Publications

Browse publications

Latest publications

  • CAR
    30 June 2003

    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [1] and should be read in conjunction with it.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/sites/default/files/ef_files/eiro/2003/02/word/tn0210q.doc

  • Article
    30 June 2003

    Die Arbeitskosten, also alle Aufwendungen, die einem Arbeitgeber durch die
    Beschäftigung von Arbeitskräften entstehen, bilden zweifellos den Dreh- und
    Angelpunkt der Arbeitsbeziehungen. Zu den Hauptbestandteilen der
    Gesamtarbeitskosten, wie sie Eurostat im Einklang mit der von der
    International Conference of Labour Statisticians vereinbarten internationalen
    Begriffsbestimmung [1] definierte, zählen die Arbeitnehmerentgelte (darunter
    Löhne und Gehälter), die Sozialbeiträge der Arbeitnehmer, Aufwendungen
    für die berufliche Bildung und Steuern zu Lasten des Arbeitsgebers. Die
    Höhe des Direktentgelts wird in den meisten europäischen Ländern in
    Tarifverhandlungen festgelegt oder von diesen stark beeinflusst. Zugleich
    nehmen die Sozialpartner in zahlreichen Ländern (über Verhandlungen oder
    auf anderem Wege) auch auf Faktoren wie die Höhe der
    Arbeitgebersozialbeiträge oder die Aufwendungen für die berufliche Bildung
    Einfluss. Man könnte also mit Fug und Recht behaupten, dass es bei den
    Arbeitsbeziehungen zu einem großen Teil um die Festlegung der Arbeitskosten
    geht.

    [1] http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/res/labcos.htm

  • Article
    29 June 2003

    In May 2003, Schiesser Pallas, a subsidiary of the German apparel
    multinational, Schiesser AG, announced that it was to close down its sewing
    operations in Greece, citing relatively high labour costs compared with
    countries such as Bulgaria and Romania. Despite detailed trade union
    counter-proposals, consultations failed to produce results and 500
    redundancies are expected soon.

  • Article
    29 June 2003

    Measures implemented by companies to help their employees in reconciling work
    and family responsibilities are still relatively rare in Italy. However, the
    findings of a survey, published in 2003, highlight a number of interesting
    'family-friendly' schemes introduced by Italian companies in recent years.
    The survey indicates that these companies provide a varied mix of measures,
    including innovative working time arrangements and telework, company services
    for families and childcare, allowances and benefits, and specific
    career-support measures for employees with family commitments.

  • Article
    29 June 2003

    Hungary, with an average per capita GDP of less than 75% of the EU average,
    expects to use approximately HUF 1,100 billion to HUF 1,600 billion (EUR 4.4
    billion to EUR 6.4 billion) of money from the Community Structural and
    Cohesion Funds – Hungarian co-financing included – over the period
    between its accession to the Union on 1 May 2004 and the end of 2006.
    Pursuant to EU Council Regulation (EC) No. 1260/1999 [1] laying down general
    provisions on the Structural Funds, eligible countries are expected to
    prepare their development objectives and priorities in the framework of
    National Development Plans (NDPs) and submit them to the European Commission.
    These NDPs will be the basis for discussions with the Commission which will
    produce Community Support Frameworks (CSFs) containing the financial
    commitments of the EU and the government of the recipient country concerning
    spending on jointly financed development areas. According to Article 8 of the
    Council Regulation, partnership between the national government and social as
    well as civil actors is a key component of the Plans. The application of the
    principle of partnership should be extended to the preparation, financing,
    monitoring and evaluation of Community grants.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31999R1260&model=guichett

  • Article
    26 June 2003

    The major industrial dispute over a new collective agreement for blue-collar
    workers in the municipal and city council sector (SE0305101N [1]) was due to
    escalate in the first week of June 2003. Some 47,000 members of the Municipal
    Workers' Union (Svenska Kommunalarbetareförbundet, Kommunal) were already on
    indefinite strike across the country since the previous week and the union
    gave notice of a further strike from 4 June by 18,000 bus drivers in Sweden's
    three largest cities. Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, plus 137
    municipalities (out of 290), were thus due to be hard hit by industrial
    action. The Union of Service and Communication (Facket för Service och
    Kommunikation, Seko) had also given notice of a sympathy strike by all 400
    train drivers on commuter services in the three cities, adding to the
    expected traffic chaos.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/major-pay-conflict-breaks-out-in-municipal-sector

  • Article
    26 June 2003

    January 2003 saw the first genuine strikes organised in Slovakia since it
    became independent in 1993 (SK0211103F [1]). The strikes took place on the
    railways as a consequence of long-term disputes between trade unions and
    management. Railworkers had previously been on the verge of strike action on
    several occasions in recent years. In late 1998 there were calls for a
    strike, while in the following year trade unions set a strike date during
    lengthy negotiations on pay increases. However, the negotiations led to a
    compromise with railways management and the planned strike was cancelled. In
    2001, a two-hour strike was announced by the trade unions but cancelled one
    hour before it was due to start because of a lack of organisational
    preparedness.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-regulation-of-collective-disputes

  • Article
    26 June 2003

    In April 2003, a new law on 'social employment' came into force in Poland,
    aimed at providing support and employment to up to the country's large number
    of people faced with social exclusion, such as long-term unemployed people,
    alcoholics and drug addicts, former prisoners, and people with mental
    illnesses. The legislation sets up social integration centres to provide
    assistance and integration programmes, and creates a system of subsidised
    employment to encourage employers to take on people from the target groups.

  • Article
    26 June 2003

    In the 2003 Dutch collective bargaining round, occupational pension issues
    have led to a deadlock in negotiations at a number of major companies,
    notably in financial services and industry. Employers want to reform their
    pension schemes radically, as shrinking capital reserves and increasing
    numbers of claimants have depleted their funds. The Akzo Nobel chemicals
    group even wants to hive off its pension fund, making it independent. The
    trade unions are fiercely opposed to this plan and other more drastic
    austerity measures, but are increasingly prepared to accept a greater use of
    average-salary rather than final-salary schemes and a temporary suspension of
    pensions indexation.

  • Article
    25 June 2003

    The French government is due to propose legislation after the summer 2003
    parliamentary recess reforming the 'minimum integration income' (RMI) benefit
    and assistance scheme for people facing labour market difficulties. Much of
    the responsibility for the scheme is to be decentralised to local level,
    while a new form of employment contract - the 'minimum employment income'
    contract - will be introduced for people who have been receiving RMI for two
    years.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications