Cyprus: Developments in collectively agreed pay 2013

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Agreements,
  • Collective bargaining,
  • Pay and income,
  • Working conditions,
  • Industrial relations,
  • Published on: 05 June 2014



About
Country:
Cyprus
Author:
Eva Soumeli
Institution:

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

1 – General collectively agreed pay increases

1.1 Indexation of salaries

  • Is a mechanism on wage indexation in place in your country? If so, please briefly describe the main features (name of agreement/law, is it the basis for further agreements, who makes the agreements…).

In Cyprus, there is a system of pay indexation, the Cost of Living Adjustment (COLA) that is used as a basis for pay increases. The system is the result of an agreement between the employer organisations and the trade unions that goes back in 1944, and it is considered to be one of the most important achievements of the Cypriot trade union movement.

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is calculated by the Statistical Service of Cyprus (CYSTAT) on the basis of a basket of goods.

According to the current system for calculating the COLA, the wages of all employees covered by collective agreements are readjusted every 12 months (on 1 January) on the basis of the percentage change in CPI over the preceding 12 months period.

  • Please give the nominal increase in % as stated in the agreement
  • from 2012 to 2013 and
  • from 2011 to 2012.

The COLA increase for 2011 was 2.6%.

The COLA increase for 2012 was 3.0% (1.7% on 1 January 2012 and 1.3% on 1 July 2012). Before March 2013, when a new system for calculating the COLA has been introduced (see section 1.1.5), the wages of all employees covered by collective agreements were readjusted every six months (on 1 January and 1 July) on the basis of the percentage change in CPI over the preceding six-month period.

The Memorandum of Understanding on Specific Economic Policy Conditionality, (MoU) that was reached on 16 March 2013 and finalised on 25 March 2013 provides for a total freeze payment of the COLA for the period from 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2014.

  • What was the exact period for which the pay increase has been agreed:
  • from 2012 to 2013 (for example: 1 March 2012 – 28 February 2013),
  • from 2011 to 2012 (for example 1 March 2011 – 29 February 2012)?

In case the agreement has been made for an indefinite duration (i.e. with no period for renewal mentioned), please state this.

In 2011, the exact period for which the pay increase has been agreed was on 1 January 2011 and on 1 July 2011.

In 2012, the exact period for which the pay increase has been agreed was on 1 January 2012 and on 1 July 2012.

  • Were there any recent debates on changing the mechanism?

The political commitment on the social dialogue on COLA mechanism has come in response to the CSRs for 2011 on wage indexation (CY1301019Q). In practical terms, the discussion on the reform of the COLA system started during 2012 as a result of the deterioration of the Cypriot economy and the possibility of financial assistance from euro area Member States.

Despite a framework agreement on the continued payment of a cost-of-living allowance by private sector businesses that was reached between the social partners and the government in February of 2012 (CY1202019I), a new system for calculating the COLA was introduced providing for a total freeze payment of the COLA for the period from 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2014.

In particular, the new system for calculating the COLA, retained most of the elements of a proposal put forward by the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance (MLSI) in November 2012 (CY1303029Q) and approved by all three biggest trade unions: the Democratic Labour Federation of Cyprus (DEOK), the Pancyprian Federation of Labour (PEO) and the Cyprus Workers' Confederation (SEK). In the unions’ rational, although the ministry’s proposal is considered particularly harsh for the employees, as it effectively cancels out the automatic nature of the system, some of the characteristics of the system are retained, while indexation can still be arranged through collective bargaining.

On the opposite direction, the Employers and Industrialists Federation (OEB) had made a counterproposal for a freeze for as long as the memorandum will be in force, and also account would be taken of the financial behaviour throughout the whole year rather than just the last two quarters.

It is noted, that the general principal of indexation, as well as the system of calculation have been repeatedly criticised by employer organisations in Cyprus that they would prefer that the whole system be abolished (CY0808019Q). The issue of altering the system, and in particular the relationship between indexation and productivity levels in Cyprus, was last seriously discussed between social partners over a two-year period between 1995 and January 1997 (CY1211029I).

  • Were there any recent major changes to the mechanism?

