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In September 1994, the Council of Ministers decided on a Directive on the establishment of a European Works Council (EWC) for the purposes of informing and consulting employees (94/45/EC). The emergence of EWCs is a major part of the development of an industrial relations system at European level. The agreement providing for the institution of the Lafarge group’s EWC was signed on 8 December 1994.
In September 1994, the Council of Ministers decided on a Directive on the establishment of a European Works Council (EWC) for the purposes of informing and consulting employees (94/45/EC). The emergence of EWCs is a major part of the development of an industrial relations system at European level. The agreement setting up the group’s EWC was dated 13 April 2000. The arrangements not stipulated in the agreement are governed by French law.
In September 1994, the Council of Ministers decided on a Directive on the establishment of a European Works Council (EWC) for the purposes of informing and consulting employees (94/45/EC). The emergence of EWCs is a major part of the development of an industrial relations system at European level. The agreement establishing the Auchan EWC was signed on 17 May 1996 by three French majority unions (CFTC, CFE-CGC and CGT-FO) and by the managing director of Hypermarchés Auchan France and the CEO of SAMADOC, and by its HRD.
The aim of this paper is to present ideas for policy and practice that respond to the issues raised in the Green Paper. In addition, it is hoped it will contribute to a deepening of the debate on demographic ageing. The views expressed in this paper draw upon the following sources: developmental and conceptual work from the Foundation; and results from the Foundation’s EU-wide programme of surveys and research.
In 2004, self-employed people accounted for 16.2% of all employment in the
Czech Republic. Since 1993 - when regular monitoring of labour statistics
using sample surveys of the labour force began - the proportion of
self-employed people has doubled (see Table 1). At the start of 2004, a
package of tax and social reforms were adopted that had a negative impact on
the enterprise environment, putting a brake on the growth in the number of
self-employed people. Government reports (167Kb pdf; in Czech)  defended
these measures as necessary in revitalising and cleaning up the business
environment. However, at a public policy level, it is acknowledged that the
small and medium-sized enterprise is one of the most important employment
components in the Czech Republic, playing a dynamic role in job creation.
On 24 November 2005, the Transport and General Workers’ Union (TGWU)
released details of a letter that its general secretary, Tony Woodley, has
sent to the Polish prime minister, Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz, highlighting
evidence of the exploitation and abuse of Polish migrant workers in the UK
and urging him to raise the issue with his UK counterpart, Tony Blair, during
a visit to London.
The Central Arbitration Committee (CAC) is responsible for adjudicating in a
wide range of potential disputes under the Information and Consultation of
Employees (ICE) Regulations, which took effect in relation to undertakings
with 150 or more employees in April 2005 (UK0502103N ). The first cases
under the Regulations are now beginning to emerge. The CAC’s website
carries a livelisting  of applications and decisions made . This currently
lists three complaints under the ICE Regulations that it received in the
period from August to October 2005.
On 25 October 2005 unionized policemen organized a protest meeting in front
of the Office of Slovak Government. More than one third out of approximately
20,000 policemen are members of the Policemen Trade Unions (Odborový zväz
policajtov). Approximately 2,000 policemen who participated in the meeting
asked for higher wages, appropriate technical equipment for effective fight
against the organized crime and maintaining of current social benefits for
policemen. It was for the first time that the policemen decided to organize a
public protest in Slovakia. According to the chairman of the Policemen Trade
Unions, Miroslav Litva, policemen compared with the soldiers have worse wage
conditions what is unique among the EU member states. He mentioned that a
policeman in the first year of his service does not earn more than SKK 9,000
gross while a soldier has a significantly higher wage - approximately SKK
15,000. According to the trade unionists opinion the work of a policeman
should be appraised in the same way as work of a soldier (daily Pravda 26
On 27-30 October 2005 under the patronage of the new Slovak minister of
labour, social affairs and family Iveta Radičová the European Conference
Views Ahead was held in Bratislava. The conference dealt with implementation
of the European Employment Strategy (EES) and its impact upon employment of
visually disabled people. Organisation of the conference was co-funded by the
The Commission started in June 2004 to examine a possible legal surveillance
of the observance of the collective agreements. The Special Commissioner
Birgitta Nyström, Professor in Labour Law, handed over the Committee Report
(SOU 2005:89) to Working Life Minister Hans Karlsson 7 November 2005. The
report proposes among other items that a trade union, which has concluded a
collective agreement should have the right to receive information from the
employer about the employees’ wages and other working conditions in cases
where there are reasons to believe that the collective agreement has not been