Following several draft versions and a series of consultations, the coalition
government of the Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt, MSZP
) and the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats (Szabad Demokraták
Szövetsége, SZDSZ ) submitted a bill on 'healthcare service providers
and organisation of public health service' to parliament in March 2003.
In spring 2003, Alstom, the French-based engineering multinational, announced
a major Europe-wide restructuring plan which includes stringent cuts in its
activities. The group may be selling off its shipbuilding division and
announced job losses in its power and transport infrastructure divisions at
various works council meetings in April, May and June. There have been fierce
reactions from trade unions in France, while the Alstom European Works
Council has brought a court case.
Information sheets set out a brief overview of each project, forming a useful introduction point. They answer key questions as to: What is the project about? Why is the research being carried out? What are the findings/objectives and whom do they concern? When will the project be completed? How might the findings be translated into action? This information sheet provides a brief overview of a forthcoming report on the subject of economically dependent workers. Their situation has been widely debated in most countries throughout Europe. The comparative study looks at how the emergence of this new category has called into question the existing regulatory framework and highlighted possible shortcomings in the current system of labour protection. It also examines how the growth of new forms of employment has had an impact on the national industrial relations systems of certain countries, leading to changes in the structure of representation and/or the content of collective bargaining.
On 28 May 2003, the largest German business daily, Handelsblatt ,
published evidence that appears to suggest that the German federal government
(Bundesregierung) 'massaged' policy recommendations in the economic survey of
Germany  (DE0302106F ) published by the Organisation for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD) in December 2002. The OECD is an
international organisation with the stated aim of helping governments to
tackle current economic, social and governance challenges.
In the first half of 2003, sectoral collective bargaining has been proceeding
in Belgium within the framework of the intersectoral agreement for 2003-4.
The agreements concluded by June indicate that the economic slowdown is
having a major impact on employees' purchasing power, though there have been
advances in areas such as employment, training, the status of blue-collar
workers and end-of-career arrangements. Bargaining remains difficult in a
number of large sectors.
In May 2003, Spain's UGT trade union confederation highlighted the unequal
situation of women and men in employment, and notably a gender pay gap of
around 30%. Women are also, it is claimed, subject to occupational
segregation, higher unemployment and less stable employment.
At the end of April 2003, the Work Environment Authority (Arbetsmiljöverket)
presented its annual statistics for 2002. It highlighted the positive
development of the figures on fatal accidents at work, which are now much
lower than previously. During 2002, 45 employees were killed by accidents at
work (43 of whom were men), compared with 46 in 2001 (41 men, five women). Of
the fatal accidents in 2002, 13 occurred in the transport sector, 12 in the
building sector and eight in manufacturing industry. There are about 4.2
million employees in Sweden. Looking at the cause of the fatal accidents in
2002, 19 employees were killed in vehicle (cars, trucks etc) accidents, nine
died in 'fall' accidents (eg falling from scaffolding), nine died after being
struck by objects, six died in machinery accidents, one was killed in a
robbery and one by an explosion.
Since the coalition government of the conservative People’s Party
(Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) and the populist Freedom Party
(Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ) resumed office in February 2003,
Austria’s public debate has been dominated by the government’s plans for
a fundamental reform of the public pensions system. This reform is designed
to reduce considerably future expenditure on pension benefits, especially for
(younger) employees in the private sector (AT0305201N ).
In February 2002, the Vice Prime Minister, Gianfranco Fini, and the three
main trade union confederations - the General Confederation of Italian
Workers (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro, Cgil), the Italian
Confederation of Workers’ Unions (Confederazione Italiana Sindacato
Lavatori, Cisl) and the Union of Italian Workers (Unione Italiana del Lavoro,
Uil) - signed a general framework agreement on the forthcoming renewal of
national collective agreements for public sector workers. It included average
wage increases of 5.56% for 2002-3, a higher percentage than the government's
predicted inflation rate (IT0203102N ).
An innovative agreement was signed in May 2003 at the SEAT motor
manufacturing plant in Martorell, Spain, providing for long-term flexibility
of working time to deal with reduced production between June 2003 and March
2004, thus preventing redundancies. Reduced working time over this period
will be recovered in 2004 when production increases.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report explores the drivers of economic and social convergence in Europe, using a selected set of economic and social indicators to examine trends in the performance of individual Member States. It also investigates what role the Economic and Monetary Union plays in convergence, particularly in southern and eastern Member States. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on convergence is analysed and initial conclusions are drawn about the impact of EU recovery packages and their ability to prevent divergence.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the textiles and clothing sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the textiles and clothing sector in the EU Member States.
This report analyses how working conditions, job quality and working life outcomes – such as work–life balance, health and well-being, and sustainability of work – changed between February 2020 and spring 2021. Following up on responses to the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, it explores the differences between three distinct groups of workers: those teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic, those who continued to work on their employers' premises as frontline staff, and those who were furloughed or worked reduced hours.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the professional football sector in the EU Member States.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.