The foreseen reform, under the provisions of the MoU (i.e. section 4.1), acts on relevant elements of the indexation system, as follows:

A lower frequency of adjustment, with the base period for calculating the COLA being lengthened from the current period of six months to twelve months. Indexation would take place on 1st January each year;

a mechanism for automatic suspension of application and derogation procedures during adverse economic conditions, such that if in the second and third quarters of a given year negative rates of growth of seasonally adjusted real GDP are registered, no indexation would be effected for the following year; and

a move from full to partial indexation, with the rate of wage indexation being set at 50% of the rate of increase of the underlying price index over the previous year.

As far as the implementation of the new system is concerned, it is provided that a tripartite agreement will be pursued with social partners for the application of the reformed system in the private sector by the end of 2013.

Based on the current economic outlook, wage and salary indexation is foreseen not to be applied in the private sector until 2014.

  • Which (economic) indicators provide the basis for discussion on the amount of increase? (This could be past inflation, expected inflation, growth of labour productivity, etc.).

According to section 4.1 of the MoU that refers to the reform of the COLA system, to ensure that wage growth better reflects developments in labour productivity and competitiveness, in both expansions and recessions, the Cypriot authorities will reform the wage-setting framework for the public and private sector in such a way as to improve real wage adjustment. In the same direction, the employer organisations consider that labour productivity on the sectoral and enterprise levels and competitiveness of enterprises should constitute the basic elements of the new automatic pay indexation system, even after exiting the crisis. It should be mentioned that for the employer organisations the term competitiveness refers essentially to the profitability of enterprises.

  • Please give an estimate number of employees covered by the agreement/law.

The system of COLA applies at national level and covers employees in all sectors of the economy. However there are no data available on the exact coverage rates.

It is estimated that the system of COLA covers about 70,000 employees in the public and the semi-public sectors, as well as about 150,000 employees in the private sector, that makes a total of approximately 70% of all employees.

Given that wage indexation in Cyprus applies to the outcomes of collective bargaining, in theory it applies only to workers covered by collective agreements. However, in practice, wage indexation covers all employees, regardless of whether they are a member of a trade union.

1.2 Central agreements or minimum increases set by government covering ‘the whole’ or major parts of the economy

In some countries major (cross-sectoral) agreements between social partners or minimum increases prescribed by government exist which cover either ‘the whole’ or major parts of the economy and serve as a basis for further agreements to be made at different levels.

  • If there is such an agreement in your country, please provide the name of the agreement.

n/a

1.3 Sectoral pace or trend setting agreements

In some countries major sectoral agreements serve as pace-setting agreements, i.e. the negotiated increases are then taken in other sectors as well.

  • If there is such an agreement in your country, please provide the name of the agreement.

n/a

1.4 ‘Average’ of collectively agreed pay increases as evidenced in databases or surveys

  • Is there in your country a statistical source, which allows the calculation of weighted or non-weighted averages of collectively agreed pay rises across major parts of the economy? If so, please report what was the average collectively agreed increase per annum stemming from this database (from 2012 to 2013 and from 2011 to 2012)

No such databases exist.

  • For countries where indexation of salaries (section 1.1): Does the average increase reported above include the increase by indexation?

No such databases exist.

2 – Pay increases related to three sectors

This section aims to gather data on collectively agreed pay increases/pay increases set by law related to the three sectors:

  • Chemicals
  • Retail and
  • the Civil service.
  1. Is there a database which records the collective agreements for the different sectors? If such a database is available, which allows you to give an “average” of collectively agreed pay increase, please report this in the first place. If this is available, no further factsheets need to be reported.
  2. In case such an “average” figure does not exist, please report “the most important” collective agreement or pay set by law.

2.1 Outcomes of sector related pay setting: Chemicals sector

  • What was the nominal collectively agreed pay increase (a) from 2012 to 2013 and (b) from 2011 to 2012

n/a

  • To what exact periods do these changes refer?

n/a

  • Please describe if and how wage bargaining/setting within the sector is coordinated within the sector (i.e. sector and company level), with institutions outside the sector (e.g. peak level organisations) and possibly also across sectors.

The chemical sector is a typical example of single-employer bargaining where collective agreements are concluded between the Cyprus Industrial Workers Federation (OVIEK-SEK) and the Cyprus Union of Workers Industry, Trade, Press and Printing and General Services (SEVETTYK-PEO), directly with the companies without the involvement of an employer association.

