At the end of April 2003, the Work Environment Authority (Arbetsmiljöverket)
presented its annual statistics for 2002. It highlighted the positive
development of the figures on fatal accidents at work, which are now much
lower than previously. During 2002, 45 employees were killed by accidents at
work (43 of whom were men), compared with 46 in 2001 (41 men, five women). Of
the fatal accidents in 2002, 13 occurred in the transport sector, 12 in the
building sector and eight in manufacturing industry. There are about 4.2
million employees in Sweden. Looking at the cause of the fatal accidents in
2002, 19 employees were killed in vehicle (cars, trucks etc) accidents, nine
died in 'fall' accidents (eg falling from scaffolding), nine died after being
struck by objects, six died in machinery accidents, one was killed in a
robbery and one by an explosion.
Since the coalition government of the conservative People’s Party
(Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) and the populist Freedom Party
(Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ) resumed office in February 2003,
Austria’s public debate has been dominated by the government’s plans for
a fundamental reform of the public pensions system. This reform is designed
to reduce considerably future expenditure on pension benefits, especially for
(younger) employees in the private sector (AT0305201N ).
In February 2002, the Vice Prime Minister, Gianfranco Fini, and the three
main trade union confederations - the General Confederation of Italian
Workers (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro, Cgil), the Italian
Confederation of Workers’ Unions (Confederazione Italiana Sindacato
Lavatori, Cisl) and the Union of Italian Workers (Unione Italiana del Lavoro,
Uil) - signed a general framework agreement on the forthcoming renewal of
national collective agreements for public sector workers. It included average
wage increases of 5.56% for 2002-3, a higher percentage than the government's
predicted inflation rate (IT0203102N ).
An innovative agreement was signed in May 2003 at the SEAT motor
manufacturing plant in Martorell, Spain, providing for long-term flexibility
of working time to deal with reduced production between June 2003 and March
2004, thus preventing redundancies. Reduced working time over this period
will be recovered in 2004 when production increases.
In May 2003, elections to Rsu trade union representation bodies were held at
Fiat's largest plant in Italy, the Mirafioiri site in Turin. Fiom-Cgil won
the largest share of the vote, while Fim-Cisl came second (and first in the
plant's important bodywork department).
In March 2003, as part of its Global Aging Initiative  (GAI), the
Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies, CSIS )
released a special report entitled Germany and the challenge of global aging
, which examines the way that the aging population is likely to transform
Germany’s economy over the next half century. The report asserts that,
unless Germany implements sweeping reforms, it will face an era of fiscal
crisis amid widespread labour shortages and slower economic growth - an issue
which has also been under debate in Germany (DE0304103N ).
A large-scale strike which began in early May 2003 more or less paralysed the
Faroe Islands. Ships bringing goods and food from Denmark were not unloaded
and supplies in shops began to run out. Petrol stations did not receive
supplies of petrol and the oil tanks in houses were not refilled. Schools and
kindergartens were closed down due to lack of cleaning. Furthermore, all
Faroese fish markets and fish processing companies were hit hard by the
strike. Overall, about 30% of the working population stopped working due to
The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work launched the 'first
pan-European campaign to reduce the risks of chemicals, biological agents and
other dangerous substances at work' on 13 May 2003 at the European Parliament
in Strasbourg. The campaign will form the heart of the Agency's annual
European Week on Safety and Health at Work  in October 2003 and will
provide a range of information about the risks involved and the solutions
through various media. The week will culminate with the announcement of the
winners of the Agency’s 'European good practice awards' for organisations
that have most successfully tackled the problems of dangerous substances in
Irish civil servants could face 'fines' if disciplined under a new law that
is expected to come into force in late 2003 (currently the Civil Service
Regulation (Amendment) Bill 2003). At present, the Civil Service Regulation
Act 1956 establishes the terms and conditions of employment for all 30,000
civil servants. Under the 1956 Act, a civil servant found guilty of
misconduct, irregularity, neglect or unsatisfactory behaviour can be
downgraded or lose a pay increment.
La couverture de la négociation collective et les mécanismes permettant d’étendre les dispositions des conventions collectives au-delà des membres des organisations signataires sont des facteurs qui influencent de façon importante les procédures et les pratiques de fixation des salaires, du temps de travail et des conditions de travail, et de ce fait ont également un impact sur la croissance économique.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The impact of COVID-19 has moved public health up the EU social policy agenda. As the EU directs its efforts towards establishing a European Health Union to guard against future health crises, this policy brief examines the extent to which the EU achieved upward convergence in terms of health and healthcare outcomes, as well as health expenditures and delivery, prior to the pandemic. It also examines convergence patterns in infections and deaths from COVID-19 and in the mitigating measures adopted by the EU and national governments.
This report addresses the main developments in statutory and collectively agreed working time regulation in 2019 and 2020. It covers several aspects of the duration of working time in the EU, such as information on maximum numbers of working days and weeks, normal working weeks and paid annual leave across the countries and within selected sectors. The report focuses on the education, health, transport, retail and public administration sectors, and provides accounts of major developments in working time regulation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This report examines the labour market changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected sectors and occupations quite differently. It identifies those labour market categories most exposed to negative labour market outcomes. It analyses how differences in confinement and public health approaches may have contributed to different outcomes. It addresses previous assessments of the extent of occupational ‘teleworkability’ and of the sectoral impact of confinement rules. The report draws on EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) data for its analysis.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the audiovisual sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the audiovisual sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This report explores the impact of the use of digital technologies on work organisation and job quality, as well as the role of social dialogue and employee involvement in the digitisation process. The three technologies analysed are the Internet of Things, 3D printing, and virtual and augmented reality. The report draws on the views of experts and policy stakeholders and includes insights from 10 case studies of European establishments that have deployed one or more of the three digital technologies.