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According to available data for 1996, micro and small enterprises (this is, enterprises with 1 to 49 employees) account for around 30% of the total US employment, where this share is lower than the EU average (52%). This literature review examines micro and small enterprises in the US economy, studies employment relations from a legal perspective and as they pertain to small business, as well as looking at collective representation and bargaining, working and employment conditions, arbitration procedures, size and sector considerations.
Among OECD countries, Japan - together with Italy - has the highest proportion of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). According to data published by the Management and Coordination Agency, in the manufacturing sector alone in 1996 were operating 665,540 SMEs - defined as enterprises with less than 301 regular employees. These firms accounted for 99.7 per cent of the total of Japanese manufacturing enterprises. In the same year, manufacturing SMEs employed 7,311,993 people, or the 62.1 per cent of the total. This literature review examines the role of small firms in the Japanese economy and the legislative framework. It looks at collective representation and bargaining, working and employment conditions, arbitration procedures, size and sector considerations. It concludes with policy implications.
This literature review defines its terms of reference as an introduction. It then examines small business in France, including issues of collective representation and bargaining, working and employment conditions, arbitration procedures, size and sector considerations. It concludes with policy implications.
The overall unionisation rate of employees in Finland is very high (96.5%). This literature review examines small business in Finland, including issues of collective representation and bargaining, working and employment conditions, arbitration procedures, size and sector considerations. It concludes with policy implications.
The new system of industrial relations started evolving in the early 1990s in Bulgaria. In March 1990, the National Assembly adopted the Law on Collective Labour Dispute Settlement, which laid the foundations of new collective labour relations. The amendments in the Labour Code from 1992 provided the legal foundations for the setting up of the tripartite partnership mechanisms aiming to better regulate the labour relations and to settle the collective labour disputes in the enterprises. This literature review examines small business in Bulgaria, including issues of collective representation and bargaining, working and employment conditions, arbitration procedures, size and sector considerations. It concludes with policy implications.
This literature review examines the role of micro and small enterprises in the Bulgarian and Czech economies, looks at employment relations in both countries and surveys evidence from literature and comparisons with the EU.
At its 31st conference in November 2002, the Greek General Confederation of
Labour (GSEE) took a number of important decisions on organisational
restructuring. There will be closer cooperation and, it is planned, eventual
merger with the Confederation of Public Servants (ADEDY), along with greater
coordination between GSEE member organisations at regional, prefectural and
sector level. The conference also adopted measures on economic independence
and amended GSEE's statutes.
The Norwegian Labour Party (Det norske Arbeiderparti, DnA) held its 59th
national conference in November 2002, and one of the items on the agenda was
the close relationship between the party and the Norwegian Confederation of
Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO). The formal ties between the
two organisations (NO9709122F ) are becoming increasingly controversial,
and have been a source of significant criticism both within and outside the
labour movement. Recent developments in terms of declining electoral support
for DnA and declining membership for LO, as well as increasing internal
tension within both organisations, have added to these controversies. In
response to these developments the president of LO, Gerd-Liv Valla, decided
not to join the national executive committee of DnA. However, the delegates
at the conference stressed the need to continue and indeed strengthen
cooperation between the two organisations, but to deliberate and develop less
formal channels of communication and cooperation.
Following a decision in October to phase out the early retirement scheme for
civil servants, in late 2002 the French government set out its schedule for
pension reform and issued various statements on the issue. It has developed
two priority areas - 'equal treatment for all' and 'freedom of choice'. Trade
unions are challenging the process and fear that the government has already
decided how pensions are to be reformed.
On 25-26 November 2002, over 400 trade union representatives and
employee-side members of European Works Councils (EWCs) took part in a major
conference, entitled /Towards more influence/, which aimed to discuss
improvements in EWC practice and highlight the trade union case for
amendments to the EWCs Directive (94/45/EC) . The conference, organised
jointly by the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and the main Danish
national trade union organisations, with the support of the European
Commission, was held in the Danish city of Aarhus as part of the programme of
activities associated with Denmark’s Presidency of the EU during the second
half of 2002. This feature reports on the main strands of the discussion.