In terms of pay, during the last two years (i.e. 2012 and 2013) the two trade unions noted a decrease of membership and a weakened bargaining power that is accompanied by pay freezes and pay cuts. In particular, pay freezes and pay cuts were agreed in all but one of the five main collective agreements in the sector valid in 2012 (CY1402039Q):

  1. The collective agreement between Medochemie Ltd and the trade unions OVIEK-SEK and SEVETTYK-PEO provides for a decrease of 4% in the Provident Fund and 1.8% in the 14th months payment. The duration of the agreement is from 1 July 2013 until 30 June 2014. Medochemie Ltd is active in the subsector of pharmaceutical products and is the largest enterprise in the chemical sector with a total of 585 employees in December 2013.
  2. Under the collective agreement between Pattichis/ Remedica Ltd and the trade unions OVIEK-SEK and SEVETTYK-PEO pay freezes are implemented for the whole period of validity that goes from 1 January 2011 until 31 December 2013. Pattichis/Remedica Ltd is active in the subsector of pharmaceutical products with a total of 550 employees in December 2013.
  3. A special clause of the collective Agreement between Lordos United Plastics Public Ltd and the trade unions OVIEK-SEK and SEVETTYK-PEO provides for a decrease of 5% in the Provident Fund, 4.1% in the 13th months payment and 3.9% on the 14th months payment. The duration of the agreement is from 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2013. Lordos United Plastics Public Ltd is active in the subsector of plastic products with a total of 220 employees in December 2013.
  4. The collective agreement between the Elysee and the trade unions OVIEK-SEK and SEVETTYK-PEO provides for a decrease of 4.5% in the Provident Fund and 1.8% in the 14th months payment. The duration of the agreement is from 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2014. Elysee is active in the subsector of plastic products with a total of 107 employees in December 2013.
  5. The Collective agreement between Aegis Pharmaceuticals and the trade unions OVIEK-SEK and SEVETTYK-PEO that is valid from 1 January 2012 until 31 December 2013 provides for an increase in the basic pay of 1% for the year 2012 and 1% for the year 2013. Aegis Pharmaceuticals is active in the subsector of pharmaceutical products with a total of 105 employees in December 2013.
Table 2.1A: Metadata for average figures for the chemicals sector derived from databases

Name of the statistical source

n/a database

Which bargaining levels exist in the sector?

Table 2.1B: Metadata for individual agreements / law for the chemicals sector

At company level (single-employer agreement, including cases where more agreements cover a number of companies).

Company level agreements (single-employer).

Name of the agreement

Collective agreement between Pattichis/ Remedica Ltd and the trade unions OVIEK-SEK and SEVETTYK-PEO

Who are the signatory parties?

Pattichis/ Remedica Ltd and the trade unions OVIEK-SEK and SEVETTYK-PEO

Duration of the agreement in months.

36 months

Period of validity (day/month/year).

1 January 2011 until 31 December 2013

Is the agreement extended to non-affiliated employees or companies?

Although there is no extension mechanism in place, the agreement covers all employees.

Which bargaining levels exist in the sector?

At what level has the agreement been concluded?

Scope of agreement(s) in terms of employees

Scope of agreement(s) in terms of companies

Sectoral scope of the agreement

  • Please provide any additional comments.

In the chemical sector there were five main collective agreements valid in 2012 (CY1402039Q).

2.2 Outcomes of sector related pay setting: Retail sector

  • What was the nominal collectively agreed pay increase (a) from 2012 to 2013 and (b) from 2011 to 2012

n/a

  • To what exact periods do these changes refer?

n/a

  • Please describe if and how wage bargaining/setting within the sector is coordinated within the sector (i.e. sector and company level), with institutions outside the sector (e.g. peak level organisations) and possibly also across sectors.

Collective bargaining in the retail sector is restricted solely to a very small part of the enterprise level, specifically to a few large enterprises, mainly department stores and supermarkets, for which collective bargaining didn’t take place during 2012 and 2013. It is important to mention that even in the cases where collective bargaining takes place, the minimum levels imposed by legislation are mostly higher than those provided by the collective agreements (CY0808019Q).

