Publications

Search results: 858 items found
  • Article
    6 January 2003

    This report examines industrial relations developments in 2001 in the world's
    three leading economies - the European Union, Japan and the USA - with the
    aim of highlighting some of the main areas of difference and similarity. It
    looks at a number of important structures and processes and the way in which
    several key issues - such as pay and working time - were dealt with in 2001.
    The information for the EU is taken mainly from the European Industrial
    Relations Observatory (EIRO), while the data for Japan and the USA are taken
    largely from special reports on industrial relations developments in 2001
    prepared for EIRO from experts in these countries - see JP0211101F [1] and
    US0211101F [2]- plus sources such as the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS
    [3]) and the Japan Institute of Labour (JIL [4]). Further background
    information on the industrial relations systems of the EU, Japan and USA is
    provided in TN0111148F [5].

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/2001-annual-review-for-japan
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/2001-2-annual-review-for-the-usa
    [3] http://www.bls.gov/
    [4] http://www.jil.go.jp/
    [5] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/industrial-relations-in-the-eu-japan-and-usa-2000

  • Article
    6 January 2003

    In late 2002, unemployment began to rise in Norway after a long period when
    it stood at low levels. The rising trend in unemployment results from low
    growth in the global economy and a decline in the competitiveness of domestic
    industries vis-à-vis Norway’s main trading partners. The problems
    experienced by national manufacturing industry have raised particular
    concerns. These developments have led to discussion of a possible
    revitalisation of incomes policy cooperation and generated debate about the
    present interest rate policy of the Bank of Norway (Norges Bank).

  • Article
    6 January 2003

    On 17-19 November 2002, a European conference on the gender wage gap in
    Europe was held in Oslo, Norway. The conference was the culmination of a
    European comparative project entitled 'Towards a closing of the gender wage
    gap [1]', which has looked at wage differentials between women and men in
    three occupations in six European countries. The overall objective of the
    project has been to 'examine the gender pay gap in a broad perspective,
    against the backdrop of wage formation and pay systems', and to identify the
    most efficient tools with which to close the gap. At the conference [2], the
    comparative report and six national reports [3] were presented and discussed.

    [1] http://www.likestilling.no/genderpaygap/
    [2] http://www.likestilling.no/genderpaygap/conference.html
    [3] http://www.likestilling.no/genderpaygap/documents.html

  • Article
    6 January 2003

    GDP declined by 0.5% in real terms in 2001, representing a reversal in trend
    after the relatively high growth of 2.4% in the previous year. A major factor
    behind this was listless private investment, together with sluggish private
    consumption expenditure: private fixed investment, which had recorded a
    substantial increase of 10.4% in 2000, increased by a mere 0.4% in 2001, and
    private housing investment shifted from an increase of 1.6% to a substantial
    decline of 7.9%. Moreover, external demand made a substantial negative
    contribution to GDP due to a decline in exports (a fall of 6.6% in real
    terms) against a backdrop of the slowdown in the world economy. On the other
    hand, in the midst of sluggish domestic private demand and external demand,
    'official fixed capital formation' (public investment) - a variable policy of
    the government - which had declined by 9.8% in the previous year, declined by
    3.4% in 2001.

  • Article
    6 January 2003

    In December 2002, the management of Fiat and the Italian government reached a
    'programme agreement' on the reorganisation of the company's troubled
    automobile division. The trade unions have sharply criticised the deal and
    taken industrial action in protest, since they believe that the impact on
    employment is excessive and that the guarantees provided for the company's
    revival are insufficient.

  • Article
    6 January 2003

    There has been considerable debate in Finland on the growth of service sector
    employment and on the provision of services by the public or private sectors.
    In this context, the Employers' Confederation of Service Industries
    commissioned a research study in autumn 2002 on the development of
    productivity. According to the findings, labour productivity in Finland's
    private services has increased by 60% during the past 20 years. It is
    believed that the provision of services still has great growth potential in
    employment terms.

  • Article
    6 January 2003

    On 10 December 2002, Wolfgang Clement, the new Minister for the Economy and
    Labour, met with Michael Sommer, president of the German Federation of Trade
    Unions (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB), and Dieter Hundt, president of the
    Confederation of German Employers’ Associations (Bundesvereinigung der
    Deutschen Arbeitgeberverbände, BDA), to discuss the chances for a revival of
    the tripartite Alliance for Jobs, Training and Competitiveness (Bündnis für
    Arbeit, Ausbildung und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit [1]). While the Alliance has not
    been formally abandoned, the last top-level meeting was held in early 2002
    and many observers have expressed doubts that the consultations will
    continue.

    [1] http://www.buendnis.de/

  • Article
    6 January 2003

    In December 2002, two bills aimed at combating racism and discrimination were
    amended by the Belgian Senate after being approved by the Chamber of
    Representatives. The first of these complements existing legislation on
    racism, while the second prohibits and sets out penalties for all forms of
    discrimination, and broadens the competences of the Centre for Equal
    Opportunities and the Fight against Racism. The aims of the new legislation
    include addressing discrimination on the labour market, which several recent
    studies have found to be widespread. The social partners are unhappy that
    they have not been involved in drafting the new legislation.