Collaborative platforms, employment and social protection (Les platformes collaboratives, l'emploi et la protection sociale)

The report, released by the Office of the Inspector General for Social Affairs in France (IGAS), presents the first attempt in France to describe and analyze in detail the various social challenges related to collaborative platforms such as Uber, Airbnb and Leboncoin: labour, employment, vocational training, social security, health insurance, unemployment insurance. It includes recommendations which, if implemented, would foster the development of the sharing economy in France and better labour conditions and social protection of collaborative workers. The report is based on a review of academic literature in France and abroad as well as interviews with around 20 platforms operating in France and dozens of collaborative workers, domestic and international experts (OECD, ILO, EC), social partners and domestic government agencies and offices. The report describes the new, complex and rapidly growing ecosystem of collaborative platforms in France, with a total market estimated at €7 billion by the authors. It focuses on " laborplatforms" and "collaborative platform workers", which include: sharing platforms (Blablacar), organized services platforms (Uber), jobbing platforms (SuperMano), digital cooperatives (LaRuchequiditoui), marketplaces (Priceminister), freelance platforms (Hopwork) and crowdworking platforms (Foule Factory).

Amar, N. and Viossat, L.-C. (2016), Les platformes collaboratives, l’emploi et la protection sociale, Rapport, Inspection Générale des Affaires Sociales, Paris, France


  • BlaBlacar, FouleFactory, HopWork/Malt, SuperMano, Uber
  • household tasks, professional services, transport
  • On-location client-determined higher-skilled work, On-location client-determined moderately skilled work, On-location platform-determined higher-skilled work, On-location platform-determined routine work, Online moderately skilled click work
  • France
  • 2016
  • Research publication
  • challenges, employment status, skills and skills development, social protection, taxation
  • French
  • Inspection Générale des Affaires Sociales (Government)
  • Open access
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