Against the above background, unlike other sectors of economic activity where collective bargaining has traditionally played a leading part in regulating labour relations, in retail legislation is the primary regulatory instrument. In particular, retail sales staff is among the nine occupations that are currently covered by existing legislation on minimum wage (see below under section 3). In this context, the statutory minimum for retail sales staff in 2012 was set at Euro870 from Euro855 in 2011, while for employees who have worked for the same employer for six consecutive months, the minimum wage was set at Euro924 from Euro909 in 2011. The minimum wages in 2013 remained at the levels of 2012.

Table 2.2A: Metadata for average figures for the retail sector derived from databases

At company level (single-employer agreement, including cases where more agreements cover a number of companies).

Company level agreements (single-employer).

Company level

Company level.

Blue collar

Yes

White collar

Yes

Roughly how many employees does the agreement cover in total (including those resulting from extension)?

Approximately 550 employees.

Does the agreement refer to certain subgroups of companies?

No

Is it extended to non-affiliated companies?

No

Roughly how many companies does the agreement cover within the ‘core’ chemical sector (including those resulting from extension)?

One

NACE codes at the 3-DIGIT level for all activities covered in the agreement.

Pattichis/Remedica Ltd is active in the subsector of manufacture of pharmaceuticals products (NACE 21.1, Rev. 2).

Name of the statistical source

n/a database

Which bargaining levels exist in the sector?

2.3 Outcomes of sector related pay setting: Civil service

  • What was the nominal collectively agreed pay increase (a) from 2012 to 2013 and (b) from 2011 to 2012

There were no pay increases during the period from 2011 to 2013.

  • To what exact periods do these changes refer?

There were no pay increases during the period from 2011 to 2013.

  • Please describe if and how wage bargaining/setting within the sector is coordinated within the sector (i.e. sector and company level), with institutions outside the sector (e.g. peak level organisations) and possibly also across sectors.

The first collective bargaining mechanism in the civil service was established during colonial rule in 1947, with the Joint Consultative Committee (MEP) as the official bargaining body. The MEP has been operating ever since on the same principles, albeit with various modifications made for restructuring purposes. The latest modification made on 8 December 1993 involved the reform and updating of its statutes, but without any substantial changes to its general objectives or competencies. Together with its Permanent Sub-committee, the MEP is the official agency for collective bargaining between the government as employer and all civil servants, for the regulation of the general terms and conditions of employment in the public service sector, through their trade union organisation the Pancyprian Public Employees Trade Union (PASYDY), as well as other representative trade unions in the civil service, depending on the sector (i.e. healthcare). In particular, the government side is represented by two members: the Director General of the Ministry of Finance, who is Chairman of the Joint Consultative Committee, and the Director of the Public Administration and Personnel Service. The official side of the Permanent Joint Consultative Committee sub-committee consists of the Director of the Public Administration and Personnel Service or his representative, who is also chairman of the subcommittee. In the above context, the employment status of civil service employees, and employees throughout the public sector (with the exception of the broader public sector, e.g. the semi-governmental organisations), is to a large extent determined via collective bargaining. Specifically, in accordance with the provisions of the statutes and rules of the MEP, issues of general principle may be the subject of collective bargaining with regard to: (a) recruitment, (b) promotion, (c) working hours, (d) leave, (e) public holidays, (f) medical care, (g) discipline, (h) emoluments and pay supplements with regard to individual jobs, groups of jobs or the public service as a whole, (i) retirement benefits, and any other issues affecting the terms and conditions of service relative to any job or group of jobs or the public service as a whole.

Currently there is no collective agreement in place for the civil service sector. Since 2011, changes in terms and conditions of employment for civil service employees have been imposed by the enactment of specialised legislation without the consent of the social partners, based on the government's commitments under European economic governance (CY1307019Q).

Table 2.3A: Metadata for average figures for the civil service sector derived from databases

At company level (single-employer agreement, including cases where more agreements cover a number of companies).

yes

Name of the statistical source

n/a database

Which bargaining levels exist in the sector?

Table 4.3B: Metadata for individual agreements / law for the civil service sector

At sectoral or subsectoral (branch) level (multi-employer agreement).

Yes

Name of the agreement

Since 2011 there is no collective agreement in the civil service sector (see below section 2.3.4).

  • Please provide any additional comments.

