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  • Article
    11 June 2003

    Following several draft versions and a series of consultations, the coalition
    government of the Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt, MSZP
    [1]) and the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats (Szabad Demokraták
    Szövetsége, SZDSZ [2]) submitted a bill on 'healthcare service providers
    and organisation of public health service' to parliament in March 2003.


  • Article
    11 June 2003

    In spring 2003, Alstom, the French-based engineering multinational, announced
    a major Europe-wide restructuring plan which includes stringent cuts in its
    activities. The group may be selling off its shipbuilding division and
    announced job losses in its power and transport infrastructure divisions at
    various works council meetings in April, May and June. There have been fierce
    reactions from trade unions in France, while the Alstom European Works
    Council has brought a court case.

  • Information sheet
    11 June 2003

    Information sheets set out a brief overview of each project, forming a useful introduction point. They answer key questions as to: What is the project about? Why is the research being carried out? What are the findings/objectives and whom do they concern? When will the project be completed? How might the findings be translated into action? This information sheet provides a brief overview of a forthcoming report on the subject of economically dependent workers. Their situation has been widely debated in most countries throughout Europe. The comparative study looks at how the emergence of this new category has called into question the existing regulatory framework and highlighted possible shortcomings in the current system of labour protection. It also examines how the growth of new forms of employment has had an impact on the national industrial relations systems of certain countries, leading to changes in the structure of representation and/or the content of collective bargaining.

  • Article
    10 June 2003

    On 28 May 2003, the largest German business daily, Handelsblatt [1],
    published evidence that appears to suggest that the German federal government
    (Bundesregierung) 'massaged' policy recommendations in the economic survey of
    Germany [2] (DE0302106F [3]) published by the Organisation for Economic
    Cooperation and Development (OECD) in December 2002. The OECD is an
    international organisation with the stated aim of helping governments to
    tackle current economic, social and governance challenges.


  • Article
    10 June 2003

    In the first half of 2003, sectoral collective bargaining has been proceeding
    in Belgium within the framework of the intersectoral agreement for 2003-4.
    The agreements concluded by June indicate that the economic slowdown is
    having a major impact on employees' purchasing power, though there have been
    advances in areas such as employment, training, the status of blue-collar
    workers and end-of-career arrangements. Bargaining remains difficult in a
    number of large sectors.

  • Article
    10 June 2003

    In May 2003, Spain's UGT trade union confederation highlighted the unequal
    situation of women and men in employment, and notably a gender pay gap of
    around 30%. Women are also, it is claimed, subject to occupational
    segregation, higher unemployment and less stable employment.

  • Article
    10 June 2003

    At the end of April 2003, the Work Environment Authority (Arbetsmiljöverket)
    presented its annual statistics for 2002. It highlighted the positive
    development of the figures on fatal accidents at work, which are now much
    lower than previously. During 2002, 45 employees were killed by accidents at
    work (43 of whom were men), compared with 46 in 2001 (41 men, five women). Of
    the fatal accidents in 2002, 13 occurred in the transport sector, 12 in the
    building sector and eight in manufacturing industry. There are about 4.2
    million employees in Sweden. Looking at the cause of the fatal accidents in
    2002, 19 employees were killed in vehicle (cars, trucks etc) accidents, nine
    died in 'fall' accidents (eg falling from scaffolding), nine died after being
    struck by objects, six died in machinery accidents, one was killed in a
    robbery and one by an explosion.

  • Article
    10 June 2003

    Since the coalition government of the conservative People’s Party
    (Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) and the populist Freedom Party
    (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ) resumed office in February 2003,
    Austria’s public debate has been dominated by the government’s plans for
    a fundamental reform of the public pensions system. This reform is designed
    to reduce considerably future expenditure on pension benefits, especially for
    (younger) employees in the private sector (AT0305201N [1]).


  • Article
    10 June 2003

    In February 2002, the Vice Prime Minister, Gianfranco Fini, and the three
    main trade union confederations - the General Confederation of Italian
    Workers (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro, Cgil), the Italian
    Confederation of Workers’ Unions (Confederazione Italiana Sindacato
    Lavatori, Cisl) and the Union of Italian Workers (Unione Italiana del Lavoro,
    Uil) - signed a general framework agreement on the forthcoming renewal of
    national collective agreements for public sector workers. It included average
    wage increases of 5.56% for 2002-3, a higher percentage than the government's
    predicted inflation rate (IT0203102N [1]).


  • Article
    10 June 2003

    An innovative agreement was signed in May 2003 at the SEAT motor
    manufacturing plant in Martorell, Spain, providing for long-term flexibility
    of working time to deal with reduced production between June 2003 and March
    2004, thus preventing redundancies. Reduced working time over this period
    will be recovered in 2004 when production increases.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications