

Permanent musicians in theatres

Musicians

National, generally binding

140

* The Finnish Union of Journalists (Suomen Journalistiliito, SJL) in involved in the collective agreements, but according to the Director of SJL, Petri Savolainen, the members of SJL are not classified as in the live performance sector.

4.4. List the sector’s four most important collective agreements (single-employer or multi-employer agreements) valid in 2011 (or most recent data), including for each agreement information on the signatory parties and the purview of the agreement in terms of branches, type and number of employees and territory covered. Importance is measured in terms of employees covered.

Four most important agreements in terms of employees covered
Bargaining parties Purview of the agreements
  Sectoral Type of employees Territorial Number of employees covered

The Association of Finnish Theatres and the Theatre and Media Employees in Finland (Teme)

Support activities and occupation concerning operation of arts facilities)

Occupations concerning support activities

National, generally binding

1,500

The Association of Finnish Theatres and the Union of Finnish Actors

The collective agreement of actors

Actors

National, generally binding

1,200

KT Local government employers and the Finnish Musicians Union (FMU)

Musicians in symphony orchestras owned by municipalities

Musicians

National, generally binding

800

The Association of Finnish Theatres and the Finnish Musicians Union (FMU)

Temporary musicians in theatres

Musicians

National, generally binding

660

5. Formulation and implementation of sector-specific public policies

5.1. Are the sector’s employer associations and trade unions usually consulted by the authorities in sector-specific matters? If yes, which associations?

According to interviews of the representatives of the employer associations and trade unions all organisations are usually consulted by the authorities in sector-specific matters.

5.2. Do tripartite bodies dealing with sector-specific issues exist? If yes, please indicate their domain of activity (for instance, health and safety, equal opportunities, labour market, social security and pensions etc.), their origin (agreement/statutory) and the interest organisations having representatives in them:

Sector-specific public policies*
Name of the body and scope of activity Bipartite/tripartite Origin: agreement/statutory Trade unions having representatives (reps) Employer associations having reps.

The Central Forum of Theatre Organisations

(Teatterijärjestö-jen Keskusliitto)

Bipartite

Agreement (the organisation has been established in 1942)

The Theatre and Media Employees in Finland (Teatteri- ja Mediatyöntekijät, Teme) and

The Union of Finnish Actors (Suomen Näyttelijäliitto, SNL)

The Association of Finnish Theatres (Suomen Teatterit ry)

* Sector-specific policies specifically target and affect the sector under consideration.

6. Statutory regulations of representativeness

6a Statutory regulations of representativeness for trade unions

6a.1 In the case of the trade unions, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union must meet, so as to be entitled to conclude collective agreements? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

In Finland, the central principles of collective bargaining have been recorded in the Collective Agreements Act:

The employer party may be one or more employers or a registered association of employers. The employee party must be a registered employee association. The term employer association refers to an association whose main purpose is to look after the employers’ interests in employment relationships. The term employee association, on the other hand, refers to an association whose main purpose is to look after the employees’ interests in employment relationships.

6a.2 In the case of the trade unions, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union must meet, so as to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy and to participate in tripartite bodies? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

No statutory regulations exist.

6a.3 Are elections for a certain representational body (e.g. works councils) established as criteria for trade union representativeness? If yes, please report the most recent electoral outcome for the sector.

No.

6b Statutory regulations of representativeness for employer organisations

6b.1 In the case of the employer organisations, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which an organisation must meet, so as to be entitled to conclude collective agreements? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

See the answer in Section 6a.1.

6b.2 In the case of the employer organisations, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which an organisation must meet, so as to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy and to participate in tripartite bodies? If yes, please briefly illustrate these rules and list the organisations which meet them.

No statutory regulations exist.

6b.3 Are elections for a certain representational body established as criteria for the representativeness of employer associations? If yes, please report the most recent outcome for the sector.

No.

7. Commentary

Despite the fact that there are quite a lot of employer associations in the live performance sector, the representativeness is clear and well-established. The trade unions are representing certain occupational groups like actors and musicians. All in all, the Finnish live performance sector has no problems of representativeness.

Pertti Jokivuori, University of Jyväskylä

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