Based on Cyprus’ commitments under all four priority areas of the EuroPlus Pact, the government put forward a number of measures. Specifically, in fostering competitiveness, a policy of containment of public sector wages has been put forward, including also the civil service. In this context, the most important measures affecting directly the wages of civil service employees are the following:

  • Total freeze of wages, salaries and pensions for a period of two years from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012, Law 192(I)/2011.
  • Total freeze of wages, salaries and pensions for a period of four years from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2016, Law 185(I)/2012 that amended Law 185(I)/2011.
  • Total freeze payment of the COLA. Initially, the measure was applied for a period of two years 2011 and 2012, but with the enactment of Law 185(I)/ 2012 on 21 December 2012 the measure was extended to cover the period from 1 January 2012 until 31 December 2016.
  • Reduction on gross monthly earnings of wages, salaries and pensions, initially for a period of two years from 1 December 2012 to 31 December 2014 (2011-2012) as illustrated in the following table (Law 168(I)/2012):
Monthly gross earnings % of contribution

0-€1,000

0%

€1,001 - €1,500

6.5%

€1,501-€2,000

8.5%

€2,001-€3,000

9.5%

€3,001-€4,000

11.5%

> €4,001

12.5%

Source: Law 185(I)/2011

It should be mentioned that deductions as illustrated in the above table refer also to the 13th salary. According to the provisions of the Law 168(I)/2012 from 1 January 2014 a further decrease of 3% will apply to gross monthly earnings of wages, salaries and pensions irrespective of the level of the amount.

For an extensive list of all measures affecting directly the level of wages for those working in CPA, the reader should refer to Annex 1 of the MoU.

In terms of pay determination, the MoU provides that as part of further reforms of the public administration, the authorities will commission an independent external review on the possibility to introduce an appropriate system of remuneration and working conditions (e.g. annual vacation leave, sick leave, maternity leave, working time), in relation to the private sector and to other EU countries and based on best practices, together with a new performance based appraisal system in the public sector, for development and promotion purposes, linking performance with the remuneration system/ increments (CY1310029I).

3 – National minimum wages

This section aims to gather information on the developments and discussions regarding national minimum wages set by law or agreement, with respect to full adult rate and the youth rate.

  • What was the absolute level of the national gross minimum wage in national currency in 2012 and 2013.

Cyprus does not stipulate a minimum wage at national level that must be observed in collective bargaining at various specific levels – sectoral or company. Nevertheless, based on existing legislation Chapter 183 of the Minimum Wages Law, national minimum wages and salaries apply to nine specific occupations: sales staff, clerical workers, auxiliary healthcare staff, auxiliary staff in nursery schools, in crèches and in schools, security guards, caretakers and cleaners.

As regards the amount of minimum pay, until May 2012, when the relevant legislation was renewed for last time, the level of minimum wages was set annually by the government in consultation with the social partners, with the minimum fixed at a monthly rate and enforced by a decree of the Council of Ministers.

Specifically according to the most recent Order (No. 180/2012) that is effective retroactively from 1 April 2012, the minimum monthly salary for the new job entrants in seven of the nine occupational categories - excepting that of cleaners and security guards - is set at Euro870 from Euro855 in 2011, while for employees who have worked for the same employer for six consecutive months, the minimum wage is set at Euro924 from Euro909 in 2011. For the occupational category of cleaners the minimum hourly rate is set at Euro4.55 and Euro4.84 for employees who have worked for the same employer for six consecutive months, while the minimum hourly rate for the occupational category of security guards is set at Euro4.90 and Euro5.20 accordingly.

  • What was the increase (in %) of the national gross minimum wage between 2012 and 2013?

There was no increase between 2012 and 2013.

  • Was there a national minimum wage for specific groups (e.g. youth) in place in 2013? What % of the full rate is paid for these groups?

Minimum rates apply to all, irrespective of age.

  • How was the minimum wage determined in 2013? What was the involvement of social partners in the determination of the minimum wage?

Section 4.2 of the MoU foresees that in order to prevent possible adverse competitiveness and employment effects, the Cypriot authorities commit that, over the programme period, any change in the minimum wage covering specific professions and categories of workers should be in line with economic and labour market developments and will take place only after consultation with the programme partners. Within these lines, minimum wages in 2013 remained at the levels of 2012.

  • Please describe any discussions or debates involving governments, social partners, or other relevant organisations about the national minimum wage (and the minimum wage for young workers) which took place during 2013.

