Publications

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Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.


  • Trade unions slow to integrate ethnic minorities

    A recent report by the research institute FAFO, published in October 2005, shows that the trade union movement is not doing enough to embrace ethnic minorities. While approximately 100,000 immigrants from non-Western countries are currently employed in the Norwegian labour market, not one of them participated in the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO) National Congress in 2005. If the composition of the 315 delegates were to represent the ethnic make-up of the Norwegian workforce, there should have been 14 non-western delegates in attendance. FAFA examines how five different national trade unions within LO have responded to the question of including ethnic minorities. It reveals that the Norwegian trade union movement is not fully realising its potential by failing to take into account this group, and that ethnic minorities are strongly underrepresented in the different trade union bodies .
  • All work and no play for middle managers

    A recent survey conducted at the beginning of 2005 by Apq, the Italian association of professionals and middle managers (affiliated to the Italian Confederation of Workers’ Unions, Cisl) looked at the role of middle management. The survey reveals that middle managers work more than in the past, have higher job flexibility, less spare time, approve of training but dislike the changes in the workplace that arise through technological innovation, and above all, earn less money.
  • Employers’ organisations reviewed

    In the course of Hungary's transition from the state-socialist system to parliamentary democracy, the employers’ organisations that existed under the socialist regime had to face the disappearance of their exclusive and monopolistic privileges in the representation of business interests. The socialist-era associations used to organise distinct segments of the economy that were separated artificially by the regime following the socialist notion of ownership-types - such as state-owned companies, industrial cooperatives and private micro firms. Membership was practically compulsory. However, the negotiated nature of the transition made it possible for the employers' bodies to reform themselves in order to preserve organisational continuity and to adapt to the new environment. At the same time, new organisations were set up to represent new interest groups. This dual process has resulted in a highly fragmented representation structure of business interests.
  • Government unveils family-friendly measures

    At the 2005 Conference on the Family, the government announced several new policies, including a mini-reform of paid parental leave. These announcements have not been greeted with unanimous approval by trade unions.
  • Research examines position of unions at Nordic companies' operations in Baltic States

    The Nordic-Baltic Project [1] was launched in spring 2004 by several manufacturing and construction sector trade union organisations from the Nordic states - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden - which worked in close cooperation with more than 20 Baltic industrial trade unions in the project. The aim of the scheme, which ends in December 2005, has been to examine the position of trade unions in the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), where Nordic firms have expanded rapidly in recent years (for information on Finnish investment in the region, see FI0407203F [2]) As part of the project, Markku Sippola of the University of Jyväskylä in Finland has conducted research on industrial relations at Nordic-owned construction and manufacturing companies. This article presents some of Mr Sippola’s findings from the two studies he conducted as part of the Nordic-Baltic Project. The first of these was published in May 2005 and the second in November 2005. [1] http://www.baltictu.net/project/strategyandprojectplanEN.pdf [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/finnish-labour-intensive-manufacturers-expand-into-new-member-states
  • Continuing training and collective agreements

    In recent years, the National Agreements for Continuing Training (ANFCs) have established a continuing training subsystem. It was initially centralised and based mainly on the initiative of the social partners, but the 2004 reform decentralised the management to the autonomous communities, which led to a greater involvement by the government at different levels. The ANFCs have fostered social consultation in the framework of industrial relations that, albeit with limited effects, has developed continuing training. A large percentage of the collective agreements - particularly sectoral ones - adhere to the ANFCs and they are responsible for developing them. This article looks at how the signatories view the way in which training is dealt with in collective agreements.
  • Study examines employee participation in enterprises

    In November 2005, the Estonian Employers’ Confederation (Eesti Tööandjate Keskliit, ETTK [1]) (EE0310102F [2]) and the PRAXIS Center for Policy Studies [3] published a study [4] of employee participation in Estonian companies, written by two economists from PRAXIS (Epp Kallaste and Krista Jaakson). The subject of employee participation in companies has been very little studied in Estonia and there is no information on the extent to which employees’ representatives are involved in the decision-making process. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of other countries’ experiences in the field of employee participation and to analyse how participation works under the various forms of employee representation found in Estonia. [1] http://www.ettk.ee/ [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-development-and-current-situation-of-employers-organisations-1 [3] http://www.praxis.ee/ [4] http://www.ettk.ee/upload/koolitus_fail/Partnerlus/ETTK_uuring2005_EST.pdf
  • Christmas bonuses - an overview

    According to data published in November 2005 by the Collective Agreement Archive (Tarifarchiv) of the Institute for Economic and Social Research (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI) within the Hans Böckler Foundation (Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, HBS), almost three out of four, or 73%, of employees receive at least a Christmas bonus, a profit-sharing payment or some other annual bonus payment. The data [1] are based on an evaluation of some 30,000 online-questionnaires filled in by employees as part of the German Wage-indicator Project [2], and reveal that 84% of employees who are covered by a collective agreement receive such a bonus, compared with only 59% of employees not covered by collective agreements. Whereas 75% of respondents in western Germany said they received a bonus, only 61% of respondents in eastern Germany reported such a payment. The industries where employees are most likely to receive such a payment are chemicals, finance and the automotive industry - see table 1 below. Examining individual occupations, chemical laboratory assistants or industrial mechanics are twice as likely to receive an annual bonus payment as a waiter or waitress. [1] http://www.lohnspiegel.de/index.php?pid=53 [2] http://www.lohnspiegel.de/
  • Positive impact of work-life balance policies in companies

    On 10 November, the Cologne Institute for Economic Research (Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln, IW Köln) reported [1] the main findings of its study on best practices of work-life balance policies in collective and works agreements. The survey was conducted on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Family Affairs (Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend, BMFSJ). This survey of agreements between the social partners at the company and industry level reveals that the conditions for reconciling career issues with family life have improved over the years. Programmes have been implemented in various fields, such as flexible working-time arrangements and teleworking, the care of family members, parental leave and family assistance. [1] http://www.iwkoeln.de/default.aspx?p=content&i=18652&ss=
  • Employers call for better vocational training

    At the end of 2004, Bulgaria remained the country with the lowest labour productivity within the EU. While an increase in productivity is usually dependent on increased economic growth, the restructuring of employment towards higher productivity sectors can also have a positive impact. Only high technological sectors have the potential for accelerated growth in productivity and the economy is confined to low and medium technological production facilities. Employers are aware of these problems and recognise the relationship between employees’ qualifications and increased productivity.

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