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  • Article
    25 September 2003

    Since the early 1990s, the once strategically important Polish armaments
    industry entered a period of decline, faced with shrinking domestic demand,
    the loss of export markets, technological backwardness and excess employment,
    along with only limited restructuring. However, the social partners and
    government have cooperated successfully in tripartite efforts to manage the
    reduction and restructuring of employment in the sector. In 2003 a number of
    developments, such as new orders and an 'offset' programme accompanying the
    purchase of new planes for the Polish air force, indicate that the future
    prospects of the arms industry may be somewhat brighter.

  • Article
    25 September 2003

    In August 2003, a law was passed in Greece which provides for public sector
    organisations to recruit unemployed people and other groups in a difficult
    labour market position on part-time, fixed-term contracts in order to provide
    certain social services, such as home care. The legislation has been
    criticised by the Confederation of Public Servants (ADEDY).

  • Article
    25 September 2003

    In July 2003, the Greek Corps of Labour Inspectors (SEPE) issued its annual
    progress report for 2002. It finds an increasing use of overtime, despite
    recent legislation aimed at reducing it, and of flexible forms of employment,
    such as part-time work. With regard to accidents at work, the overall number
    has risen, but there has been a small decrease in fatal accidents .

  • Article
    25 September 2003

    On 14 September 2003, Sweden held a referendum on whether the country should
    join the euro single currency. All political parties had ended their
    campaigns before the date of the referendum following the murder a few days
    earlier of the Foreign Minister, Anna Lindh, an event which had left the
    nation in shock. The government stressed the importance of all citizens
    voting in the poll, in the circumstances, and the turn-out proved to be 82.1%
    of those entitled to vote. Only in 1994, when the Swedes voted to join the
    European Union, had the turn-out in a referendum been higher, at 83.3%.

  • Article
    24 September 2003

    The Ministry of Labour's report on collective bargaining in France in 2002,
    published in June 2003, finds that there was general stability in the number
    of agreements concluded. There was a slight increase in the amount of
    intersectoral bargaining, while a rise in the number of national-level
    sectoral agreements was offset by a decline in sectoral bargaining at
    subnational level. With regard to company-level bargaining, changes in the
    data-collection methods make comparison with previous years virtually

  • Article
    24 September 2003

    A major law on pension reform was finally passed by the French parliament on
    24 July 2003, after lengthy debate in both houses. Although the majority of
    the government's bill - which included changes agreed with a number of trade
    unions - was retained, many amendments were made. Opposition to the law
    remains strong among unions and the political opposition.

  • Article
    24 September 2003

    In autumn 2003, an economic downturn has led to stagnation in the French
    labour market and an upswing in unemployment, which is nearing 10%. Job
    losses are increasing as bankruptcies and redundancy plans become commonplace
    throughout much of the economy, with some regions particularly hard hit.

  • Article
    24 September 2003

    Belgium's next round of four-yearly 'social elections' of employee
    representatives on works councils and committees for prevention and
    protection at the workplace will take place in May 2004. This article sets
    out the election timetable and procedure and examines a number of changes
    made since the last elections in 2000 .

  • Article
    22 September 2003

    In July 2003, the Collective Agreement Archive (Tarifarchiv) of the Institute
    for Economic and Social Research (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches
    Institut, WSI) within the Hans Böckler Foundation published its interim
    report on the 2003 collective bargaining round [1]- WSI publishes such
    interim reports every year (DE0207203F [2]). The study evaluates all
    collective agreements concluded by trade unions affiliated to the
    Confederation of German Trade Unions (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB) in
    the first half of 2003. These collective agreements cover 3.6 million
    employees, or 17% of all employees covered by collective agreements. However,
    many sectors - such as metalworking, banking, construction and the postal
    service - do not have a pay bargaining round in 2003 because collective
    agreements concluded in 2002 already fixed pay increases for 2003.


  • Article
    22 September 2003

    On 11 August 2003, the Minister for Labour Affairs, Frank Fahey, published a
    consultation paper [1] on how the EU information and consultation Directive
    (2002/14/EC) [2] (EU0204207F [3]) should be transposed into Irish law.
    Interested parties had until 24 September 2003 to make submissions to the
    government, which intends to publish an Information and Consultation of
    Employees Bill in the summer of 2004, with a view to enactment by March 2005.
    This is the transposition deadline set by the Directive, though there are
    transitional arrangements for Member States, such as Ireland, currently
    without 'general, permanent and statutory' information and consultation
    systems, allowing these countries to phase in the application of the
    Directive to smaller undertakings up to March 2008



  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications