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Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.

  • New initiatives on fighting discrimination in the workplace

    In late 2004, 35 French companies signed a 'diversity charter'. committing them to fighting labour market discrimination based on ethnic origin. At the same time, a report submitted to the government by a leading employers' representative has advocated proactive policies for recruiting among groups of /'visible minority'/ people. Meanwhile, the Court of Auditors has been profoundly critical of the past 30 years of French immigration policy.
  • Discrimination in salary levels

    The Spanish Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs published an article in June 2004 on how salaries are set in Spain (Formación de salarios en la economía española - 2Mb pdf; in Spanish [1]). The paper seeks to identify the factors that play a role in determining salaries, and to assess whether pay differences by gender and type of contract are subject to discrimination. [1]
  • Uncertain status of economically dependent workers

    Economically dependent workers (326 Kb pdf) [1] constitute a grey area in the labour market, displaying both employed and self-employed characteristics. However, they are economically dependent on the company that hires them, and a significant proportion are, in effect, subordinate employees, who have to respect work schedules and shifts (e.g. in call centres). [1]
  • Developments in women's representation on company boards

    On 1 December 2004, the Centre for Corporate Diversity (CCD) published a study on the representation of women at company board level and in management in the Nordic countries. It finds that the board-level representation of women in Norway is higher than in the other Nordic countries, but that there are fewer women in management positions than in Sweden and Iceland. Other studies carried out in the course of 2004 indicate similar developments. Although Norwegian companies are doing well in comparison with other countries, the proportion of women on company boards is still far from the objective of 40% set by the Norwegian government in 2003 (NO0306106F [1]). To achieve this end, new regulations came into force in publicly-owned companies on 1 January 2004 (see below). In response to the new regulations, the Confederation of Norwegian Business and Industry (Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon, NHO) has initiated a gender equality programme called 'Female Future', which is an attempt to speed up the process of getting more women onto the board and into management positions in Norwegian companies through education and networking. [1]
  • Committee rejects right to increased hours for part-timers

    On 6 December 2004, a government-appointed committee presented its recommendations on how to reduce 'underemployment'. The committee’s mandate was to examine the extent of part-time work in Norway and to propose measures to reduce the occurrence of 'underemployment' or 'involuntary' part-time work. The level of part-time work is comparatively high in Norway, and may be explained by a high labour market participation rate, in particular among women. Although underemployment is not regarded as a general problem, it nevertheless poses a challenge in some female-dominated sectors of the national economy. Thus among the measures considered by the committee was the introduction of a statutory right for part-time workers to increase their working hours through being given preference in relation to new or vacant positions. The report [1] of the committee is now to be considered by the relevant organisations. [1]
  • Wave of early retirement schemes

    In an effort to reduce operating and payroll costs, a number of Greek enterprises, mostly in the area of banking and public utilities, turned to early retirement and other 'voluntary exit' schemes in late 2004. The reaction of trade unions varied from case to case, with plans to cut the workforce at the Hellenic Telecommunications Organisation (OTE) proving particularly controversial.
  • Controversy over civil servants' right to strike

    The main legal act dealing with the resolution of collective labour disputes and the calling and organisation of strikes and lock-outs is the Collective Labour Dispute Resolution Act (which entered into force in June 1993) (EE0402102F [1]). A collective labour dispute is defined as a disagreement between an employer or an association of employers and employees or a union of employees that arises from entry into, or performance of, collective agreements, or from the establishment of new employment conditions (EE0309102F [2]). The parties must consult the public conciliator in writing if an agreement is not reached through negotiations and the threat of a disruption of work arises. The right of employees to organise a strike to resolve a labour dispute arises only if: there is no prohibition against disruption of work in force; the conciliation procedure is not successful; an agreement is not complied with; or a court order is not executed. [1] [2]
  • CSC/ACV calls for changes to social security funding

    In the mid-1990s, the Confederation of Christian Trade Unions (Confédération des Syndicats Chrétiens/Algemeen Christelijk Vakverbond, CSC/ACV) - Belgium's largest trade union organisation - launched a 'plan for the future', aimed at more work, more fiscal justice and more social security. In late 2004, CSC/ACV revised the plan, which calls for an alternative financing of the social security system, and started a renewed campaign to promote its content.