There were no relevant discussions or debates during 2013.

4. Country information on wage bargaining

This section aims to update the information on wage bargaining that is available per country on the website ef/observatories/eurwork/collective-wage-bargaining/country-info?country_tid=13837 in section ‘On wage bargaining’.

  • Does the paragraph on Bargaining system reflect the current state? If not, please provide here an updated version.

The paragraph on the bargaining system reflects the current state.

  • Does the paragraph on Timing reflect the current state? If not, please provide here an updated version.

The paragraph on Timing reflects the current state.

  • Does the paragraph on Derogation reflect the current state? If not, please provide here an updated version.

Derogation is possible, but no ‘hard’ figures on its extent are available for Cyprus.

The Department of Labour Relations reported for 2012 that more employers proceed to unilateral changes of the terms and conditions of employment that in most cases result in a partial violation of the collective agreements and fewer people covered. Partial violation either means that not all the provisions of the agreement are enforced, or that only a small portion of the staff is covered, usually the permanent staff that are union members.

Nevertheless, from interviews with the social partners that took place in the framework of the EIRO comparative analytical report on changes in Wage Setting Mechanisms in the context of the Crisis and New Economic Governance (CY1402049Q) it is evident that during the last two years (i.e. 2012 and 2013) a constantly growing number of opening clauses has been concluded.

Instead however of the term opening clause, social partners in Cyprus prefer to refer to special agreements or provisions within an existing agreement that take the form of a hardship clause as a result of the current economic crisis. Specifically, in cases where a separate agreement is concluded between the bargaining parties at sector and/or company level, this works supplementary to the basic agreement. This means that the bargaining parties sign an agreement that can actually replace the basic agreement only in relation to specific terms and conditions of employment and within a specific period of validity. Regarding the content of opening clauses, in particular in the field of pay, most of such agreements provide for pay freezes and/or a reduction on wages and salaries and other payments (e.g. 13th salary, Easter bonus, employer contributions to provident funds etc). Nevertheless, from the examination of sectoral and company collective agreements in five core sectors of economic activity (i.e. banking, chemical, construction, hotels and metal) it is apparent that although these arrangements (e.g. pay cuts) are linked with the current economic crisis, this connection is not made explicit in the collective agreements. PEO and SEK also reported that many of these arrangements at company level are implemented without the prior consent of the trade unions. Particularly in non-unionised areas, PEO and SEK reported that pay cuts were implemented aimed at saving more jobs. In the opinion however of the two unions, these arrangements did not in practice safeguard jobs, as in most cases after a time pay cuts were followed by dismissals. In this way, the workers also lost out on severance pay, since severance pay is directly linked to the most recent salary. As a result workers lost out doubly or even triply in cases where the most recent salary is also counted in for pension purposes. Overall, PEO and SEK are of the opinion that although the decision to use an opening close at company level should lay with the collective bargaining parties at the specific level, employer associations tend to intervene by giving general guidelines to their member companies. Already in January 2012, OEB recommended that private enterprises should freeze wage rises and pay no cost-of-living increases in 2012 and 2012 (CY1202019Q), while as recently as in December 2013, the Cyprus Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCCI) issued a newsletter encouraging its member companies with immense economic problems to bargain with employees and/or their representatives for not granting the 13th salary or part of it. It is noted that of the different types of special arrangements provident funds is the area with the most consensuses between the bargaining parties.

  • Please write a short background text (max. 150 words) on extension mechanisms in your country.

In Cyprus there is neither legal provision for mandatory extension of the collective agreements, nor is there a functional equivalent.

The former Ministry of Labour Sotiroula Charalambous (i.e. February 2008 - February 2013) initiated in 2012 a discussion in the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance (MLSI) about the adoption of legislation that will give successive Ministers of Labour the ability to extend the term of the collective labour agreements, by order and in specific conditions, in a whole sector or in specific enterprises. Legislation in this regard will be aimed at making the collective agreements statutory, whereas the order will be temporary in the framework of the economic crisis.

The relevant discussion was however abandoned by the present Minister of Labour Zeta Emilianidou (i.e. April 2013).

It is noted that according to the Cyprus Industrialists Federation (OEB), the employer organisations will not agree in any way to discuss matters of extension of the collective agreements.

Eva Soumeli, INEK

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